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Corrections: History, Institutions, and Populations Chapter 15.

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Presentation on theme: "Corrections: History, Institutions, and Populations Chapter 15."— Presentation transcript:

1 Corrections: History, Institutions, and Populations Chapter 15

2 Community residential centers Jails Reformatories Penal institutions Houses of corrections Juvenile and adult schools, ranches, camps, homes Halfway houses “Correctional Facilities” aka “Incarceration Facilities”

3 Gaol could be any secure place Hulks were abandoned ships Prisoners were mixed together: Adult & juvenile / male & female Hardened & first time offenders No state responsibility for health, safety & welfare Survival of the fittest English Gaols & Hulks

4 New, more humane system introduced, forbidding torture Imprisonment at hard labor & moderate flogging with restitution All lands and goods were to be forfeited Ordered houses of corrections to be built The Pennsylvania System and William Penn

5 Single inmate to a cell Cells designed as miniature prisons Constant solitary confinement The Eastern State Penitentiary (in Philadelphia) became the most expensive and most copied building of its time. The Pennsylvania System

6 Modestly appointed: Bed Table Chair Bucket Bible A place to reflect on wrong doings and improve one’s moral character (“to get right with God”) The Pennsylvania System (cont.)

7 Sometimes called the tier or congregate system Based on fear of punishment & silent confinement Congregate work conditions Separate & silent conditions at night Enforced silence was the key to discipline The Auburn System: An Alternative to the Pennsylvania System

8 Zebulon Brockway begins reforms at Elmira (NY) Reformatory Reform measures include education, vocational training, military- like training, and humanitarianism Parole brought to America Prison Reform

9 Contract System Convict Lease System Prison Industries

10 Organized labor unions oppose forced labor (unfair competition) Sumners-Ashurst Act (1940): federal offense to transport interstate commerce goods made in prison for private use Demise of Prison Industries

11 The modern era has been a period of change and turmoil in the nation’s correctional system Why reform efforts have failed: Failure of the medical model to rehabilitate coupled with high recidivism rates Increase in prison violence Increase in prison costs Failure of Reform Efforts

12 Young, single, male Undereducated Minorities Low income Single parent family Drug/alcohol abuse Property crimes Who are the Most Common Kinds of Jail Inmates?

13 Increase of 6% annually since 1990 Substance abuse common Victims of child abuse Women in Jail

14 Operated under concept of custodial convenience Understaffed, underpaid Lack of basic programs and services Suicides common Jail Conditions

15 To relieve overcrowding and improve effectiveness, a jail-building boom has been underway. Modern designs are being used to improve effectiveness. New generation jails allow for either direct or indirect continuous observation of residents. New Generation Jails

16 As of 2003, there were more than 1,600 public and private adult correctional facilities housing state prisoners. There are 84 federal facilities and 26 private facilities housing federal inmates. The number of prison institutions has increased 14% since Types of Prisons

17 Fortresses Cells/blocks/wings Standard uniform and dress codes Everything based on security (lock psychosis) State Prison Organization: Maximum Security Prisons

18 Similar appearance to maximum security Security is less intense More privileges More treatment effort State Prison Organization: Medium Security Prisons

19 No armed guards or walls House most trustworthy & least violent offenders Dormitory style housing or small rooms Often farms or ranches State Prison Organization: Minimum Security Prisons

20 House most dangerous, predatory criminals Extra-tight security and isolated conditions are common All potential weapons removed, e.g., mirrors, toilet seat, soap dishes, etc. Some claim violations of United Nations standards for the treatment of inmates State Prison Organization: Ultra-Maximum Security Prisons

21 Young Single Poorly educated Disproportionately male Disproportionately minority group member Prison Inmates Personal Characteristics

22 Public demand for punitive punishment Mandatory & determinate sentencing More drug and violent crimes Increased use of incarceration by judges Lack of employment opportunities slow the rate of prisoners released on parole Why Have Prison Populations Grown?

23 37 states operating under court orders State prisons are over 100% capacity Some responses: Double/triple bunking Tents & military bases River barges Use of local jails Prison Overcrowding

24 Typical inmate is a youthful, first time offender convicted of a property crime Often used when drug use was a factor Uses a military regime discipline and physical fitness Shock Incarceration (aka Boot Camp)

25 Private company builds prison and contracts to run it In some cases, the prison and programs are leased to the state In other cases, specific service program contracts are made More than 264 private facilities operate under federal or state authority The number of inmates in private facilities has risen 459% since June 1995 Private Prisons

26 Biased evaluations re: effectiveness Cut corners to save costs Hard core prisoners not accepted for state care Maintenance of liability Loss of state jobs Difficult to control quality Moral considerations Problems with Private Prisons

27 The prison boom means that a significant portion of American citizens will one day be behind bars. One in 37 adults living in the U.S. on December 31, 2001 had been confined in prison at some time during his or her life. Between growth in the population and increases in life expectancy, the number of current or former inmates increased by 3.8 million between There were racially significant differences in the likelihood of going to prison. Going to Prison During Your Lifetime

28 Politicians respond to “get tough” demands from certain segments of the public Public concern increases over drug and violent crime Mandatory sentencing laws increase eligibility for incarceration and limit the availability for early release via parole Increased number of ex-inmates who have failed on community release Explaining Prison Population Trends


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