Presentation on theme: "The Americas: Pre-Columbian Empires to Colonies"— Presentation transcript:
1The Americas: Pre-Columbian Empires to Colonies MONDAY, NOVEMBER 11TURN IN HOMEWORKScavenger Hunt “The Americas” (14 clues)“Horrible Histories” Video (The Americas)Renaissance HW 1-4 (due Friday)Benchmark Test is WednesdayThis presentation should take a couple of days of class time. There are also lessons on the online curriculum planner to use with this presentation.1
2The Americas: Pre-Columbian Empires to Colonies This Power Point presentation goes with the Mastering the TEKS in World History book by Jarrett, Zimmer, and Killoran.Unit 4, Chapter 12This presentation should take a couple of days of class time. There are also lessons on the online curriculum planner to use with this presentation.2
3Essential QuestionsWhat were the major social, economic, political, and cultural characteristics of the Maya, Inca, and Aztec civilizations?What were the major achievements of the Maya, Inca, and Aztec civilizations?
5Background: Early Americans How did the Ice Age effect the population of the Americas? What if it had not occurred?Nomadic Asians followed herd animals into the Americas.American Peoples experienced their own Neolithic Revolution.Pre-Columbian (before Columbus) CivilizationsGrew maize (corn)Did not live in river valleysDeveloped complex societiesUCLA.edu
6The Maya (1500 B.C. to 1546 A.D.) Present day Guatemala Each city had a chief who was half man and half godSocial StructureHereditary nobility (performed sacred ceremonies and assisted ruler)Craftsmen (made goods for nobility)Farmers (most people)Warlike people whopracticed human sacrificeBased on the information above, what type of religion did the Mayans have?Harvard.edu
7Built magnificent cities with palaces, temples, and pyramids Developed a system of hieroglyphics or picture wordsMayan AchievementsWhat similarities does this civilization have to the Egyptian civilization?Complex system of math with use of zero, 365 day calendarCreated colorful murals and created a popular ball game
8The Aztecs (1200-1521) Present day Mexico Grew crops in “floating gardens” in wet, marshy landsComplex Social Structure:Emperor who was all powerfulNobility served in government, army officers, and priesthoodCommoners who worked as farmers, fishermen, craftsmen, and warriorsSlavesReligion: PolytheisticWarlike group that conquered all surrounding tribesWku.edu
9Created accurate calendars based on the sun Built complex temples that were aligned based on the movements of the sun and moonCreated accurate calendars based on the sunwikipediaAztec AchievementsCompare the Aztecs to the MayaCalendar SFA.eduBuilt a large empire with a complex government structure and large citiesSacrificed humans to their main god, the Sun god. Sacrifice was need to keep the universe in motionUNM.eduwikimedia
10The Inca Empire ( )Present day Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, and ChileTerrace farmed and grew potatoes and other root cropsRaised llamas and alpacas for food, wool, and transportationUncp.edu
11Built thousands of miles of roads to connect the empire Excellent engineers that built buildings out of fitted stonesMachu PicchuHow are the Incas different from other Neolithic Civilizations you have studied?Inca AchievementsUsed a system of knotted and colored ropes (quipu) for communication instead of writingBuilt a large empire that covers present day Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, and ChileInca Quipu Larco Museum Collection
12Pre Columbian ArtLa balsa Muisca (The Muisca raft), a pre-Columbian gold sculpture representing the Muisca´s offerings of gold.Aztec jade mask depicting the god Xipe TotecCarved Mayan flint dagger.Describe Pre- Columbian art based on these works of art.The Aztec goddess Coatlicue, mother of earth.Inca JarMayan jade mask
13Women’s Roles in Mesoamerica Harvested grainsPrepared food (made maize into flour)Cared for livestockCared for children and homeSome sold goods in marketsSome were artisansSome worked as priestessesDoes this suggest a strictly patriarchal society? Explain.
14Americas Scavenger Hunt Objective:Students will use images to determine the impact of the civilizations of the Americas.Directions:Students will work in groups of four to six (a total of 6-8 groups) to correctly match images and clues related to the Americas.Procedures:Groups will elect one representative to go to the front of the room.The teacher will hand each representative one clue to the various pictures posted around the room. Each representative will receive a different clue, so groups will start at different images around the room. (color coded clues work best to keep groups separate)Students will remain at the front of the room with their clue until the teacher says “go”.Once the teacher says “go”, the group reps can meet with their group members and find the image that corresponds with their clue.Once they have matched the clue with the picture, they bring the clue back to the teacher.If they have matched the clue correctly with the picture, they can move on to the next clue. If they have matched the clue incorrectly, they must go back to their source and rethink their answer.The steps are repeated until all clues have been matched correctly by each group.Once the class has finished the scavenger hunt, students will use the clues to answer the big picture questions about the civilizations of the Americas. Groups must be prepared to explain their answers to the class.
16Why the Interest in Exploration? AsiaMarco Polo’s writings sparked European interest in AsiaAsian goods, especially spices and silk, were sought after in EuropeThe Silk Road was cut off by the Ottoman TurksRenaissance:A new spirit of inquiry aroseEuropeans wanted to explore the oceansNew technology allowed for better navigation, especially the compass and triangular lateen sailCaravel: TAMU.eduWhat impact did the Ottoman Empire have on European Exploration?
17The Age of DiscoveryBoth Spain and Portugal wanted to establish trade with Asia and financed overseas explorationSpain’s Rulers, Ferdinand and Isabella:Captured the Muslim areas of SpainExpelled Spain’s Jewish CommunityReunited all of Spain under Christian RuleSough to spread Christianity across the worldPortugalPrince Henry developed a lighter sailing shipHe sponsored expeditions along the coast of AfricaFerdinand and Isabella wedding portrait, unknown artistWhy would European monarchs spend so much money on exploration?
18Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) Sea Captain from Genoa, ItalySailed west in 3 ships in hopes of finding a quicker route to AsiaSponsored by the King and Queen of SpainFound instead the AmericasThis new land brought riches and raw materials to EuropeWhy would Columbus risk his life to find a new trade route?
19The Columbian Exchange Goods from America to Europe:TomatoesCornPotatoesPeppersSquashPineapplesChocolateTobaccoTurkeyGoods from Europe to America:WheatSugarCattleHorsesPigsSheepChickensGrains
20What other items might have been exchanged besides food and animals? Wikipedia.com
21How is this map different from the previous one?
22Later ExplorersVasco de Gama ( ):PortugueseDiscovered an all water route to IndiaSailed around the tip of Africa in 1497Ferdinand Megellan ( ):1st to sail around the world (1519)What dangers might these men have faced in these voyages?
23Other Explorers England: France: Dutch: John Cabot: claimed parts of North AmericaFrance:Jacques Cartier: explored the St. Lawrence RiverSamuel Chaplain: explored the Great Lakes areaRobert de la Salle: explored the Mississippi RiverDutch:Henry Hudson: explored Hudson Bay and Hudson River looking for a “Northwest Passage” to Asia
24Lesson Suggestions Explorers Activity Nystrom Atlas Activity 44: Europeans Explore and Settle in the Americas
26The Conquest of Mexico1519: Hernando Cortez sailed from Cuba to Mexico.The Aztecs first thought the Spanish were gods1521 Cortez attacked the Aztecs with the help of other Native Americans.The Aztecs were defeated mainly because a smallpox epidemic had broke out and killed many of them.The Aztecs surrender to Cortex, The British LibraryBased on what you know about the Aztecs, why would other tribes help Cortez?The caption means “Now the Mexica (Aztecs) were finished.”
27The Conquest of Peru1530 Francisco Pizarro left Panama to conquer the Incas.The Incas just had a civil war.The Spanish pretended to be friendly and ambushed and killed the emperor. Spain won because of their superior technology.In 1533 Pizarro captured the Inca capital.The Spanish forced the Inca to become Christian and were used as a labor force.What advantages in technology did the Spanish have over the American natives?Conquistador fighting the Incas
28Colonial Latin America Latin America= blend of European and Native American cultureGovernment: Viceroys (governor) ruled each Spanish province.Spanish born citizens filled most positions in the government and military.Gold and silver from the Americas was shipped back to Spain. This made Spain the strongest European power.What problems in governing such a large territory might the Spanish have faced?ushistory.com
29Colonial Society Conquistadors: (Spanish Nobles) owned the land Native Americans: worked the landPriests: tried to convert the Indians to Christianity and keep them from becoming slaves
30Colonial Society After a while this social order developed: Noble officials and landowners born in Spain (peninsulares): head of colonial societySpanish people born in the New World (creoles)Mixed Spanish and Native American people (mestizos)Native Americans (did most of the hard work)What observations do you have about this social structure?
31New France Canada and along Great Lakes down the Mississippi River French missionaries tried to convert the IndiansBy end of 17th century the territory covered 3/4th of North AmericaSent animal skins and pelts back to France to make hatsHow might the population of New France create problems for the ruling government?
32New Netherlands Around present-day New York Traded with native peoples Colony was controlled by Dutch West India CompanyNew Amsterdam (New York City) had a good harbor and became the center for trade.The coastline claimed by New Netherland and some settlements shown relative to modern borders. wikipedia
33The English Colonies 1607: English established Jamestown in Virginia 1620: Pilgrims establish colony in Massachusetts1630: The Puritans settle near the PilgrimsEventually 13 colonies arose along the Atlantic coast
34The Atlantic Slave Trade Disease killed many Native AmericansA new labor force was needed in the New WorldIn Africa conquering tribes sold their captives to the EuropeansBased on the map, which European power acquired the most African slaves?
35The Atlantic Slave Trade 15 million Africans were enslaved11 million went to Spanish coloniesMany died coming across the Atlantic in what has become known as the “Middle Passage.”
36How has African culture effected American society and culture? Encouraged African Warfare:captured slaves were traded for guns, rum, and other manufactured goodsDisrupted African Culture:destroyed Africa’s culture and heritage and led to violence, bitterness, and social upheavalIncreased Cultural Diffusion:ideas, good, and cultures were exchanged in Africa and the AmericasHow has African culture effected American society and culture?Legacy of the Transatlantic Slave Trade on Africa