Presentation on theme: "Unit IV Political Participation Chapters 5-9. What is a political party? A group of people who seek to control government by winning elections and holding."— Presentation transcript:
What is a political party? A group of people who seek to control government by winning elections and holding office
What are the two major U.S. parties today? Democrats : represented by a Donkey Republicans: represented by an Elephant (GOP)
What are the 5 Functions of political parties in the United States? Nominating Function: naming a person to be the choice of the party to run for an office
Informer-Stimulator Function: campaigning for candidates; getting information to the voters about the candidates and the issues that will inspire them to cast a vote.
Bonding Agent /Seal of Approval Function: the party’s guarantee that their nominee is “the BEST person” for the job.
Governmental or Governing Function: the idea that the government operates on the basis of political party – Example: Seating in Congress The Cabinet Diplomatic Posts
Watchdog Function: the parties engaging in negative campaigning or criticizing the ideas, issues,and candidates of the other party
What is a two party system? A political system in which a nation-state has two major parties that regularly put forth candidates for office.
Why does the US have a 2 party system? History: we have always had 2 parties because we started with 2 parties Practicality: it’s easier to win a majority if only two candidates for office Theoretically: the Electoral College System is based on only having 2 candidates Ideologically: Americans generally fit within the philosophy of one of the 2 parties
What is a One Party System? Political system in which a nation-state has only one party Always results in a dictatorship One party exists because all others are illegal
What is a multi-party system? A system in which a nation-state has more than 2 major parties that regularly offer candidates to the voters. Can lead to political instability No one is in charge
What is the AVERAGE Democrat like? Lower middle-class Blue collar Urban Member of a minority group (race/religion) 18-25 or 55-65 years of age Less educated (some college) More liberal From the west coast, north east, or mid-west Etc…
What is the AVERAGE Republican like? Upper-class College grad Suburban Protestant (religion) White 25-55 years of age Conservative Southern or Western Etc…
What were the first Two Parties in the United States? Federalists (become the Republicans ) Democratic –Republicans (become the Democrats) Why did they begin? Debate over ratification of the Constitution divided people into two groups.
What is a Minor or Third Party? A small party that nominates candidates for office, but rarely wins. Also called an opposition party. – Examples: Labor Party American Nazi Party The Green Party The Populist Party (People’s Party) American Independent Party Libertarian Party Natural Law Party Workers World Party Pink Triangle Party Blue Square Party ETC…
The Four Types of Third Party Ideological Parties: parties based upon a unique set of political beliefs – Examples: American Communist Party American Nazi Party Socialist Party Libertarian Party
Single Issue Parties A party that is concerned with only one political issue – Examples: Know-nothing Party Free Soil Party (also known as Americans Only Party) Prohibition Party Woman’s Party Right to Life Party
Economic Protest Parties Parties that are rooted in times of economic distress and that promote new alternatives to the conditions. – Examples: Greenback Party Populist Party United We Stand America
Splinter Parties Political parties that have broken away from the Democrats or Republicans – Examples: Bull-moose Party (Progressive Party) Dixiecrats
Three Roles of Third Parties Spoiler: take enough votes away from a major party candidate that you ruin his chances Critic: criticize the ideas and actions of both major parties Innovator: bring new ideas to public’s attention. Usually stolen by major parties if popular
Voting Options Split Ticket Voting: Vote for candidates from both parties on the same ballot Straight Ticket Voting: voting for only one party on the ballot
Terms that mean right to vote Suffrage Franchise
The Electorate The potential voting population NOT those who do vote, but those who COULD – Age – Registration – Residency – Felony Record – Etc…
Universal Suffrage All adult citizens can vote Is it possible? What restrictions do we have that prevent it?
Five stages of suffrage in US History Removing religious requirements (1840-60’s) 15 th Amendment ( remove racial limitations) 19 th Amendment (remove gender restrictions) Civil Rights Acts (punish discrimination) 26 th Amendment (remove age restrictions)
Federal Standards for Voting If you can vote in State elections, can vote in federal No State may discriminate on basis of race No State may discriminate on basis of gender No State may require payment of taxes as a qualification to vote No State may deprive a citizen over the age of 18 the right to vote if otherwise qualified
Universal Voting Requirements Citizenship Residence Age Registration
Residency Requirements Require that a person maintain a legal residence in a city, county, or State for a period of time to be eligible to vote Legal because: – People should familiarize themselves w/ issue and candidates – States have an interest in preventing voter fraud *In Texas, you must be a resident for 30 days prior to the election to be eligible to vote.
Motor Voter Law Allows people to register to vote when they renew their driver’s license.
Oregon v. Mitchell Outlawed the use of literacy tests as a qualification for voting. Tests were used to discriminate against minorities and poor whites.
Who is ineligible to vote in Texas? Mentally Ill Mentally Incompetent Felons Non-citizens Homeless Dishonorably Discharged from military Called “cannot voters” because they cannot legally vote.
Voter requirements in Texas Be at least 18 years of age on election day Be a US citizen Register 30 days prior to the election Be a resident 30 days prior to the election
Methods used by Southern States to prevent minority voting White Primaries Grandfather Clauses Poll tax Literacy Tests Property Tax Payments Gerrymandering Intimidation Lynching Etc…
Gerrymandering The illegal practice of drawing lines for congressional districts to the advantage of the majority
Methods of Gerrymandering Concentrate the minorities voters in one District so they can only win one seat Disburse the minorities voters in all districts so they can never get a majority and win no seats
What is an idiot? It is a Greek word for one who does not vote or participate in politics
How many Americans voted in last presidential election (2012)? 122,394,724 voters 56.8% of those who could have voted did so 10% of those between the ages of 18-29 voted 67% of those between the ages of 55-69 voted 65 million voted for Obama/Biden 57 million voted for Romney/Ryan
Major reasons people give for not voting: Apathy (don’t care) Voting is too difficult Don’t have the time Didn’t register Don’t know where to go Don’t have transportation Ill Etc…
What is a non-voter? One who is eligible to vote, but chooses not to do so. (also called an idiot!)
What is a cannot voter? One who is not eligible to vote
What is a non-voting voter? One who does not vote on all the choices on the ballot. Example: you vote only for President, not Senate, House, etc…
Political Socialization The process by which one gains one’s political attitudes and beliefs. #1 Source: MOM and DAD!
Sociological Factors that Impact Voting Family #1 Age Race Income Occupation Religion Party membership/affiliation Friends (peer pressure) Opinion Leaders Location of residence Type of residence Etc…
Psychological Factors that Impact Voting Party Identification Your feelings about the candidates How the issues impact you personally
Most likely voter in 2012 Professional Upper income ($250,000+) Married w/ kids Owns home in suburbs Very well-educated (2 college degrees or more) Between the ages of 42-65 White (62% of voters) Protestant Member of a political party FEMALE (54% of voters this time)
Nomination The process of naming a person to be a candidate for political office
Methods of Nomination Self –announcement Caucus Convention (pres only) Primary (#1 used today) Petition (local elections)
Three types of primaries: Closed : only registered party members can vote Open: voters may chose which party’s ballot to vote on the day of the election Blanket: voters may vote on BOTH party’s ballots
Why do some States choose to have closed primaries? It makes voters choose both a party and candidates It makes the candidates more responsive to their party’s issues and agenda It prevents “primary raiding”
Why are closed primaries illegal in Texas? If a voter is required to reveal their party membership, it is no longer a secret ballot Closed primaries exclude independent voters Closed primaries have been used to discriminate against the poor and minorities It violates our State Constitution!
When are congressional elections held? On the Tuesday, following the first Monday in November of every even numbered year!
What is the coattail effect? A strong national candidate (usually for Pres) attract voters to cast ballots for his/her party members lower on the ticket. EX: Reagan’s candidacy for Pres in 1980 led to a dramatic increase in the number of people who were elected to the House and Senate from the South in the Republican Party
How much did the 2012 Presidential election cost? $5.3 Billion ! $176 for every man, woman, and child in the US
Where did all that $ come from? Small donors : people who give $5-50 “Fat Cats” Candidates themselves PACs: Political Action Committees (fund raising arms of special interests) Temporary Organizations: created to support one candidate (FOB : Friends of Bill) Fund-raisers Public subsidies Etc…
Why do people give $ to candidates/campaigns? Believe in candidate/campaign Want access to people in office Want an appointment Want to get a promotion Seeking social status Want to have dinner at the White House or a ride on Air Force I Want to effect a change in policy Want to change a government regulation Etc…
What does the FEC regulate? The Federal Election Commission regulates four areas of campaign finance: – Timely disclosure of data – Limitations on contributions – Limitations on spending – Public funding of Presidential elections
What are the current disclosure requirements? You cannot give more than $2,400 to a candidate per year You cannot give more than $5,000 a year to a PAC Your total contributions to all candidates cannot exceed $45,600 per year Your total contributions to all PACs cannot exceed $69,900 per year Corporations and Labor Unions cannot donate Non-citizens cannot donate PACs cannot give more than $5,000 per year to a candidate No limit on total PAC or Party donations to ALL candidates
Buckley v. Valeo Supreme Court rules that campaign donations are a form of free speech and can be limited, but not outlawed. – Can limit donations; indirect speech – Cannot limit personal spending; direct speech
Loopholes in Campaign Finance Law Soft Money: unlimited funds that can be given to parties for educational efforts or party building Independent Expenditures: individuals spending own $ on own ads supporting candidate or cause; unlimited Issue Ads: independent ads that compare stands on issues but do not support a candidate; unlimited
Citizens United v. FEC, 2010 Struck down parts of the Campaign Finance Reform Act of 2002 Corporations and Labor Unions may NOT directly contribute to candidates/campaigns Corporations and Labor Unions MAY use their funds for independent ads and PACs Disclosure Requirements were upheld by the Court
Public Opinion A collection of the attitudes held by many people on issues of politics and government
How is public opinion shaped? By factors like: – Family – School – Religion – Occupation – Group memberships – Opinion leaders – Etc…
How is public opinion measured? Election Results Interest Group Surveys Media Counts Personal Contacts Scientific Polls (best and most accurate way)
Opinion Leaders People that you admire, trust, respect, and whose opinions matter to you People who have the power to influence you Different group for everyone Politicians are always looking for someone who has an impact on many people.
Mass Media Any means of communication that reaches a large, diverse audience Examples: – TV – Radio – Internet – Newspapers – Magazines – Etc…
Media The majority of Americans (61% in 2008 poll) get 100% of their information about government and politics from network news. 98% of Americans own at least one TV. Most American families (83%) said they had at least one TV for each person in their household.
An organization of people that tries to persuade government officials to respond to their members interests. Examples: – NRA: National Rifle Association – AMA: American Medical Association – AARP: American Association of Retired Citizens – Common Cause – National Taxpayers Union – ACLU: American Civil Liberties Union – ETC…
Functions of Interest Groups Stimulate interest in public policy Represent their members’ views Provide information Ensure that government officials act appropriately
Criticisms of Interest Groups They have too much influence over politicians Can’t always tell who they really represent Use of unethical or illegal practices
Propaganda The use of language to persuade people to your point of view Techniques: – Plain Folks – Bandwagon – Name Calling – Glittering Generalities – Transfer – Testimonial – Card Stacking
Lobbying The use of group pressure to try to influence public policy Lobbyist: one who seeks to influence a government officials Called lobbyists because they used to hang out in the lobby of the Willard Hotel trying to catch President Grant.
Lobbying Techniques Polite Persuasion Provide information Write bills Wine and Dine Testify as experts in congressional hearings Write letters Provide junkets (field trips for Congress) Raise Money!
Current Legislation regulating Lobbying Donations must be disclosed Cannot give anything valued over $50 to a member of Congress Can take a member of Congress to a meal or event twice a year for $50 or less No regulation on gift to staff members
The End! Study for your test! Read Ch 5-9 Complete your notes! Finish your test review!