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I/O, Disks and File Systems Lecture 5, April 10, 2003 Mr. Greg Vogl Operating Systems Uganda Martyrs University.

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Presentation on theme: "I/O, Disks and File Systems Lecture 5, April 10, 2003 Mr. Greg Vogl Operating Systems Uganda Martyrs University."— Presentation transcript:

1 I/O, Disks and File Systems Lecture 5, April 10, 2003 Mr. Greg Vogl Operating Systems Uganda Martyrs University

2 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 2 Overview 1.Input/Output system –Devices, objectives, structure, implementation 2.Disks –Media, structure, operations, I/O scheduling 3.Files and directories –Attributes, types, access, names, paths 4.File system implementation –Clusters, volumes, aliases

3 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 3 Sources Ritchie ch Burgess , Solomon: Disks, File Systems –Contact lecturer for help copying these to your disk Linux Admin. Made Easy, Frampton, ch. 4 –You may want to download free resources from the MScIS electronic library –Many are <1.5 MB, can fit on a floppy disk –A 700MB CD-RW disc is only Ushs 5000

4 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 4 1. Input/Output Devices Slower than processor, memory, filesystem Not consistent; each device is different –speed, transfer unit, operations, error conditions Use address, data and control buses Each device is assigned an address

5 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 5 How I/O Works with Processor Interrupts –I/O devices can work while processor busy –Interrupt processor when task finished Direct Memory Access –Processor only starts data transfer –Direct data transfer device  memory

6 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 6 Objectives of I/O System Efficiency –Devices should work at maximum speed –Don’t make processor or memory wait Generality and device independence –Hide complexity from user, programmer –Provide means of easily adding new devices

7 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 7 Top-down structure of I/O system Application program –System calls I/O control system IOCS (operating system) Device driver (operating system) –I/O bus Device controller (hardware) Device (hardware)

8 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 8 Device Drivers Translate user’s logical request to physical Added on when device is installed DOS allows dynamically adding drivers UNIX requires linking with kernel

9 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 9 Types of Devices Block devices –Transfer data in groups of characters –Random access, bidirectional flow, error checks –Secondary storage (e.g. magnetic tape, disks) Character devices –Transfer data one character at a time –Simpler, fewer services from OS –Most other devices

10 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 10 Virtual Devices OS simulates a hardware device Responds to system calls like a real device –E.g. print spooler behaves like a real printer Reduces app. contact with slow devices Apps use more devices than actually present Device independence Transparent to user and application

11 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 11 Buffering Disk drive  OS buffer  user process Intermediate storage in main memory –Frees processor to do other things –Processing and disk transfer in parallel Double-buffering uses two buffers –One is emptied while the other is filled Multiple buffers put in circular queue –Pointers to buffers being filled, emptied

12 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 12 UNIX and Linux Input/Output All devices and files treated identically –All data transfers are treated as byte streams /dev holds special files for devices, e.g.: –console: system console, lp: line printer –hdaX, hdbX: hard disk a and b partitions X=0-9 –ttyXX, ptyXX: user or pseudo terminals /etc/termcap file holds terminal config. info. –null: inputs end of file, outputs discarded

13 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 13 DOS Input/Output Accessed through system calls ROM Basic Input-Output System (BIOS) –Firmware built into ROM on Intel-based PCs –Manages low-level I/O operations DOS services –DOS object code loaded into memory IO.SYS –Manages higher-level I/O services (IOCS)

14 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 14 DOS Devices: con:console (keyboard/screen) com1,2:serial ports (modem) lpt1,2,3:parallel ports (printers) prn:logical printer port (usually lpt1:) A,B:floppy (diskette) drives C:hard disk drive D:, E:additional disk drives or partitions

15 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 15 DOS Device Drivers Dynamically loaded during boot (start-up) Must be in a.com file with.sys extension config.sys is read by DOS at startup –driver=drivername.sys –e.g. mouse.sys, display.sys –himem.sys manages DOS extended memory –Other config. commands: files, buffers, country

16 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 16 Windows Device Drivers Dynamic link libraries (DLL files) Shareable code used by many applications Device drivers do not affect Windows code Software/hardware vendors create DLLs Plug and Play automates device installation –Devices, BIOS and OS must use PNP standard

17 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems Secondary Storage Media Magnetic media –Hard drive Most common and important type of disk Several metal disk platters, sealed, constant spin rate –Floppy disk Plastic disk, low speed and capacity, exposed to air –Tape drives Similar to cassettes, sequential access, for backups Optical media includes CD, DVD

18 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 18 Hard Disk Structure Platters (~4-8), surfaces (~8-16) –Each platter is 2-sided, has 2 read/write heads Seek time (~10ms average) –Arm moves heads to disk track (centre/edge) Rotation speed (~10Krpm), latency (~5ms) –Disks spin to sector containing start of data Transfer time, rate (~30 MB/sec) –Data is transferred to/from disk (read/write)

19 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 19 Disk Physical Locations cylinder platters

20 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 20 Disk Formatting Low-level formatting by manufacturer –Sectors are smallest unit of physical storage –usually 2 9 = 512 bytes –Sectors per track can vary (less near centre) High-level formatting by OS (file system) –Clusters: allocation units of 2 n sectors, n~5 –FAT16/32 is used by DOS/Win9x/Linux –FAT12 by floppies, NTFS by WinNT/2000/XP

21 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 21 Disk Partitioning Partition –Divide disk into sections, act like separate disks Common uses of Partitions –Separate OS, application software, and data –Different OS in each partition Partitioning software –fdisk (DOS/Windows and UNIX) –Displays, adds or removes partitions

22 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 22 Disk Compression Disks can store in compressed format Different compression algorithms –Use short codes for long data repetitions Different amounts of compression (~0-50%) Tradeoff: speed vs. space  Danger of losing info. increases

23 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 23 Disk and File System Checking Checksum or CRC used in each sector Bad sectors are labelled, avoided –When too many bad sectors, must replace disk Software to check/fix hard and floppy disks: –DOS chkdsk, Windows scandisk, UNIX fsck –Check: allocation unit size, used/free space –Fix: marks bad sectors, frees lost chains

24 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 24 Disk Fragmentation Parts of files scattered all over the disk Caused by deleting and creating files often Disk heads move more; slows performance Apps run slower if their parts are scattered Defragmentation software can help –Reduce fragmentation of disks and files –Speed up applications

25 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 25 Disk Caching Memory copies of recently used disk blocks Write cached blocks to disk when file closes The cache has limited size, will become full –Flush to disk blocks that are least recently used –Similar to virtual memory algorithms If computer loses power, memory is erased –Periodically flush cache in case of power loss –In UNIX, user can type sync, then shutdown

26 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 26 RAM Disk Simulate a disk by using memory DOS/Win98 assigns a volume drive letter Acts very much like a real disk Allows using files and folders Performance is much faster than a real disk  Memory is more expensive than disk  Memory is smaller than most disks

27 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 27 Disk I/O Scheduling Goals –High transfer rate yet fairness to many requests –Minimise wear on mechanical parts of disk Algorithms –First come first served –Shortest seek time first –Scan or elevator/lift –Circular scan or one way elevator

28 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 28 First Come First Served Each disk access is first-come-first-serve Appropriate for single-process systems  Disk may thrash among multiple user requests First user uses disk until file access finished Simplest; better performance than above  Disk requests may still be scattered all over

29 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 29 Shortest Seek Time First Service request at closest head position Best overall performance  Not fair; requests can starve  Heads may still reverse direction

30 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 30 Scan or Elevator/Lift Only move disk head one direction at a time Move toward next request When reaching one end of disk, reverse Usually fairer than SSTF  Inner/outer edges get half as much use  Can still lead to starvation  if same cylinder keeps getting new requests

31 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 31 Circular Scan/One Way Elevator Only seek in one direction (centre  edge) Return to centre before seeking again  One long seek increases total seek time May be insignificant on heavily loaded disk Also no need to scan areas without requests

32 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems Files A file is a logical unit of user/program info. Files kept in “permanent” secondary storage Files can be of almost any length –User doesn’t need to worry about block size Files can be named for easier reference –Files can be grouped by storing in folders Many files per disk, per user –Files can be protected with access rights

33 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 33 File Attributes (Information) Filename (to uniquely identify the file) File type (to indicate its structure or use) File location on disk (for OS use) Ownership, access rights (who, how) File size in bytes (current, limit, used, on disk) Date/Time stamps (created, accessed, changed) Other (hidden, system, read-only, archive)

34 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 34 File Types File types may be enforced/supported/used by –the operating system (e.g. executables, folders) –certain programs (e.g. Java compiler, Word) –convention (or not at all!) File types may be indicated by –name and/or extension –information outside the file (e.g. directory) –its contents (e.g. first two bytes of UNIX file) UNIX and DOS let apps manage file types –A file is treated as unstructured stream of bytes

35 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 35 Some Ways to Classify Files Text (ASCII) –Plain text (human languages e.g. readme files) –Source files (programming language code) –Markup language (e.g. HTML) Database –Records file (array of records, fixed or variable length) –Index file (maps keys  values) Binary –Executable (machine code language) –Data/App. (graphics, sound, Word, Excel)

36 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 36 Ways to Access Files Sequential –read/write next record or n bytes; rewind –Often used for sequential media e.g. tape Random –read/write nth record or bytes i-j; seek Indexed –read/write record with given key –Often used for indexed (database) files

37 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 37 UNIX File Types Regular: program, text, data –First 2 bytes indicate if file is executable Directory: contains references to other files Special file: character or block (for I/O) Pipe: a buffer for process communication ls -l displays file attributes: –Regular, directory, character or block file –read/write/execute access by user/group/other

38 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 38 DOS File Names 8 character name + 3 character extension Extensions used by DOS and applications Some special symbols used for other things –\ directories –: devices including disks –/ command options or switches –? * wildcards (one or many characters) –<>| redirection

39 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 39 DOS File Attributes System: operating system files Archive: used by file backup programs Hidden: not visible to user Read-only: cannot be changed or deleted

40 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 40 Windows File Names long name + extension (1 to 255 characters) Can contain spaces –Enclose in double quotes when using in DOS Alias for compatibility with DOS file name –uses first six characters plus ~1, ~2 Many extensions associated w/ applications –.txt Notepad,.doc Word,.xls Excel, etc.

41 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 41 UNIX File Names <=14 characters on old systems, 255 on new Names are case sensitive (A not same as a) Most characters are allowed (but not space) A few special characters unused in names –/ directories, ?* wildcards, <>| redirection Extensions sometimes used by convention

42 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 42 Directories or Folders Contains references to files, other folders Directory commands (DOS and/or UNIX) –dir, ls, cd, pwd, mkdir, md, rmdir, rd Current or working directory (.) –Directory where a shell or process is working –cd or pwd displays working directory of shell

43 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 43 Paths Most modern file systems are hierarchical –Directories can contain other directories –Root directory (\ or /) is at top (bottom of tree) –All other directories are below/inside the root –Parent directory (..) is one level “up” Relative vs. absolute paths to a file –Relative paths start from working directory –Absolute (full) paths names start from root

44 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 44 Search Path A list of folders separated by semicolons (;) –e.g. path=c:\windows;c:\windows\command Used by shell/process to find files/programs –First search in current directory –Then in each folder listed in the search path Path can be set upon startup or by the user –PATH command in DOS and UNIX shells

45 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems Clusters Each file uses at least one full cluster Tradeoffs of large cluster sizes Fewer disk accesses; better performance Few FAT entries: take less space, fast to search  Small files waste most of the cluster Floppies use only one sector per cluster

46 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 46 Cluster Management Schemes Clusters of one file can be anywhere on disk Chain –Each cluster holds number of next cluster  Part of cluster space wasted for pointer  Only serial access is possible Cluster list –Directory stores list of clusters for each file  Variable length lists are difficult to manage

47 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 47 DOS File Allocation Table (FAT) Table of 16-bit values, each 0000 to FFFF –1 st FAT entry identifies disk type –2 nd FAT entry is always FFFF One FAT entry per cluster –Each FAT entry number = cluster number FAT entries are chained together –0000 = free cluster, FFFF = end of a chain FAT is copied into memory for fast access

48 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 48 DOS Volume Structure Boot sector –Disk and allocation details, bootstrap loader etc. FAT –Plus duplicate (backup) FATs Root directory –Fixed size, originally a maximum of 112 entries File space –Rest of disk is used for files, up to the disk size

49 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 49 Windows Shortcuts Shortcut: a file pointing to another file/app Accessing the shortcut opens the file/app Right-click a shortcut to view its properties –Target = file pointed to, Start in = working dir –Shortcut key, run maximised/minimised, etc. Useful places to find or put shortcuts –Menus: Start, Programs, Favourites, Documents –Desktop, QuickLaunch toolbar

50 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 50 Windows NT File System Security and reliability –Recovery, bad sector repair, parity disk striping Large file sizes –64-bit file space, up to 2 64 bytes Unicode file names –16-bit characters for international symbols Some POSIX (portable UNIX) compliance –Case sensitive file names, hard links (aliases)

51 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 51 UNIX Inodes Directory stores only –file names, inode pointers Inode stores –owner, group, permissions, date/time stamps –file size, file type –number of links to the file (reference count) When reference count is 0, file is removed –13 pointers to data and index blocks

52 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 52 UNIX Inode Pointers First 10 pointers are direct (data blocks) Last 3 pointers are indirect –11 th points to index block of pointers to data –12 th points to index of indexes –13 th points to index of index of indexes Provides direct access for small files <5K Allows storage of very large files

53 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 53 UNIX Links A UNIX file can have more than one name –breaks hierarchical structure A link can be created to any existing file –programs use link() system call; users type ln Soft link (created by ln -s) –Deleting all soft links to file deletes the file Hard link (created by ln) –Deleting any hard link deletes the file

54 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 54 Mounting How can one computer use multiple disks? Windows has separate tree per disk/partition UNIX has only one tree –Attach additional disks to a directory in /dev –Mount each device to a mount point –Directory becomes alias for root folder of disk –Used for hard and floppy disks, tape drives, etc. –Use NFS to mount disks on remote computers

55 April 10, 2003 Operating Systems: I/O, Disks and File Systems 55 UNIX Volume Structure Boot block –First stage boot program, loads system loader Super block –Disk size, allocation of inodes and data blocks Inodes –Storage space for inodes (fixed but expandable) Data blocks –Blocks for files and directories


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