Presentation on theme: "Availability of water determines where people live in this area"— Presentation transcript:
1Availability of water determines where people live in this area Availability of water determines where people live in this area. Water = People.The Middle East is a crossroads – Many civilizations have crossed this area.Middle East(SW Asia)
2North Africa / Central Asia Geographically – The Middle East is a perceptual region – some people also include North Africa and Central Asian nations because many countries share common characteristics:IslamArabicSimilar historyDesert / steppe climatesLevel of development
3Culture Hearth – Mesopotamia Culture Hearth – Mesopotamia. This area is also known as the Fertile Crescent (crescent shaped area of arable land –between two rivers – Euphrates & Tigris. This area was probably the first to domesticate (take from wild and make useful to humans) both plants and animals.
4Mesopotamia Sumerian Achievements: Code of Laws – Hammurabi’s Code Mesopotamia is a region, not a country. The Sumerians Babylonians, and Assyrians are from this areaMesopotamiaSumerian Achievements:Code of Laws – Hammurabi’s CodeWriting – CuneiformSystem for calculating time and angles based on 60 – sexagesimal system
5Three religions began in this region – Judaism, Christianity, & Islam (the Abrahamic Religions)
61600-1300 BCE Monotheism spreads Great Famine – Hebrews flee to Egypt. Moses leads the Hebrews back to the Promised Land.Hebrews are Jewish. Judaism started with Abraham.
71020 BC – 930 BC Kings Saul, David and Solomon unify the Hebrews and build a temple in Jerusalem.
8Starting about 100BC – The Silk Road was a trade route connecting China with the Mediterranean Sea. Cities grew along the trade routes.
9586 BC Babylonians conquer and destroy temple 586 BC Babylonians conquer and destroy temple. Israelis taken captive as slaves in Babylon. When return – build second temple.
1061 BC – 313 AD Romans ruled Palestine. Destroyed 2nd Temple 61 BC – 313 AD Romans ruled Palestine. Destroyed 2nd Temple. Beginning of Diaspora (Jews living away from Holy Land)
11622AD Islam founded and spread across the area. 634 – 1099 Arab rule. Jerusalem sacred to Muslims (site where Muhammad left the earth to go to Heaven). Arabs would not tolerate the Jews in the area.
12622AD Islam founded and spread across the area. 634 – 1099 Arab rule. Jerusalem sacred to Muslims (site where Muhammad left the earth to go to Heaven). Arabs would not tolerate the Jews in the area.
131922 – 1948 League of Nations (becomes UN) gives Palestine to Britain 1922 – 1948 League of Nations (becomes UN) gives Palestine to Britain. Britain splits land at the Jordan River into Palestine (Jewish) and Transjordan (Arab - Muslim)
141938-1945 AD World War II. The Holocaust – 6 million Jews (1 AD World War II. The Holocaust – 6 million Jews (1.5 million children) killed by the Nazis. 2/3 of all Jews in Europe were killed or died. 500,000 Jews had moved to Israel by end of WWII and sentiment for a Jewish homeland grew worldwide.
15Zionism - the international movement for the return of the Jewish people to their homeland and the resumption of Jewish sovereignty in the Land of Israel
1611/29/1947 – UN Resolution 181 states that there will be two separate countries in Palestine. Jerusalem would remain an independent city under UN control. Jews say YES! Arabs say NO! Arabs outnumber Jews 2 – 1, but get less land. Jews in Arab land and Arabs in Jewish land move.
175/14/1948 Israel declares independence. 780,000 Arabs are displaced 5/14/1948 Israel declares independence. 780,000 Arabs are displaced. 5/15/1948 – Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia attack Israel. Israel wins and gains Galilee and the West Bank. Some Palestinian land is claimed by Egypt and Jordan.
18Arab Nations - NO Israel - YES 11/22/ UN Security Council Resolution 242Can not keep land won in the war and must withdrawend state of war and have lasting peace in regionIsrael, Egypt, Syria, and Jordan must recognize each other and have defensive boundaries.Refugees problem must be addressed and fixed.
191973 - Yom Kippur (October War) – Most Holy day in Jewish year Yom Kippur (October War) – Most Holy day in Jewish year. Syria and Egypt (backed by USSR) attack Israel. Egypt took back Sinai and Syria the Golan Heights, but Israel rallies and wins war.
209/5-9/ Camp David Accords. US President Jimmy Carter, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin sign the framework for peace.
2111/4/1979 Ayatollah Khomeini leads Iran. Iranian hostage crisis 11/4/1979 Ayatollah Khomeini leads Iran. Iranian hostage crisis. Diplomats are held until 1981.
224/18/1983 63 killed in US Embassy bombing in Lebanon. 10/23/1983 – 241 American Servicemen killed at the Marine Barracks in Beirut, Lebanon. UN forces withdraw in /20/1984 – 25 more killed in rebuilt embassy.
2312/ 1987 Intifada is launched. Goal is to end Israel’s occupation of the Gaza and West Bank. Arabs under Israeli occupation will use any means necessary in this Palestinian uprising. Also called the War of Rock Throwers because the news often showed many young people throwing rocks and home made “Molotov cocktails” Israel was not able to stop the uprising that escalated to car bombs and suicide bombings.
2411/15/1988 Palestine National Congress (now called Palestine National Authority) recognizes Israel’s right to exist and calls for an independent Palestinian state. Wants Israel to stand by UN Resolutions 242 and They would reject terrorism. US opens talks with PLO. Israel angry with US. Suicide bombings from the Hamas and Islamic Jihad continue.
258/1990 – 4/1991 Persian Gulf War. Iraqi President Saddam Hussein ordered the invasion of Kuwait. US and UN coalition unite against Iraqi aggression. Palestinians hope for Iraqi victory and Arab unity. Iraq lost.
261990 – 1991 Dissolution of the USSR – removed Moscow’s influence on the region. PLO and Syria left without a supplier. 100,000 Jews are allowed to immigrate to Israel. Many move onto land in the occupied territories which upsets Palestinians.Palestinians would once again like a nation of their own.
279/13/1993 – Yassir Arafat (PLO / PNA) and Yitzhak Rabin (Israel) sign peace agreement known as the Oslo Declaration of Principles – a framework for peace that included the transfer of the Gaza Strip and West Bank area of Jericho to the Palestinian National Authority. Israel recognized the yet undefined state of Palestine.5/1994 Israel begins to withdraw from Gaza Strip11/4/1995 Rabin assassinated for giving too much to Palestinians.
28September 11,2001US attacked by al-Qaeda. US starts war on terror.
29Iraq US – Iraq War (March 20, 2003 to December 18, 2011) OUTCOMES: Overthrow of Ba’aath Party government and execution of Saddam HusseinInsurgents, foreign terrorist operations, and sectarian violence disrupted efforts by allies.Allied group tried to make improvements in public securityRe-establishment of democratic elections and formation of a new governmentPresident Jalal TALABANI
30Israel Hamas won election in Gaza Strip Some Israelis are trying to return land to the Palestinians in exchange for peacePalestinian suicide bombs continue and are met with force by IsraelIsrael builds “Defensive Fence” Palestinians call it the “Apartheid Wall” The wall keeps the Palestinians in the refugee camps – not citizens so no vote. Only allowed into Israel to work.UN Security Council (US has veto power) unanimously passes Resolution 1515 that calls for a two state solution to the Palestinian – Israeli conflict.President of the Palestine National Authority Mahmoud AbbasPrime Minister Benjamin NetanyahuPresident Shimon Peres
31SyriaGovernment – Arab Socialist Ba’ath Party (Same as Saddam Hussein)Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton says Syria's President Bashar al-Assad fits the definition of a war criminal.Over 7,500 civilians have died within the last year in violence.Citizens want a constitution & DemocracyPresident Dr. Bashar al-Assad
32Afghanistan Operation Enduring Freedom October 7, 2001 – present US aim to eliminate al-QaedaTaliban removed from power. People given the right to vote.USSR occupied Afghanistan 12/1979-2/1989President Hamid KarzaiAfghani women in burqas
33IranIslamic Revolution 1979 – theocracy established - US hostages takenShiite leadership has called for the destruction of Israel and USIran claims nuclear program is to produce electricity. US & others are skeptical.US proposed sanctions – Iran threatens to close Straits of HormuzPresident Mahmoud AhmadinejadSupreme Leader Ayatollah Syyed Ali-Khameni
34Saudi ArabiaHome of the two most holy mosques in Islam – Mecca and MedinaAbsolute monarchy – King Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz. Voting is permitted on issues, but not on leadership. Citizen votes are considered, but not always enacted reforms granted women the right to vote, but not to drive. Shiite minority has very few rights.2nd largest oil reserves (Venezuela is #1) and 2nd largest oil exported (Russia is #1)
35Arab SpringDefine: a wave of revolutions and demonstrations occurring in the Arab world from Dec to present.To date, rulers have been forced from power in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen.Civil uprisings have erupted in Bahrain and SyriaMajor protests have broken out in Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, and OmanMinor protests have occurred in Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Sudan.