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1 Biochemistry of Cells Copyright Cmassengale. 2 Uses of Organic Molecules Americans consume an average of 140 pounds of sugar per person per year Cellulose,

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Presentation on theme: "1 Biochemistry of Cells Copyright Cmassengale. 2 Uses of Organic Molecules Americans consume an average of 140 pounds of sugar per person per year Cellulose,"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Biochemistry of Cells Copyright Cmassengale

2 2 Uses of Organic Molecules Americans consume an average of 140 pounds of sugar per person per year Cellulose, found in plant cell walls, is the most abundant organic compound on Earth Copyright Cmassengale

3 3 Uses of Organic Molecules A typical cell in your body has about 2 meters of DNA A typical cow produces over 200 pounds of methane gas each year Copyright Cmassengale

4 4 Water About percent of an organism is water Water is used in most reactions in the body Water is called the universal solvent Copyright Cmassengale

5 5 Water Properties Polarity Cohesiveness Adhesiveness Surface Tension Copyright Cmassengale

6 6 Carbon-based Molecules Although a cell is mostly water, the rest of the cell consists mostly of carbon-based molecules Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds Copyright Cmassengale

7 7 Carbon is a Versatile Atom It has four electrons in an outer shell that holds eight Carbon can share its electrons with other atoms to form up to four covalent bonds Copyright Cmassengale

8 8 Hydrocarbons The simplest carbon compounds … Contain only carbon & hydrogen atoms Copyright Cmassengale

9 9 Carbon can use its bonds to:: Attach to other carbons Form an endless diversity of carbon skeletons Copyright Cmassengale

10 10 Large Hydrocarbons: Are the main molecules in the gasoline we burn in our cars The hydrocarbons of fat molecules provide energy for our bodies Copyright Cmassengale

11 11 Shape of Organic Molecules Each type of organic molecule has a unique three-dimensional shape The shape determines its function in an organism Copyright Cmassengale

12 12 Functional Groups are: Groups of atoms that give properties to the compounds to which they attach Gained Electrons Lost Electrons Copyright Cmassengale

13 13 Common Functional Groups Copyright Cmassengale

14 14 Giant Molecules - Polymers Large molecules are called polymers Polymers are built from smaller molecules called monomers Biologists call them macromolecules Copyright Cmassengale

15 15 Examples of Polymers Proteins Lipids Carbohydrates Nucleic Acids Copyright Cmassengale

16 16 Most Macromolecules are Polymers Polymers are made by stringing together many smaller molecules called monomers Nucleic Acid Monomer Copyright Cmassengale

17 17 Linking Monomers Cells link monomers by a process called condensation or dehydration synthesis (removing a molecule of water) This process joins two sugar monomers to make a double sugar Remove H Remove OH H 2 O Forms Copyright Cmassengale

18 18 Breaking Down Polymers Cells break down macromolecules by a process called hydrolysis (adding a molecule of water) Water added to split a double sugar Copyright Cmassengale

19 19 Macromolecules in Organisms There are four categories of large molecules in cells: Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Copyright Cmassengale

20 20 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates include: Small sugar molecules in soft drinks Long starch molecules in pasta and potatoes Copyright Cmassengale

21 21 Monosaccharides: Called simple sugars Include glucose, fructose, & galactose Have the same chemical, but different structural formulas C 6 H 12 O 6 Copyright Cmassengale

22 22 Monosaccharides Glucose is found in sports drinks Fructose is found in fruits Honey contains both glucose & fructose Galactose is called “milk sugar” -OSE ending means SUGAR Copyright Cmassengale

23 23 Isomers Glucose & fructose are isomers because they’re structures are different, but their chemical formulas are the same Copyright Cmassengale

24 24 Rings In aqueous (watery) solutions, monosaccharides form ring structures Copyright Cmassengale

25 25 Cellular Fuel Monosaccharides are the main fuel that cells use for cellular work ATP Copyright Cmassengale

26 26 Disaccharides A disaccharide is a double sugar They’re made by joining two monosaccharides Involves removing a water molecule (condensation) Bond called a GLYCOSIDIC bond Copyright Cmassengale

27 27 Disaccharides Common disaccharides include:  Sucrose (table sugar)  Lactose (Milk Sugar)  Maltose (Grain sugar ) Copyright Cmassengale

28 28 Disaccharides Sucrose is composed of glucose + fructose Maltose is composed of 2 glucose molecules Lactose is made of galactose + glucose GLUCOSE Copyright Cmassengale

29 29 Polysaccharides Complex carbohydrates Composed of many sugar monomers linked together Polymers of monosaccharide chains Copyright Cmassengale

30 30 Examples of Polysaccharides Starch Glycogen Cellulose Glucose Monomer Copyright Cmassengale

31 31 Starch Starch is an example of a polysaccharide in plants Plant cells store starch for energy Potatoes and grains are major sources of starch in the human diet Copyright Cmassengale

32 32 Glycogen Glycogen is an example of a polysaccharide in animals Animals store excess sugar in the form of glycogen Glycogen is similar in structure to starch because BOTH are made of glucose monomers Copyright Cmassengale

33 33 Cellulose Cellulose is the most abundant organic compound on Earth It forms cable-like fibrils in the tough walls that enclose plants It is a major component of wood It is also known as dietary fiber Copyright Cmassengale

34 34 Cellulose SUGARS Copyright Cmassengale

35 35 Dietary Cellulose Most animals cannot derive nutrition from fiber They have bacteria in their digestive tracts that can break down cellulose Copyright Cmassengale

36 36 Sugars in Water Simple sugars and double sugars dissolve readily in water They are hydrophilic, or “water- loving” WATER MOLECULE SUGAR MOLECULE -OH groups make them water soluble Copyright Cmassengale

37 37 Lipids Lipids are hydrophobic –”water fearing” Includes fats, waxes, steroids, & oils Do NOT mix with water FAT MOLECULE Copyright Cmassengale

38 38 Function of Lipids cushion and protect organs Fats store energy, help to insulate the body, and cushion and protect organs Copyright Cmassengale

39 39 Types of Fatty Acids Unsaturated fatty acids have less than the maximum number of hydrogens bonded to the carbons (a double bond between carbons ) Saturated fatty acids have the maximum number of hydrogens bonded to the carbons (all single bonds between carbons ) Copyright Cmassengale

40 40 Types of Fatty Acids Single Bonds in Carbon chain Double bond in carbon chain Copyright Cmassengale

41 41 Triglyceride Monomer of lipids Composed of Glycerol & 3 fatty acid chains Glycerol forms the “backbone” of the fat Organic Alcohol (-OL ending) Copyright Cmassengale

42 42 Triglyceride Glycerol Fatty Acid Chains Copyright Cmassengale

43 43 Fats in Organisms Most animal fats have a high proportion of saturated fatty acids & exist as solids at room temperature (butter, margarine, shortening) Copyright Cmassengale

44 44 Fats in Organisms Most plant oils tend to be low in saturated fatty acids & exist as liquids at room temperature (oils ) Copyright Cmassengale

45 45 Fats Dietary fat consists largely of the molecule triglyceride composed of glycerol and three fatty acid chains Glycerol Fatty Acid Chain Condensation links the fatty acids to Glycerol Copyright Cmassengale

46 46 Lipids & Cell Membranes Cell membranes are made of lipids called phospholipids Phospholipids have a head that is polar & attract water (hydrophilic) Phospholipids also have 2 tails that are nonpolar and do not attract water (hydrophobic) Copyright Cmassengale

47 47 Steroids The carbon skeleton of steroids is bent to form 4 fused rings Cholesterol is the “base steroid” from which your body produces other steroids Estrogen & testosterone are also steroids Cholesterol Testosterone Estrogen Copyright Cmassengale

48 48 Synthetic Anabolic Steroids They are variants of testosterone Some athletes use them to build up their muscles quickly They can pose serious health risks Copyright Cmassengale

49 49 Proteins Proteins are polymers made of monomers called amino acids All proteins are made of 20 different amino acids linked in different orders Proteins are used to build cells, act as hormones & enzymes, and do much of the work in a cell Copyright Cmassengale

50 50 Four Types of Proteins Structural Contractile Storage Transport Copyright Cmassengale

51 51 20 Amino Acid Monomers Copyright Cmassengale

52 52 Structure of Amino Acids Amino acids have a central carbon with 4 things boded to it: Amino group –NH 2 Carboxyl group -COOH Hydrogen -H Side group -R Amino group Carboxyl group R group Side groups Leucine -hydrophobic Serine-hydrophillic Copyright Cmassengale

53 53 Linking Amino Acids Cells link amino acids together to make proteins The process is called condensation or dehydration Peptide bonds form to hold the amino acids together Carboxyl Amino Side Group Dehydration Synthesis Peptide Bond Copyright Cmassengale

54 54 Proteins as Enzymes Many proteins act as biological catalysts or enzymes Thousands of different enzymes exist in the body Enzymes control the rate of chemical reactions by weakening bonds, thus lowering the amount of activation energy needed for the reaction Copyright Cmassengale

55 55 Enzymes Their folded conformation creates an area known as the active site. Enzymes are globular proteins. The nature and arrangement of amino acids in the active site make it specific for only one type of substrate. Copyright Cmassengale

56 56 Enzyme + Substrate = Product Copyright Cmassengale

57 57 How the Enzyme Works Enzymes are reusable!!! Active site changes SHAPE Called INDUCED FIT Copyright Cmassengale

58 58 Primary Protein Structure The primary structure is the specific sequence of amino acids in a protein Called polypeptide Amino Acid Copyright Cmassengale

59 59 Protein Structures Secondary protein structures occur when protein chains coil or fold When protein chains called polypeptides join together, the tertiary structure forms because R groups interact with each other In the watery environment of a cell, proteins become globular in their quaternary structure Copyright Cmassengale

60 60 Protein Structures or CONFORMATIONS Hydrogen bond Pleated sheet Amino acid (a) Primary structure Hydrogen bond Alpha helix (b) Secondary structure Polypeptide (single subunit) (c) Tertiary structure (d) Quaternary structure Copyright Cmassengale

61 61 Denaturating Proteins Changes in temperature & pH can denature (unfold) a protein so it no longer works Cooking denatures protein in eggs Milk protein separates into curds & whey when it denatures Copyright Cmassengale

62 62 Changing Amino Acid Sequence Substitution of one amino acid for another in hemoglobin causes sickle-cell disease (a) Normal red blood cellNormal hemoglobin (b) Sickled red blood cellSickle-cell hemoglobin Copyright Cmassengale

63 63 Other Important Proteins Blood sugar level is controlled by a protein called insulin Insulin causes the liver to uptake and store excess sugar as Glycogen The cell membrane also contains proteins Receptor proteins help cells recognize other cells Copyright Cmassengale

64 64 INSULIN Cell membrane with proteins & phospholipids Copyright Cmassengale

65 65 Nucleic Acids Store hereditary information Contain information for making all the body’s proteins Two types exist --- DNA & RNA Copyright Cmassengale

66 66Copyright Cmassengale

67 67 Nucleic Acids Nitrogenous base (A,G,C, or T) Phosphate group Thymine (T) Sugar (deoxyribose) Phosphate Base Suga r Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides Nucleotide Copyright Cmassengale

68 68 Nucleotide – Nucleic acid monomer Copyright Cmassengale

69 69 Nucleic Acids Copyright Cmassengale

70 70 Bases Each DNA nucleotide has one of the following bases: Thymine (T)Cytosine (C) Adenine (A)Guanine (G) – Adenine (A) – Guanine (G) – Thymine (T) – Cytosine (C) Copyright Cmassengale

71 71 Nucleotide Monomers Form long chains called DNA Backbone Nucleotide Bases DNA strand Nucleotides are joined by sugars & phosphates on the side Copyright Cmassengale

72 72 DNA Two strands of DNA join together to form a double helix Base pair Double helix Copyright Cmassengale

73 73 RNA – Ribonucleic Acid Ribose sugar has an extra –OH or hydroxyl group It has the base uracil (U) instead of thymine (T) Nitrogenous base (A,G,C, or U) Sugar (ribose) Phosphate group Uracil Copyright Cmassengale

74 74 ATP – Cellular Energy ATP is used by cells for energy Adenosine triphosphate Made of a nucleotide with 3 phosphate groups Copyright Cmassengale

75 ATP – Cellular Energy Energy is stored in the chemical bonds of ATP The last 2 phosphate bonds are HIGH ENERGY Breaking the last phosphate bond releases energy for cellular work and produces ADP and a free phosphate ADP (adenosine Diphosphate) can be rejoined to the free phosphate to make more ATP Copyright Cmassengale75

76 76 Summary of Key Concepts Copyright Cmassengale

77 77 Macromolecules Copyright Cmassengale

78 78 Macromolecules Copyright Cmassengale

79 79 End Copyright Cmassengale


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