Presentation on theme: "A system for managing rigor"— Presentation transcript:
1 A system for managing rigor Remember rigor is the first letter in rigor mortis
2 What are we trying to do? Prepare people for The Test Teach students how to manage knowledgeNothing is staticHuman knowledge doubles every three, five, seven years, pretty quickWe may not be able to know it all but we can learn to manage what we knowIs there a market for knowledge management?
3 So what is it?“Rigor is the goal of helping students develop the capacity to understand content that is complex, ambiguous, provocative, and personally or emotionally challenging.”Teaching What Matters Most: Standards and Strategies for Raising Student Achievement by Richard W. Strong, Harvey F. Silver and Matthew J. Perini ASCD 2001
4 “Rigor Redefined” Educational Leadership October 2008 Think critically and be able to solve problemsBe able to ask the right kinds of questionsBe able to think with agility and bring adaptable skills to the marketWilling to try new approachesBe able to communicateBe able to access and analyze informationThink creatively
5 Rigor involves…Instructional delivery methods like project based instruction which use an inquiry modelCreate models in which students represent their findings, and explore ways their discoveries can make a positive difference in the world.Classrooms that find ways to be connected to the world, whether or not they use the latest technologies.Talking about classrooms where students are taught the strategies they need to attack challenging text, detect bias, gather relevant information, and decide how to put what they’ve learned to work in a useful way.
6 Give me a non-exampleRigor is not… fifty math problems for homework when fewer will achieve mastery. more worksheets for the student who finished the assignment early. using a seventh grade text book with your high performing sixth grade students. covering more material in a shorter period of time. cold or impersonal. just for a select group of students. Debbie Schults—”An American Teacher”
7 Give me the short form Go more deeply into content Explore the complex nature of the contentConsciously include thinking skillsProject basedConnect to both the world of the student and the teacherTeach strategies more than answers
8 What keeps us from doing this? You can’t teach our kids like that, our kids are differentMy principal won’t let me teach like that, she says…It’s a lot of trouble to prepare, I need some time, maybe I could get a grant and get paid to do some summer work, maybe…
9 Where does this fit in? In c-scope it fits in all of the “e’s” Engage-challengeExplain-thoughtfulExplore-directingElaborate-more detailEvaluate-rigorousIn non-c-scope it can be part of regular instruction
10 What does all this mean?IF we really want to prepare students to be successful after high school we need to be as flexible and analytic as we expect students to be.We cannot rely on a static presentation method or set of materials to allow us to prepare students for the future.Teaching is a process of constant adjustment, change, and modification.
11 Tell me specifically how to do it First, read and know the standards for your content area.Second, have a system that requires you to think and to create activities that requires students to thinkUnderstand that there is no single way to increase rigor. It requires you to be constantly changing, learning, modifying, adjusting and overcoming obstacles.
12 Improvise, Adapt and Overcome Improvise-key to survival. What can I substitute, change, make different to make this better?Adapt-What is working in business, the arts, industry, what can I find that makes something else successful and how can I modify it for education?Overcome-Small steps, small mistakes, be successful in a small way.
13 Goal for the daySuggest a system to allow for consistent curricular differentiation to create a rigorous curriculumProvide a model for implementation.Provide an opportunity to practice the model during the session.
14 Basis for Understanding Thinking-Knowing- ProceduresBasis for Understanding
16 Rationale for the model Horizontal level is Bloom’s 2000Old Bloom with some modificationsUse of verbs instead of nouns because the process is an on-going one instead of something that can be accomplishedSwitch of evaluating and creating because creating is a higher level than determining significance based on criteria
17 Rationale for modelThere is constant interaction between the knowledge dimension and the cognitive domain.By recognizing the connections instructors can make conscious decisions concerning curriculum modifications.Each level of the cognitive domain (Bloom) is constantly interacting with the different dimensions of knowledge.
18 Knowledge Dimensions Knowledge dimensions divided into four parts. Factual Knowledge - The basic elements that students must know to be acquainted with a discipline or solve problems in it.TerminologyKnowledge of specific details and elements necessary to be successful with the unit/study/project or learning.
19 Knowledge DimensionsConceptual Knowledge - The interrelationships among the basic elements within a larger structure that enable them to function together.Knowledge of classifications and categoriesKnowledge of principles and generalizationsKnowledge of theories, models, and structures
20 Knowledge DimensionsProcedural Knowledge - How to do something; methods of inquiry, and criteria for using skills, algorithms, techniques, and methods.Knowledge of subject-specific skills and algorithmsKnowledge of subject-specific techniques and methodsKnowledge of criteria for determining whento use appropriate procedures
21 Knowledge DimensionsMetacognitive-knowledge and awareness of one’s own thinking processes
22 Dimensions of Knowledge Problem solving and critical thinking probably would be characterized as procedural in nature and, because they extend across several levels of Bloom’s are not quite as neatly assigned a section as other items.
24 Rationale for model Problem Solving Critical Thinking Identification of the problemDetermination of known detailsDetermination of unknownsSelection of plan of actionImplementation of planDetermination of successObservationStatement of observationDevelopment of appropriate questions concerning the observationGathers and assesses dataDevelops conclusions and solutions and tests themCommunicates findings
25 Applying the system in curriculum Specific Steps for the processApplying the system in curriculum
26 How does it work?To begin with you must understand what you want the student to know and be able to do when you complete instruction.The selection of the prompt is based on what best defines what the student should know and understand as a consequence of studying a particular topic and subject matter area and must be addressed in instruction.In addition to the prompts attention must be paid to the procedures students need to follow to be successful with the instruction.
27 Why these elements?The prompts are based on the student acting as an expert in the field. What does the expert do that the student can practice?Each of the prompts answers the question: What is important for the student to know about this topic, subject area or discipline?Ranked from simplest to most complex.Difficult to incorporate all of the terms in the same lesson—probably better to look for three or four that fit the content most effectively.Basis: What do you want the student to know when you complete instruction?
28 Keys to managing content There are six content imperativesThere are eleven elements of depth and complexityOrigins-The source of an idea or event Contribution-The significance of or the result of an idea or eventConvergence-The coming together or meeting point of events or ideasParallel-Ideas or events that are similar and can be compared Paradox-The contradictory elements in an event or ideaLanguage/tools of the disciplineDetailsPatternsTrendsRulesEthicsMultiple PerspectivesChange over timeBig ideas, concepts, themesAcross disciplinesUnanswered questions
29 Content imperativesOrigins-The source of an idea or event - what was this the source of? what began this?Contribution-The significance of or the result of an idea or event- the effect or consequence of somethingConvergence-The coming together or meeting point of events or ideas-how was this the catalyst for what followed? How did all of this come together?Parallel-Ideas or events that are similar and can be compared-how is this like something else, how does it relate? Paradox-The contradictory elements in an event or idea-what is contradictory about this? Select a content imperative that you could use during the first six weeks. Put it in a block in the center of your paper.
30 Content ImperativesThe content imperatives create a lens to examine content in a broad context.Provides a broad focus that changes as the different prompts are used.Intended to focus student on elements of depth and complexityWe are going to discuss the French and Indian War as the origin of global conflict and examine the trend of conducting warfare in a variety of sites.Many factors converged to create the situation that led to the French and Indian Wars. (economics, political, philosophy)Quickly talk to someone close to you and develop a statement using a different content imperative to see what different focus is developed.
31 Why would I even want to consider doing this? The use of a focus statement involving a content imperative, theme, concept or big idea requires both teacher and learner to move from the detail level of knowledge to a conceptual level.The teacher’s instruction has to be tailored to addressing this organizing idea.If I am looking at “origins” in Biology, my instruction is going to have to be shaped to address how the students will interact with the content to understand “origins”
32 Think, think, thinkSelect one of the content imperatives. Write a short focus statement concerning something you will be teaching the first six weeks.Don’t say “I can’t do this”. Stretch a little.Select someone sitting near you. Read them the statement, listen to theirs.Select a second content imperative, repeat the above.Did you notice a different approach to the content material?Be prepared to describe the difference.
33 Depth and Complexity defined Language/tools of the discipline-terms, nomenclature used by the disciplineDetails—features, attributes, element specific information elaborationPatterns-designs, models, recurring elements cycle, orderRules-standards, organizational patterns, structureTrends- changes over time, genial tendency, drifts, forces causing changeEthics-value laden ideas, opinions, bias, prejudiceMultiple Perspectives-differing points of view, opinions based on varied roles, attitudesChange over time-change during different time periodsBig ideas, concepts, themes-centralizing elementsAcross disciplines-connections, relationship, within, between and among disciplinesUnanswered questions-unknowns in the study or discipline
34 What do depth and complexity do? Prompts for depth explores different dimensions within a discipline.Complexity examines connections across, between and among disciplines.The decision that determines what you want the student to know and do determines the prompt you selectDiscuss some of the specialized terms of the fur trade at the time of the French and Indian War. E.g. couriers de bois, trading company, mercantilism.
35 What does this do?The use of the elements directs the instruction toward a bigger idea and away from a lot of details.Details remain in place, they are viewed differently than before.The rigor of the curriculum can be maintained and directed by the use of these elements.
36 PracticeSelect two of the elements of depth and complexity which can be used with the content imperative you all ready wrote.Write two activity statements using the elements. You may use either “Details” or “Language/tools of the discipline” but not both. Select one of the other elements to support your activity.
37 Depth and Complexity defined Language/tools of the discipline-terms, nomenclature used by the disciplineDetails—features, attributes, element specific information elaborationPatterns-designs, models, recurring elements cycle, orderRules-standards, organizational patterns, structureTrends- changes over time, genial tendency, drifts, forces causing changeEthics-value laden ideas, opinions, bias, prejudiceMultiple Perspectives-differing points of view, opinions based on varied roles, attitudesChange over time-change during different time periodsBig ideas, concepts, themes-centralizing elementsAcross disciplines-connections, relationship, within, between and among disciplinesUnanswered questions-unknowns in the study or discipline
38 Limited Thinking Skills Determine the relevanceDefine cause and effectProve with evidenceJudge with criteriaRelate-associate, linkNote the ambiguity-express more than one meaningDifferentiate fact from opinion/fictionDefineSequenceCategorizeSummarize
39 Thinking SkillsDetermine the relevance—decide what is important or given priorityDefine cause and effect-Define the reasons why something happens and the consequences of that action or eventProve with evidence-Provide data to support a position or decision
40 Thinking skillsJudge with criteria-Make a decision and support it with reasons why the decision was made.Relate-Associate or link information and state the rationale for the connection.Note the ambiguity- Describe what is missing, un clear or incongruous.
41 Thinking skillsDifferentiate fact from fiction/opinion-Discern what is real from what is make-believe or not based on fact.Define-Provide specific statements or fact to describe an idea, concept, statement.Sequence-Determine the order of presentation of information.
42 Thinking skillCategorize-Define the placement or group to which something belongs.Summarize-Re-state information in its most succinct form.NOTE: THESE ARE NOT ALL THE THINKING SKILLS BUT THEY REPRESENT A COMMON STARTING POINT
43 Do we haavve to do this? Yes, this is school Select two thinking skills to support each of you depth and complexity activities. Write a short activity statement using the two thinking skills you have selected.Present what you have written to your partner.
44 Putting it all together Content ImperativesDepth and ComplexityThinking SkillsOriginsContributionConvergenceParallelParadoxLanguage/tools of the disciplineDetailsPatternsTrendsRulesEthicsMultiple PerspectivesChange over timeBig ideas, concepts, themesAcross disciplinesUnanswered questionsDetermine the relevanceDefine cause and effectProve with evidenceJudge with criteriaRelateNote the ambiguityDifferentiate fact from opinion/fictionDefineSequenceCategorizeSummarizeWe are using these words (Content Imperative) because they are more abstract than others and we want students to begin to think abstractly.
45 If we want to see rigor in the classroom… Instruction has to reflect a rigorous planning operation.There probably isn’t a magical curriculum that will allow you to read a particular paragraph and have that result in a more rigorous curriculum.The key to rigor in the classroom is what you decide to do as you present content to diverse learners.
46 “Rigor Redefined” Educational Leadership October 2008 | Volume 66 | Number 2 1. Critical Thinking and Problem SolvingTo compete in the new global economy, companies need their workers to think about how to continuously improve their products, processes, or services. Over and over, executives told me that the heart of critical thinking and problem solving is the ability to ask the right questions.What is the problem?What do I know now?What do I need to know to solve the problem?Where can I get the information?Is the information I am getting sound?
47 What in the world?2. Collaboration and Leadership “Kids just out of school have an amazing lack of preparedness in general leadership skills and collaborative skills, They lack the ability to influence.”Can you produce a product that addresses a need3. Agility and Adaptability “has to think, be flexible, change, and use a variety of tools to solve new problems.Can you transition smoothly?
48 4. Initiative and Entrepreneurialism You'll never be blamed for failing to reach a stretch goal, but you will be blamed for not trying. One of the problems of a large company is risk aversion. Our challenge is how to create an entrepreneurial culture in a larger organization.”Can you focus creativity and innovation?
49 5. Effective Oral and Written Communication “We are routinely surprised at the difficulty some young people have in communicating: verbal skills, written skills, presentation skills. They have difficulty being clear and concise; it's hard for them to create focus, energy, and passion around the points they want to make.Can you tell people about it?6. Accessing and Analyzing InformationThe half-life of knowledge in the humanities is 10 years, and in math and science, it's only two or three years.Can you get information and is it any good?
50 What in the world…? 7. Curiosity and Imagination Daniel Pink, the author of A Whole New Mind, observes that with increasing abundance, people want unique products and services: “For businesses it's no longer enough to create a product that's reasonably priced and adequately functional. It must also be beautiful, unique, and meaningful.”Can you tell me what it’s going to be like in fifteen minutes?