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The English Language’s Freshman Year: Old English Context to the reading…

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1 The English Language’s Freshman Year: Old English Context to the reading…

2 The Beginning… The first people in England about whose language is known are the Celts. Roman invasion around 55 B.C. by Julius Cesear. Leaving marks of Christianity and Latin. The Germanic Conquest around 449 Angles, Jutes, Saxons The English nation was born.

3 The Beginning…

4 Additional Info… Beowulf readings: – eowulf.Readings.html eowulf.Readings.html Germanic language tree: – age age Old English Translator: – Old English Lit. terms: – 2003/GK_En_01-03/Shakespeare/literary_terms.htm 2003/GK_En_01-03/Shakespeare/literary_terms.htm

5 Beowulf

6 The greatest single work of Old English. Author? Composed around the year 700, but not recorded until around Only 1 manuscript exists! – About 3,200 lines. Originally untitled. Verse vs. Prose…

7 Beowulf Oral poetic tradition. “In the development of literature, prose generally comes late. Verse is more effective for oral delivery and more easily retained in the memory.” Pivotal part of history as it serves as one of the largest, and most clear, windows into the Old English Period.

8 Things to know… Mead hall Epic poetry Epic hero Alliteration Kenning Scop Comitatus Allusion

9 Things to know… Mead- Fermented alcoholic beverage made from water, honey, wheat (hops), and flavoring. Dates back to biblical times. Mead Hall- Epic poetry Epic hero Alliteration Kenning Scop Comitatus Allusion

10 Things to know… Mead- Fermented alcoholic beverage made from water, honey, wheat (hops), and flavoring. Dates back to biblical times. Mead Hall- A large hall constructed for communal feasting and celebrating. Also a place for warriors to drink mead and ‘take a load off’. Epic poetry Epic hero Alliteration Kenning Scop Comitatus Allusion

11 Things to know… Mead- Fermented alcoholic beverage made from water, honey, wheat (hops), and flavoring. Dates back to biblical times. Mead Hall- A large hall constructed for communal feasting and celebrating. Also a place for warriors to drink mead and ‘take a load off’. Epic poetry- A lengthy narrative poem, usually concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events. Epic hero- Alliteration Kenning Scop Comitatus Allusion

12 Things to know… Mead- Fermented alcoholic beverage made from water, honey, wheat (hops), and flavoring. Dates back to biblical times. Mead Hall- A large hall constructed for communal feasting and celebrating. Also a place for warriors to drink mead and ‘take a load off’. Epic poetry- A lengthy narrative poem, usually concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events. Epic hero- The protagonist of an epic poem that possesses ‘larger-than-life’ qualities. An epic hero usually embodies the cultural/religious beliefs of the people. Alliteration Kenning Scop Comitatus Allusion

13 Things to know… Mead- Fermented alcoholic beverage made from water, honey, wheat (hops), and flavoring. Dates back to biblical times. Mead Hall- A large hall constructed for communal feasting and celebrating. Also a place for warriors to drink mead and ‘take a load off’. Epic poetry- A lengthy narrative poem, usually concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events. Epic hero- The protagonist of an epic poem that possesses ‘larger-than-life’ qualities. An epic hero usually embodies the cultural/religious beliefs of the people. Alliteration- A literary device that uses the same consonant sound at the beginning of several words in a row. "around the rock the ragged rascal ran" Kenning- Scop Comitatus Allusion

14 Things to know… Mead- Fermented alcoholic beverage made from water, honey, wheat (hops), and flavoring. Dates back to biblical times. Mead Hall- A large hall constructed for communal feasting and celebrating. Also a place for warriors to drink mead and ‘take a load off’. Epic poetry- A lengthy narrative poem, usually concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events. Epic hero- The protagonist of an epic poem that possesses ‘larger-than-life’ qualities. An epic hero usually embodies the cultural/religious beliefs of the people. Alliteration- A literary device that uses the same consonant sound at the beginning of several words in a row. "around the rock the ragged rascal ran" Kenning- A metaphorical phrase or compound word in Anglo-Saxon poetry used to name a person, place, thing, or event indirectly. (“Whale-road” and “shepherd of evil”) Scop Comitatus Allusion

15 Things to know… Mead- Fermented alcoholic beverage made from water, honey, wheat (hops), and flavoring. Dates back to biblical times. Mead Hall- A large hall constructed for communal feasting and celebrating. Also a place for warriors to drink mead and ‘take a load off’. Epic poetry- A lengthy narrative poem, usually concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events. Written using an elevated style of language Epic hero- The protagonist of an epic poem that possesses ‘larger-than-life’ qualities. An epic hero usually embodies the cultural/religious beliefs of the people. Alliteration- A literary device that uses the same consonant sound at the beginning of several words in a row. "around the rock the ragged rascal ran" Kenning- A metaphorical phrase or compound word in Anglo-Saxon poetry used to name a person, place, thing, or event indirectly. (“Whale-road” and “shepherd of evil”) Scop- An Old English poet, saga-teller, or bard (lyric poet), responsible not only for entertainment but seen as a collective cultural historian. Comitatus Allusion

16 Things to know… Comitatus - (Latin: "companionship" or "band"): “The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes, in which groups of men would swear fealty to a lord in exchange for food, mead, and heriot, the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish "thane"), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome.” Germanic code of loyalty Allusion-

17 Things to know… Comitatus - (Latin: "companionship" or "band"): “The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes, in which groups of men would swear fealty to a lord in exchange for food, mead, and heriot, the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish "thane"), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome.” Germanic code of loyalty Allusion- A reference to a statement, person, place, event, or thing that is known from literature, history, religion, mythology, politics, sports, science, or popular culture.

18 Major Unit Assignments College Essay “Living Epically” Mead Hall Project Class discussion – Socratic Seminars Guided reading questions


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