2What is a political party? A group of people who seek to control government by winning elections and holding office
3What are the two major U.S. parties today? Democrats : represented by a DonkeyRepublicans: represented by an Elephant (GOP)
4What are the 5 Functions of political parties in the United States? Nominating Function: naming a person to be the choice of the party to run for an office
5Informer-Stimulator Function: campaigning for candidates; getting information to the voters about the candidates and the issues that will inspire them to cast a vote.
6Bonding Agent /Seal of Approval Function: the party’s guarantee that their nominee is “the BEST person” for the job.
7Governmental or Governing Function: the idea that the government operates on the basis of political partyExample:Seating in CongressThe CabinetDiplomatic Posts
8Watchdog Function: the parties engaging in negative campaigning or criticizing the ideas, issues ,and candidates of the other party
9What is a two party system? A political system in which a nation-state has two major parties that regularly put forth candidates for office.
10Why does the US have a 2 party system? History: we have always had 2 parties because we started with 2 partiesPracticality: it’s easier to win a majority if only two candidates for officeTheoretically: the Electoral College System is based on only having 2 candidatesIdeologically: Americans generally fit within the philosophy of one of the 2 parties
11What is a One Party System? Political system in which a nation-state has only one partyAlways results in a dictatorshipOne party exists because all others are illegal
12What is a multi-party system? A system in which a nation-state has more than 2 major parties that regularly offer candidates to the voters.Can lead to political instabilityNo one is in charge
13What is the AVERAGE Democrat like? Lower middle-classBlue collarUrbanMember of a minority group (race/religion)18-25 or years of ageLess educated (some college)More liberalFrom the west coast, north east, or mid-westEtc…
14What is the AVERAGE Republican like? Upper-classCollege gradSuburbanProtestant (religion)White25-55 years of ageConservativeSouthern or WesternEtc…
15What were the first Two Parties in the United States? Federalists (become the Republicans )Democratic –Republicans (become the Democrats)Why did they begin? Debate over ratification of the Constitution divided people into two groups.
16What is a Minor or Third Party? A small party that nominates candidates for office, but rarely wins. Also called an opposition party.Examples:Labor PartyAmerican Nazi PartyThe Green PartyThe Populist Party (People’s Party)American Independent PartyLibertarian PartyNatural Law PartyWorkers World PartyPink Triangle PartyBlue Square PartyETC…
17The Four Types of Third Party Ideological Parties: parties based upon a unique set of political beliefsExamples:American Communist PartyAmerican Nazi PartySocialist PartyLibertarian Party
18Single Issue PartiesA party that is concerned with only one political issueExamples:Know-nothing PartyFree Soil Party (also known as Americans Only Party)Prohibition PartyWoman’s PartyRight to Life Party
19Economic Protest Parties Parties that are rooted in times of economic distress and that promote new alternatives to the conditions.Examples:Greenback PartyPopulist PartyUnited We Stand America
20Splinter PartiesPolitical parties that have broken away from the Democrats or RepublicansExamples:Bull-moose Party (Progressive Party)Dixiecrats
21Three Roles of Third Parties Spoiler: take enough votes away from a major party candidate that you ruin his chancesCritic: criticize the ideas and actions of both major partiesInnovator: bring new ideas to public’s attention. Usually stolen by major parties if popular
22Voting OptionsSplit Ticket Voting: Vote for candidates from both parties on the same ballotStraight Ticket Voting: voting for only one party on the ballot
23Voters and Voter Behavior Chapter 6 NotesVoters and Voter Behavior
25The Electorate The potential voting population NOT those who do vote, but those who COULDAgeRegistrationResidencyFelony RecordEtc…
26Universal Suffrage All adult citizens can vote Is it possible? What restrictions do we have that prevent it?
27Five stages of suffrage in US History Removing religious requirements ( ’s)15th Amendment ( remove racial limitations)19th Amendment (remove gender restrictions)Civil Rights Acts (punish discrimination)26th Amendment (remove age restrictions)
28Federal Standards for Voting If you can vote in State elections, can vote in federalNo State may discriminate on basis of raceNo State may discriminate on basis of genderNo State may require payment of taxes as a qualification to voteNo State may deprive a citizen over the age of 18 the right to vote if otherwise qualified
30Residency Requirements Require that a person maintain a legal residence in a city, county, or State for a period of time to be eligible to voteLegal because:People should familiarize themselves w/ issue and candidatesStates have an interest in preventing voter fraud*In Texas, you must be a resident for 30 days prior to the election to be eligible to vote.
31Motor Voter LawAllows people to register to vote when they renew their driver’s license.
32Oregon v. MitchellOutlawed the use of literacy tests as a qualification for voting .Tests were used to discriminate against minorities and poor whites.
33Who is ineligible to vote in Texas? Mentally IllMentally IncompetentFelonsNon-citizensHomelessDishonorably Discharged from militaryCalled “cannot voters” because they cannot legally vote.
34Voter requirements in Texas Be at least 18 years of age on election dayBe a US citizenRegister 30 days prior to the electionBe a resident 30 days prior to the election
35Methods used by Southern States to prevent minority voting White PrimariesGrandfather ClausesPoll taxLiteracy TestsProperty Tax PaymentsGerrymanderingIntimidationLynchingEtc…
36GerrymanderingThe illegal practice of drawing lines for congressional districts to the advantage of the majority
38Methods of Gerrymandering Concentrate the minorities voters in one District so they can only win one seatDisburse the minorities voters in all districts so they can never get a majority and win no seats
39What is an idiot?It is a Greek word for one who does not vote or participate in politics
40How many Americans voted in last presidential election (2012)? 122,394,724 voters56.8% of those who could have voted did so10% of those between the ages of voted67% of those between the ages of voted65 million voted for Obama/Biden57 million voted for Romney/Ryan
41Major reasons people give for not voting: Apathy (don’t care)Voting is too difficultDon’t have the timeDidn’t registerDon’t know where to goDon’t have transportationIllEtc…
42What is a non-voter?One who is eligible to vote, but chooses not to do so. (also called an idiot!)
43What is a cannot voter?One who is not eligible to vote
44What is a non-voting voter? One who does not vote on all the choices on the ballot.Example: you vote only for President, not Senate, House, etc…
45Political Socialization The process by which one gains one’s political attitudes and beliefs.#1 Source: MOM and DAD!
46Sociological Factors that Impact Voting Family #1AgeRaceIncomeOccupationReligionParty membership/affiliationFriends (peer pressure)Opinion LeadersLocation of residenceType of residenceEtc…
47Psychological Factors that Impact Voting Party IdentificationYour feelings about the candidatesHow the issues impact you personally
48Most likely voter in 2012 Professional Upper income ($250,000+) Married w/ kidsOwns home in suburbsVery well-educated (2 college degrees or more)Between the ages of 42-65White (62% of voters)ProtestantMember of a political partyFEMALE (54% of voters this time)
50NominationThe process of naming a person to be a candidate for political office
51Methods of Nomination Self –announcement Caucus Convention (pres only) Primary (#1 used today)Petition (local elections)
52Three types of primaries: Closed : only registered party members can voteOpen: voters may chose which party’s ballot to vote on the day of the electionBlanket: voters may vote on BOTH party’s ballots
53Why do some States choose to have closed primaries? It makes voters choose both a party and candidatesIt makes the candidates more responsive to their party’s issues and agendaIt prevents “primary raiding”
54Why are closed primaries illegal in Texas? If a voter is required to reveal their party membership, it is no longer a secret ballotClosed primaries exclude independent votersClosed primaries have been used to discriminate against the poor and minoritiesIt violates our State Constitution!
55When are congressional elections held? On the Tuesday, following the first Monday in November of every even numbered year!
56What is the coattail effect? A strong national candidate (usually for Pres) attract voters to cast ballots for his/her party members lower on the ticket.EX: Reagan’s candidacy for Pres in 1980 led to a dramatic increase in the number of people who were elected to the House and Senate from the South in the Republican Party
57How much did the 2012 Presidential election cost? $5.3 Billion !$176 for every man, woman, and child in the US
59Where did all that $ come from? Small donors : people who give $5-50“Fat Cats”Candidates themselvesPACs: Political Action Committees (fund raising arms of special interests)Temporary Organizations: created to support one candidate (FOB : Friends of Bill)Fund-raisersPublic subsidiesEtc…
61Why do people give $ to candidates/campaigns? Believe in candidate/campaignWant access to people in officeWant an appointmentWant to get a promotionSeeking social statusWant to have dinner at the White House or a ride on Air Force IWant to effect a change in policyWant to change a government regulationEtc…
62What does the FEC regulate? The Federal Election Commission regulates four areas of campaign finance:Timely disclosure of dataLimitations on contributionsLimitations on spendingPublic funding of Presidential elections
63What are the current disclosure requirements? You cannot give more than $2,400 to a candidate per yearYou cannot give more than $5,000 a year to a PACYour total contributions to all candidates cannot exceed $45,600 per yearYour total contributions to all PACs cannot exceed $69,900 per yearCorporations and Labor Unions cannot donateNon-citizens cannot donatePACs cannot give more than $5,000 per year to a candidateNo limit on total PAC or Party donations to ALL candidates
64Buckley v. ValeoSupreme Court rules that campaign donations are a form of free speech and can be limited, but not outlawed.Can limit donations; indirect speechCannot limit personal spending; direct speech
65Loopholes in Campaign Finance Law Soft Money: unlimited funds that can be given to parties for educational efforts or party buildingIndependent Expenditures: individuals spending own $ on own ads supporting candidate or cause; unlimitedIssue Ads: independent ads that compare stands on issues but do not support a candidate; unlimited
66Citizens United v. FEC, 2010Struck down parts of the Campaign Finance Reform Act of 2002Corporations and Labor Unions may NOT directly contribute to candidates/campaignsCorporations and Labor Unions MAY use their funds for independent ads and PACsDisclosure Requirements were upheld by the Court
67Mass Media and Public Opinion Chapter 8Mass Media and Public Opinion
68Public OpinionA collection of the attitudes held by many people on issues of politics and government
69How is public opinion shaped? By factors like:FamilySchoolReligionOccupationGroup membershipsOpinion leadersEtc…
70How is public opinion measured? Election ResultsInterest Group SurveysMedia CountsPersonal ContactsScientific Polls (best and most accurate way)
71Opinion LeadersPeople that you admire, trust, respect, and whose opinions matter to youPeople who have the power to influence youDifferent group for everyonePoliticians are always looking for someone who has an impact on many people.
72Mass MediaAny means of communication that reaches a large, diverse audienceExamples:TVRadioInternetNewspapersMagazinesEtc…
73MediaThe majority of Americans (61% in 2008 poll) get 100% of their information about government and politics from network news .98% of Americans own at least one TV.Most American families (83%) said they had at least one TV for each person in their household.
75Interest GroupsAn organization of people that tries to persuade government officials to respond to their members interests.Examples:NRA: National Rifle AssociationAMA: American Medical AssociationAARP: American Association of Retired CitizensCommon CauseNational Taxpayers UnionACLU: American Civil Liberties UnionETC…
76Functions of Interest Groups Stimulate interest in public policyRepresent their members’ viewsProvide informationEnsure that government officials act appropriately
77Criticisms of Interest Groups They have too much influence over politiciansCan’t always tell who they really representUse of unethical or illegal practices
78PropagandaThe use of language to persuade people to your point of viewTechniques:Plain FolksBandwagonName CallingGlittering GeneralitiesTransferTestimonialCard Stacking
79Lobbying The use of group pressure to try to influence public policy Lobbyist: one who seeks to influence a government officialsCalled lobbyists because they used to hang out in the lobby of the Willard Hotel trying to catch President Grant.
80Lobbying Techniques Polite Persuasion Provide information Write bills Wine and DineTestify as experts in congressional hearingsWrite lettersProvide junkets (field trips for Congress)Raise Money!
81Current Legislation regulating Lobbying Donations must be disclosedCannot give anything valued over $50 to a member of CongressCan take a member of Congress to a meal or event twice a year for $50 or lessNo regulation on gift to staff members
82The End! Study for your test! Read Ch 5-9 Complete your notes! Finish your test review!