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Unit IV 1820-1861 Part 1. Review Four Points of Sectional Conflict Four Points of Sectional Conflict Nullification Crisis Nullification Crisis Clay’s.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit IV 1820-1861 Part 1. Review Four Points of Sectional Conflict Four Points of Sectional Conflict Nullification Crisis Nullification Crisis Clay’s."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit IV 1820-1861 Part 1

2 Review Four Points of Sectional Conflict Four Points of Sectional Conflict Nullification Crisis Nullification Crisis Clay’s American System Clay’s American System Missouri Compromise (1820) Missouri Compromise (1820) Northwest Ordinance: first federal legislation to outlaw slavery Northwest Ordinance: first federal legislation to outlaw slavery

3 ReformsEducation Literature Literature Religion Religion Utopian communities Utopian communities Abolition Abolition Women’s Rights Movement Women’s Rights Movement Temperance Temperance Immigration Immigration Prison System Prison System Practical Reformers Practical Reformers Unions Unions

4 Also Jacksonian Democracy was considered part of the larger reform movement Jacksonian Democracy was considered part of the larger reform movement

5 Jackson’s Administration Began a much bigger reform movement in the United States Began a much bigger reform movement in the United States Demand for more public schools…especially in New England and the Midwest Demand for more public schools…especially in New England and the Midwest Not so practical for the South Not so practical for the South Westerners did not associate schools with education Westerners did not associate schools with education

6 The Public School movement is important It was the first major effort in the U.S. which succeeded in linking the power of government to an effort to reform and transform society It was the first major effort in the U.S. which succeeded in linking the power of government to an effort to reform and transform society The Government wanted to wrest education out of the hands of the Church The Government wanted to wrest education out of the hands of the Church

7 Massachusetts 1837 First to establish a State Board of Education 1837 First to establish a State Board of Education Horace Mann was the first State School Superintendent Horace Mann was the first State School Superintendent 1852 Compulsory Attendance Law 1852 Compulsory Attendance Law

8 Pennsylvania 1834 Pennsylvania Free School Act: divided the state into districts 1834 Pennsylvania Free School Act: divided the state into districts Districts levied taxes to support schools Districts levied taxes to support schools By the Civil War, most states had begun with free public schooling By the Civil War, most states had begun with free public schooling

9 Women’s (higher) Education 1827 Emma Hunt Willard established the Troy Female Seminary 1827 Emma Hunt Willard established the Troy Female Seminary 1837 Mary Lyon established Mt. Holyoke 1837 Mary Lyon established Mt. Holyoke 1841 Oberlin 1841 Oberlin First coed college First coed college First integrated college First integrated college

10 Literature and the Romantic Period More of a mood than a set of ideas More of a mood than a set of ideas Emphasized: imagination, feeling, emotion, intuition, inspiration, the inner light of an individual, outward zeal for reform Emphasized: imagination, feeling, emotion, intuition, inspiration, the inner light of an individual, outward zeal for reform A revolt against the Age of Reason A revolt against the Age of Reason

11 European Influence Rousseau: the father of Romanticism: So long as man preserves the human form, he is fettered by institutions (of “civilization”) Rousseau: the father of Romanticism: So long as man preserves the human form, he is fettered by institutions (of “civilization”) The German influence: Philosophy of Kant, poetry of Goethe, music of Beethoven The German influence: Philosophy of Kant, poetry of Goethe, music of Beethoven The English Influence: Coleridge, Wordsworth, Carlyle The English Influence: Coleridge, Wordsworth, Carlyle

12 The Americans Irving:The legend of Sleepy Hallow Irving:The legend of Sleepy Hallow Hawthorne: The Scarlet Letter Hawthorne: The Scarlet Letter Melville:Moby Dick Melville:Moby Dick Poe: The Raven Poe: The Raven Cooper: The Leather Stocking Series Cooper: The Leather Stocking Series Mark Twain: Tom Sawyer, Huckleberry Finn Mark Twain: Tom Sawyer, Huckleberry Finn Longfellow: The Village Blacksmith Longfellow: The Village Blacksmith

13 The Transcendentalists (kill me now) Thoreau: Walden, “Civil Disobedience” Thoreau: Walden, “Civil Disobedience” Emerson: “Nature” “Self Reliance” Emerson: “Nature” “Self Reliance” Whitman: Leaves of Grass Whitman: Leaves of Grass Anti organized government, religion, any institution (schools, political party and even reform movements) Anti organized government, religion, any institution (schools, political party and even reform movements)

14 The Transcendentalists Stress “natural” man, intuition, freedom, spiritual distance from society… Stress “natural” man, intuition, freedom, spiritual distance from society… Talked about reform (abolition) but no action Talked about reform (abolition) but no action In the South: romanticized Southern “institutions” (slavery) In the South: romanticized Southern “institutions” (slavery) NOTE: about 1/5 whites in South were slave- owners NOTE: about 1/5 whites in South were slave- owners

15 Religion Unitarians: moved away from Christian doctrine to no doctrine Unitarians: moved away from Christian doctrine to no doctrine New: Deciples of Christ, Church of Christ New: Deciples of Christ, Church of Christ Still: The Second Great Awakening Still: The Second Great Awakening Off shoots from other churches: Primative Baptists, Free-will Baptists Off shoots from other churches: Primative Baptists, Free-will Baptists New surge of revivalism and camp meetings New surge of revivalism and camp meetings

16 The Mormons 1823 Joseph Smith visited by a “divine being” 1823 Joseph Smith visited by a “divine being” Called Moroni Called Moroni Said, “The Lord has work for you to do…later” Said, “The Lord has work for you to do…later” Smith was barely literate, not overly religious Smith was barely literate, not overly religious 1827 Moroni returned, instructed Smith to dig under a tree. 1827 Moroni returned, instructed Smith to dig under a tree.

17 The Mormons Smith dug up book plates inscribed with an ancient language Smith dug up book plates inscribed with an ancient language Moroni gave Smith tools to translate with and instructed him to write The Book of the Mormon Moroni gave Smith tools to translate with and instructed him to write The Book of the Mormon 11 people who were witnesses to the original plates signed affidavits to verify 11 people who were witnesses to the original plates signed affidavits to verify

18 By 1830 The Book of the Mormon was published The Book of the Mormon was published Difficult to find recruits Difficult to find recruits Smith had a small following Smith had a small following Did institute polygamy Did institute polygamy Began to move his small community West Began to move his small community West

19 On the Way In Illinois Smith was attacked by a mob and killed In Illinois Smith was attacked by a mob and killed Mormons continued West led by Brigham Young Mormons continued West led by Brigham Young Made it to Utah by 1847 where they multiplied and prospered Made it to Utah by 1847 where they multiplied and prospered

20 Utopian Communities Experiments in communal living: people would pool their belongings, share the work and share in the profits (harvest usually) Experiments in communal living: people would pool their belongings, share the work and share in the profits (harvest usually) Some Communes were religious (often millenarians') Some Communes were religious (often millenarians') Some were purely secular Some were purely secular

21 The Brook Farm Community Secular Secular Monogamous Monogamous Lived separately from society Lived separately from society Property ownership was communal Property ownership was communal Strictly voluntary Strictly voluntary Hawthorne lived there for 2 years Hawthorne lived there for 2 years

22 Oneida Community 1850’s 1850’s Founder John Humphrey Noyes Founder John Humphrey Noyes Shared EVERYTHIG Shared EVERYTHIG Communal marriages, Children Communal marriages, Children

23 Other Secular Communities Amana Community New York and Iowa in the 1840’s and 1850’s Amana Community New York and Iowa in the 1840’s and 1850’s Fruitlands: founder Amos Alcott (father of Louisa May Alcott Fruitlands: founder Amos Alcott (father of Louisa May Alcott

24 Religious Utopian Communities Rappites: Founder George Rapp 1804 Rappites: Founder George Rapp 1804 Had 600 followers Had 600 followers Millenarians Millenarians Renounced Sex Renounced Sex Took the Bible literally Took the Bible literally Believed the END was at hand Believed the END was at hand

25 The Shakers Ann Lee: illiterate but effective speaker Ann Lee: illiterate but effective speaker Died 1784 Died 1784 By 1830’s: 6,000 members in 20 successful Shaker Communities By 1830’s: 6,000 members in 20 successful Shaker Communities Made furniture Made furniture Also millenarians Also millenarians Strict separation of the sexes Strict separation of the sexes Took in orphans, fed those down on their luck Took in orphans, fed those down on their luck Much singing and dancing Much singing and dancing

26 Practical Reformers Dorthea Dix: worked alone for 30 years on behalf of the insane Dorthea Dix: worked alone for 30 years on behalf of the insane Began in 1841 Began in 1841 By 1854 Congress passed a bill to provide federal funds to care for the insane By 1854 Congress passed a bill to provide federal funds to care for the insane Was vetoed by Pierce who thought funding was unconstitutional…but urged charitable giving Was vetoed by Pierce who thought funding was unconstitutional…but urged charitable giving

27 Practical Reformers 1851 Thomas Gallaundet: established schools for the deaf in 14 states 1851 Thomas Gallaundet: established schools for the deaf in 14 states Dr. Samuel Howe: worked with the blind. Before the introduction of Braille, he devised his own system of raised letters Dr. Samuel Howe: worked with the blind. Before the introduction of Braille, he devised his own system of raised letters

28 Other Reforms Flogging was abolished in the navy Flogging was abolished in the navy Prison Reform: 2 model systems: Prison Reform: 2 model systems: The Auburn System and the Philadelphia System The Auburn System and the Philadelphia System Both were very harsh. Both were very harsh. Prisoners: absolute silence, no contact with the outside world Prisoners: absolute silence, no contact with the outside world

29 The Big Three Temperance Temperance Women’s Rights Women’s Rights Abolition Abolition


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