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A system for managing rigor Remember rigor is the first letter in rigor mortis.

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Presentation on theme: "A system for managing rigor Remember rigor is the first letter in rigor mortis."— Presentation transcript:

1 A system for managing rigor Remember rigor is the first letter in rigor mortis

2  Prepare people for The Test  Teach students how to manage knowledge  Nothing is static  Human knowledge doubles every three, five, seven years, pretty quick  We may not be able to know it all but we can learn to manage what we know  Is there a market for knowledge management? What are we trying to do?

3  “Rigor is the goal of helping students develop the capacity to understand content that is complex, ambiguous, provocative, and personally or emotionally challenging.” Teaching What Matters Most: Standards and Strategies for Raising Student Achievement by Richard W. Strong, Harvey F. Silver and Matthew J. Perini ASCD 2001 So what is it?

4  Think critically and be able to solve problems  Be able to ask the right kinds of questions  Be able to think with agility and bring adaptable skills to the market  Willing to try new approaches  Be able to communicate  Be able to access and analyze information  Think creatively “Rigor Redefined” Educational Leadership October 2008

5  Instructional delivery methods like project based instruction which use an inquiry model  Create models in which students represent their findings, and explore ways their discoveries can make a positive difference in the world.  Classrooms that find ways to be connected to the world, whether or not they use the latest technologies.  Talking about classrooms where students are taught the strategies they need to attack challenging text, detect bias, gather relevant information, and decide how to put what they’ve learned to work in a useful way. Rigor involves…

6 Rigor is not… fifty math problems for homework when fewer will achieve mastery. more worksheets for the student who finished the assignment early. using a seventh grade text book with your high performing sixth grade students. covering more material in a shorter period of time. cold or impersonal. just for a select group of students. Debbie Schults—”An American Teacher” Give me a non-example

7  Go more deeply into content  Explore the complex nature of the content  Consciously include thinking skills  Project based  Connect to both the world of the student and the teacher  Teach strategies more than answers Give me the short form

8  You can’t teach our kids like that, our kids are different  My principal won’t let me teach like that, she says…  It’s a lot of trouble to prepare, I need some time, maybe I could get a grant and get paid to do some summer work, maybe… What keeps us from doing this?

9  In c-scope it fits in all of the “e’s” Engage-challenge Explain-thoughtful Explore-directing Elaborate-more detail Evaluate-rigorous  In non-c-scope it can be part of regular instruction Where does this fit in?

10  IF we really want to prepare students to be successful after high school we need to be as flexible and analytic as we expect students to be.  We cannot rely on a static presentation method or set of materials to allow us to prepare students for the future.  Teaching is a process of constant adjustment, change, and modification. What does all this mean?

11  First, read and know the standards for your content area.  Second, have a system that requires you to think and to create activities that requires students to think  Understand that there is no single way to increase rigor. It requires you to be constantly changing, learning, modifying, adjusting and overcoming obstacles. Tell me specifically how to do it

12  Improvise-key to survival. What can I substitute, change, make different to make this better?  Adapt-What is working in business, the arts, industry, what can I find that makes something else successful and how can I modify it for education?  Overcome-Small steps, small mistakes, be successful in a small way. Improvise, Adapt and Overcome

13  Suggest a system to allow for consistent curricular differentiation to create a rigorous curriculum  Provide a model for implementation.  Provide an opportunity to practice the model during the session. Goal for the day

14 Basis for Understanding Thinking-Knowing- Procedures

15 Cognitive Processes The Knowledge Dimensions 1. Remem- ber 2. Under- stand 3. Apply 4. Analyze 5. Evaluate 6. Create Factual Conceptual Procedural Metacognitive

16  Horizontal level is Bloom’s 2000  Old Bloom with some modifications  Use of verbs instead of nouns because the process is an on-going one instead of something that can be accomplished  Switch of evaluating and creating because creating is a higher level than determining significance based on criteria Rationale for the model

17  There is constant interaction between the knowledge dimension and the cognitive domain.  By recognizing the connections instructors can make conscious decisions concerning curriculum modifications.  Each level of the cognitive domain (Bloom) is constantly interacting with the different dimensions of knowledge. Rationale for model

18  Knowledge dimensions divided into four parts.  Factual Knowledge - The basic elements that students must know to be acquainted with a discipline or solve problems in it.  Terminology  Knowledge of specific details and elements necessary to be successful with the unit/study/project or learning. Knowledge Dimensions

19  Conceptual Knowledge - The interrelationships among the basic elements within a larger structure that enable them to function together. Knowledge of classifications and categories Knowledge of principles and generalizations Knowledge of theories, models, and structures Knowledge Dimensions

20  Procedural Knowledge - How to do something; methods of inquiry, and criteria for using skills, algorithms, techniques, and methods. Knowledge of subject-specific skills and algorithms Knowledge of subject-specific techniques and methods Knowledge of criteria for determining when to use appropriate procedures Knowledge Dimensions

21  Metacognitive-knowledge and awareness of one’s own thinking processes Knowledge Dimensions

22  Problem solving and critical thinking probably would be characterized as procedural in nature and, because they extend across several levels of Bloom’s are not quite as neatly assigned a section as other items. Dimensions of Knowledge

23 Cognitive Processes The Knowledge Dimensions 1. Remem- ber 2. Under- stand 3. Apply 4. Analyze 5. Evaluate 6. Create Factual Conceptual Procedural ________ AdvancedThinking_______ Metacognitive

24 Rationale for model Problem Solving  Identification of the problem  Determination of known details  Determination of unknowns  Selection of plan of action  Implementation of plan  Determination of success Critical Thinking  Observation  Statement of observation  Development of appropriate questions concerning the observation  Gathers and assesses data  Develops conclusions and solutions and tests them  Communicates findings

25 Applying the system in curriculum Specific Steps for the process

26  To begin with you must understand what you want the student to know and be able to do when you complete instruction.  The selection of the prompt is based on what best defines what the student should know and understand as a consequence of studying a particular topic and subject matter area and must be addressed in instruction.  In addition to the prompts attention must be paid to the procedures students need to follow to be successful with the instruction. How does it work?

27  The prompts are based on the student acting as an expert in the field. What does the expert do that the student can practice?  Each of the prompts answers the question: What is important for the student to know about this topic, subject area or discipline?  Ranked from simplest to most complex.  Difficult to incorporate all of the terms in the same lesson— probably better to look for three or four that fit the content most effectively.  Basis: What do you want the student to know when you complete instruction? Why these elements?

28 Keys to managing content There are six content imperatives  Origins-The source of an idea or event  Contribution-The significance of or the result of an idea or event  Convergence-The coming together or meeting point of events or ideas  Parallel-Ideas or events that are similar and can be compared  Paradox-The contradictory elements in an event or idea There are eleven elements of depth and complexity  Language/tools of the discipline  Details  Patterns  Trends  Rules  Ethics  Multiple Perspectives  Change over time  Big ideas, concepts, themes  Across disciplines  Unanswered questions

29  Origins-The source of an idea or event - what was this the source of? what began this?  Contribution-The significance of or the result of an idea or event- the effect or consequence of something  Convergence-The coming together or meeting point of events or ideas-how was this the catalyst for what followed? How did all of this come together?  Parallel-Ideas or events that are similar and can be compared- how is this like something else, how does it relate?  Paradox-The contradictory elements in an event or idea-what is contradictory about this? Content imperatives

30  The content imperatives create a lens to examine content in a broad context.  Provides a broad focus that changes as the different prompts are used.  Intended to focus student on elements of depth and complexity  We are going to discuss the French and Indian War as the origin of global conflict and examine the trend of conducting warfare in a variety of sites.  Many factors converged to create the situation that led to the French and Indian Wars. (economics, political, philosophy) Content Imperatives

31  The use of a focus statement involving a content imperative, theme, concept or big idea requires both teacher and learner to move from the detail level of knowledge to a conceptual level.  The teacher’s instruction has to be tailored to addressing this organizing idea.  If I am looking at “origins” in Biology, my instruction is going to have to be shaped to address how the students will interact with the content to understand “origins” Why would I even want to consider doing this?

32  Select one of the content imperatives. Write a short focus statement concerning something you will be teaching the first six weeks.  Don’t say “I can’t do this”. Stretch a little.  Select someone sitting near you. Read them the statement, listen to theirs.  Select a second content imperative, repeat the above.  Did you notice a different approach to the content material?  Be prepared to describe the difference. Think, think, think

33 Depth and Complexity defined  Language/tools of the discipline- terms, nomenclature used by the discipline  Details—features, attributes, element specific information elaboration  Patterns-designs, models, recurring elements cycle, order  Rules-standards, organizational patterns, structure  Trends- changes over time, genial tendency, drifts, forces causing change  Ethics-value laden ideas, opinions, bias, prejudice  Multiple Perspectives-differing points of view, opinions based on varied roles, attitudes  Change over time-change during different time periods  Big ideas, concepts, themes- centralizing elements  Across disciplines-connections, relationship, within, between and among disciplines  Unanswered questions-unknowns in the study or discipline

34  Prompts for depth explores different dimensions within a discipline.  Complexity examines connections across, between and among disciplines.  The decision that determines what you want the student to know and do determines the prompt you select  Discuss some of the specialized terms of the fur trade at the time of the French and Indian War. E.g. couriers de bois, trading company, mercantilism. What do depth and complexity do?

35  The use of the elements directs the instruction toward a bigger idea and away from a lot of details.  Details remain in place, they are viewed differently than before.  The rigor of the curriculum can be maintained and directed by the use of these elements. What does this do?

36  Select two of the elements of depth and complexity which can be used with the content imperative you all ready wrote.  Write two activity statements using the elements. You may use either “Details” or “Language/tools of the discipline” but not both. Select one of the other elements to support your activity. Practice

37 Depth and Complexity defined  Language/tools of the discipline- terms, nomenclature used by the discipline  Details—features, attributes, element specific information elaboration  Patterns-designs, models, recurring elements cycle, order  Rules-standards, organizational patterns, structure  Trends- changes over time, genial tendency, drifts, forces causing change  Ethics-value laden ideas, opinions, bias, prejudice  Multiple Perspectives-differing points of view, opinions based on varied roles, attitudes  Change over time-change during different time periods  Big ideas, concepts, themes- centralizing elements  Across disciplines-connections, relationship, within, between and among disciplines  Unanswered questions-unknowns in the study or discipline

38 Limited Thinking Skills  Determine the relevance  Define cause and effect  Prove with evidence  Judge with criteria  Relate-associate, link  Note the ambiguity- express more than one meaning  Differentiate fact from opinion/fiction  Define  Sequence  Categorize  Summarize

39  Determine the relevance—decide what is important or given priority  Define cause and effect-Define the reasons why something happens and the consequences of that action or event  Prove with evidence-Provide data to support a position or decision Thinking Skills

40  Judge with criteria-Make a decision and support it with reasons why the decision was made.  Relate-Associate or link information and state the rationale for the connection.  Note the ambiguity- Describe what is missing, un clear or incongruous. Thinking skills

41  Differentiate fact from fiction/opinion-Discern what is real from what is make-believe or not based on fact.  Define-Provide specific statements or fact to describe an idea, concept, statement.  Sequence-Determine the order of presentation of information. Thinking skills

42  Categorize-Define the placement or group to which something belongs.  Summarize-Re-state information in its most succinct form.  NOTE: THESE ARE NOT ALL THE THINKING SKILLS BUT THEY REPRESENT A COMMON STARTING POINT Thinking skill

43  Select two thinking skills to support each of you depth and complexity activities. Write a short activity statement using the two thinking skills you have selected.  Present what you have written to your partner. Do we haavve to do this? Yes, this is school

44 Content ImperativesDepth and ComplexityThinking Skills Origins Contribution Convergence Parallel Paradox Language/tools of the discipline Details Patterns Trends Rules Ethics Multiple Perspectives Change over time Big ideas, concepts, themes Across disciplines Unanswered questions Determine the relevance Define cause and effect Prove with evidence Judge with criteria Relate Note the ambiguity Differentiate fact from opinion/fiction Define Sequence Categorize Summarize Putting it all together

45  Instruction has to reflect a rigorous planning operation.  There probably isn’t a magical curriculum that will allow you to read a particular paragraph and have that result in a more rigorous curriculum.  The key to rigor in the classroom is what you decide to do as you present content to diverse learners. If we want to see rigor in the classroom…

46  1. Critical Thinking and Problem Solving  To compete in the new global economy, companies need their workers to think about how to continuously improve their products, processes, or services. Over and over, executives told me that the heart of critical thinking and problem solving is the ability to ask the right questions.  What is the problem?  What do I know now?  What do I need to know to solve the problem?  Where can I get the information?  Is the information I am getting sound? “Rigor Redefined” Educational Leadership October 2008 | Volume 66 | Number 2

47  2. Collaboration and Leadership “Kids just out of school have an amazing lack of preparedness in general leadership skills and collaborative skills, They lack the ability to influence.”  Can you produce a product that addresses a need  3. Agility and Adaptability “has to think, be flexible, change, and use a variety of tools to solve new problems.  Can you transition smoothly? What in the world?

48  4. Initiative and Entrepreneurialism You'll never be blamed for failing to reach a stretch goal, but you will be blamed for not trying. One of the problems of a large company is risk aversion. Our challenge is how to create an entrepreneurial culture in a larger organization.”  Can you focus creativity and innovation?

49  5. Effective Oral and Written Communication  “We are routinely surprised at the difficulty some young people have in communicating: verbal skills, written skills, presentation skills. They have difficulty being clear and concise; it's hard for them to create focus, energy, and passion around the points they want to make.  Can you tell people about it?  6. Accessing and Analyzing Information  The half-life of knowledge in the humanities is 10 years, and in math and science, it's only two or three years.  Can you get information and is it any good?

50  7. Curiosity and Imagination  Daniel Pink, the author of A Whole New Mind, observes that with increasing abundance, people want unique products and services: “For businesses it's no longer enough to create a product that's reasonably priced and adequately functional. It must also be beautiful, unique, and meaningful.”  Can you tell me what it’s going to be like in fifteen minutes? What in the world…?


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