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Disabilities or Differences?

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Presentation on theme: "Disabilities or Differences?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Disabilities or Differences?
D.C. Everest Junior High Nicole Held

2 What exactly is a disability?
Disability: Someone who has a physical or mental/brain problem that has a large and long-term bad effect on his or her ability to carry out normal day-to-day activities, such as reading, behavior, speech, mobility (ability to move), hearing, spelling, memory, and math are a few examples.

3 So, are disabilities really disabilities or a difference in the way we learn?

4 IEP A legal document stating how you are doing in school, lists the goals you are working on, and tells about the modifications and accommodations you need to do well.

5 SLD: Specific Learning Differences
People with learning disabilities have average to above average intelligence. They have problems in a wide range of learning and/or social difficulties. (Understanding or remembering speaking, writing, reading, listening, spelling, mathematics, social information, emotional maturation, processing information, organization of things, time and/or space brain "processes" information differently

6 More LD Info You might be just as smart as someone sitting next to you in class, but your grades in certain areas aren't as good. This isn't because you are dumb, lazy, or anything else bad. You just learn differently. It is like when you go on a car trip and get stuck in road construction. It takes you a lot longer to get where you are going.

7 Some questions Are all LD students alike? No. But many LD students experience very similar processing and learning difficulties. And all LD students get frustrated in school. Will I ever get over my learning disability? A true learning disability never goes away. But, with understanding and effort you can learn to use your many strengths to "compensate" for your weaker processing skills. You may also be able to strengthen your weak processing skills so that your learning disability is not as severe. Many LD people are highly creative and "gifted" in many ways.

8 Some types of SLDs Dyslexia is simply a fancy word for a learning disability that involves reading. Other similar terms include Dysgraphia (writing disability) and Dyscalcula (math disability).

9 Some of the causes Birth trauma: Sometimes before or during the birth process babies lose blood, are deprived of oxygen, or get chemicals into their blood. When a baby's brain is given certain kinds of chemicals or does not get enough blood or oxygen, permanent brain damage can occur. Many LD students have had some sort of "trauma" either before or during their birth. Heredity: LD tends to "run" in families. A parent who has difficulty processing information may simply pass this along genetically. This seems to be the most common cause of LD. Lead poisoning: When young children eat, drink, or breathe anything that contains lead (old paints, car exhaust, old plumbing, etc.), brain damage (and a learning disability) can develop.

10 Causes Cont. Accident: If a person experiences a head injury, brain damage can occur which leads to a learning disability. Incomplete programming: Research is beginning to suggest that the brain needs to be "programmed" in much the same way as a computer. It is suggested that this "programming" must take place very early in life and involve all of the various forms of information processing. If a child does not have enough opportunity to practice processing a certain type of information at an early age, the brain may always struggle with that type of processing.

11 CD: Cognitive Disability
Cognitive disabilities can be many different things. Because of this, the definition of CD remains broad. Have great difficulty in one or more mental tasks than an "average" person, have big delays in measured intelligence, knowing life skills, and academic functioning. It can also affect how they think. A few reasons a person may have a cognitive disability are: Medical Injury (cancer, brain surgeries. Etc) Traumatic brain injury Neurological Impairments Genetic Disorders

12 Some Types of CD Down’s Syndrome Williams Syndrome
Traumatic Brain Injury Sachs Disease PKU (Phenylketonuria) Fragile X Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

13 SL: Speech and Language
Problems in communication and related areas such as oral motor function. These range from simple sound substitutions to the inability to understand or use language or use the oral-motor mechanism. Some causes of speech and language disorders include hearing loss, neurological disorders, brain injury, drug abuse, physical impairments such as cleft lip or palate, and vocal abuse or misuse. Frequently, however, the cause is unknown.

14 More Speech and Language
A language disorder is an impairment in the ability to understand and/or use words in context, both verbally and nonverbally. Some characteristics of language disorders include improper use of words and their meanings, inability to express ideas, inappropriate grammatical patterns, reduced vocabulary and inability to follow directions.

15 EBD: Emotional Behavioral Disorders
Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings, unable to control actions, mood of unhappiness or depression, a tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems Two parts: Emotional and Behavioral Emotional Disability refers to things such as Depression, Bi-polar Disorder, Anxiety Disorders, and Obsessive Compulsive Dis. Behavioral Disorders can be things such as Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorders, and Tourette’s.

16 EBD Cont. An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory or health factors An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers; Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances; A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression; and, A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or social problems.

17 OHI: Other Health Impairment
Chronic or frequent health problems such as asthma, severe ADHD, diabetes, epilepsy, heart condition, leukemia, and sickle cell anemia; that affects how the child does in school.

18 ADHD and ADD Inattention
difficulty attending or focusing on a specific task. People may become distracted within a matter of minutes. Inattentive behavior may also cause difficulties with staying organized (e.g. losing things), keeping track of time, completing tasks, and making careless errors. Hyperactivity difficulty controlling behavior. These people are in constant motion. They may engage in excessive fiddling, leg swinging, and squirming in their chair. Impulsivity difficulty controlling impulses. These people do not stop and think before they act. They say and do whatever comes into their mind without thinking about the consequences. They might say something inappropriate and regret it later, blurt out a response to question before a person is done speaking to them, or have difficulty waiting for their turn in line.

19 Autism Problems with social interaction, communication, development of restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. Diagnosed normally before age three. Characteristics often associated with autism are repetitive activities, resistance to change or change in daily routines, and unusual responses to sensory experiences, lack of social skills, communication problems. "Autism" is a lifelong developmental disability.

20 Affects of Autism Behavior can interferes with the learning in the following areas: (1.) Communication (2.) Social participation (3.) Activities, interests, and imaginative development (4.) Developmental rate and sequences (5.) Sensory processing (6.) Cognition/Academics

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