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CHAPTER 7 Planning for Profit and Cost Control. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2008McGraw-Hill/Irwin 7-2 Learning Objective LO1 To describe the budgeting.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 7 Planning for Profit and Cost Control. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2008McGraw-Hill/Irwin 7-2 Learning Objective LO1 To describe the budgeting."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 7 Planning for Profit and Cost Control

2 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2008McGraw-Hill/Irwin 7-2 Learning Objective LO1 To describe the budgeting process and the benefits it provides

3 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2008McGraw-Hill/Irwin 7-3 Three Levels of Planning 1.Strategic planning involves making long-term decisions such as defining the scope of the business, determining which products to develop or discontinue and identifying the most profitable markets. 2.Capital budgeting focuses on intermediate-range planning and involves decisions such as whether to buy or lease equipment, whether to stimulate sales, or whether to increase company assets. 3.The Operations budget describes short-term objectives in specific amounts of sales targets, production goals, and financing plans. 1.Strategic planning involves making long-term decisions such as defining the scope of the business, determining which products to develop or discontinue and identifying the most profitable markets. 2.Capital budgeting focuses on intermediate-range planning and involves decisions such as whether to buy or lease equipment, whether to stimulate sales, or whether to increase company assets. 3.The Operations budget describes short-term objectives in specific amounts of sales targets, production goals, and financing plans.

4 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2008McGraw-Hill/Irwin 7-4 Advantages of Budgeting BudgetingBudgeting Promotes Planning Promotes Coordination Enhances Performance Measurement Enhances Corrective Actions

5 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2008McGraw-Hill/Irwin 7-5 Learning Objective LO2 To explain the relationship between budgeting and human behavior

6 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2008McGraw-Hill/Irwin 7-6 Budgeting and Human Behavior Upper management must be sensitive to the impact of the budgeting process on employees. Budgets are constraining. They limit individual freedom in favor of an established plan. Many people find evaluation based on budget expectations stressful. Think of students and exams. Upper management must demonstrate that budgets are sincere efforts to express realistic goals employees are expected to meet.

7 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2008McGraw-Hill/Irwin 7-7 Cash payments for S & A Cash payments for inventory Inventory purchases budget Income statement S & A expense budget Balance sheet Cash receipts Sales budget Cash budget Statement of cash flows Cash Receipts and Payments Schedules Operating Budgets Pro forma Financial Statements Start

8 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2008McGraw-Hill/Irwin 7-8 Learning Objective LO3 To prepare a sales budget and related schedule of cash receipts

9 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2008McGraw-Hill/Irwin 7-9 Sales Budget Detailed schedule prepared by the marketing department showing expected sales for the coming periods and expected collections on those sales. It is critical to the success of the entire budgeting process.

10 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2008McGraw-Hill/Irwin 7-10 Sales Budget Hampton Hams (HH) is preparing a sales budget for the last quarter of the year. Sales of hames are expected to peak in the months of October, November and December (the holiday seasons). The store sales for October are expected to total $160,000 ($40,000 in cash sales, and $120,000 in sales on account). Sales are expected to increase by 20% per month for November and December. Let’s prepare a sales budget. Hampton Hams (HH) is preparing a sales budget for the last quarter of the year. Sales of hames are expected to peak in the months of October, November and December (the holiday seasons). The store sales for October are expected to total $160,000 ($40,000 in cash sales, and $120,000 in sales on account). Sales are expected to increase by 20% per month for November and December. Let’s prepare a sales budget.

11 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2008McGraw-Hill/Irwin 7-11 Sales Budget $40,000 × 120% = $48,000 $120,000 × 120% = $144,000 Accounts receivable at December 31 st are $172,800, the uncollected sales on account.

12 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2008McGraw-Hill/Irwin 7-12 Schedule of Cash Receipts Hampton Hams (HH) will collect cash sales in the month of sale. Past experience shows the company will collect cash from its credit sales in the month following the month of the sale (October credit sales will be collected in full in November). Let’s prepare the cash receipts budget. Hampton Hams (HH) will collect cash sales in the month of sale. Past experience shows the company will collect cash from its credit sales in the month following the month of the sale (October credit sales will be collected in full in November). Let’s prepare the cash receipts budget.

13 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2008McGraw-Hill/Irwin 7-13 Schedule of Cash Receipts Sales revenue on the income statement will be the sum of the monthly sales ($582,400).

14 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2008McGraw-Hill/Irwin 7-14 Learning Objective LO4 To prepare an inventory purchases budget and related schedule of cash payments

15 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2008McGraw-Hill/Irwin 7-15 Inventory Purchases Budget The total amount of inventory needed for each month is equal to the amount of the cost of budgeted sales plus the desired ending inventory.

16 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2008McGraw-Hill/Irwin 7-16 Inventory Purchases Budget HH’s policy is that ending inventory should be equal to 25% of next month’s projected cost of goods sold. At HH, cost of goods sold normally equal 70% of sales. Suppliers require HH to pay 60% of inventory purchases in the month goods are purchased and the remaining 40% in the month after the purchase. Let’s prepare the inventory purchases budget and the schedule of cash payments for inventory purchases.

17 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2008McGraw-Hill/Irwin 7-17 Inventory Purchases Budget $134,400 × 25% = $33,600 $155,960 × 40% = $62,384 Accounts Payable

18 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2008McGraw-Hill/Irwin 7-18 $145,600 × 40% = $58,240 $145,600 × 60% = $87,360

19 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2008McGraw-Hill/Irwin 7-19 Learning Objective LO5 To prepare a selling and administrative expense budget and related schedule of cash payments

20 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2008McGraw-Hill/Irwin 7-20 Selling and Administrative Expense Budget The details of the Selling and Administrative (S&A) Budget are shown on the next two screens. It is important to note that sales commission (based on 2% of sales) is paid in the month following the sale, while supplies expense (based on 1% of sales) is paid in the month of the sale. The utility expense is paid in the month following the usage of the electricity, gas, and water.

21 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2008McGraw-Hill/Irwin 7-21 Selling and Administrative Expense Budget

22 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2008McGraw-Hill/Irwin 7-22

23 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2008McGraw-Hill/Irwin 7-23 Learning Objective LO6 To prepare a cash budget

24 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2008McGraw-Hill/Irwin 7-24 Cash Budget HH plans to purchase, for cash, store fixtures with a cost of $130,000 in October. HH borrows or repays principal and interest on the last day of each month. Any money borrowed from the bank bears interest at an annual rate of 12% (1% per month). The management at HH wants to maintain a cash balance of at least $10,000 at the end of every month.

25 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2008McGraw-Hill/Irwin 7-25 Cash Budget

26 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2008McGraw-Hill/Irwin 7-26 Cash Budget

27 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2008McGraw-Hill/Irwin 7-27

28 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2008McGraw-Hill/Irwin 7-28 Check Yourself Astor Company expects to incur the following operating expenses during September: Salary Expense, $25,000; Utility Expense, $1,200; Depreciation Expense, $5,400, and Selling Expense, $14,000. It pays operating expenses in cash in the month in which it incurs them. Based on this information, the total amount of cash outflow reported in the Operating Activities section of the pro forma Statement of Cash Flows would be: a. $45,600. b. $31,600. c. $40,200. d. $44,400 Depreciation Expense is a non-cash charge to income and will not appear on the Statement of Cash Flows.

29 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2008McGraw-Hill/Irwin 7-29 Learning Objective LO7 To prepare a pro forma income statement, balance sheet, and statement of cash flows

30 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2008McGraw-Hill/Irwin 7-30 Pro Forma Income Statement The pro forma income statement gives management an estimate of the expected profitability of HH. If the project appears to be unprofitable, management can make the decision to abandon it. Although managers remain responsible for data analysis and decision making, computer technology offers powerful tools to assist in those tasks.

31 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2008McGraw-Hill/Irwin 7-31 Pro Forma Income Statement

32 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2008McGraw-Hill/Irwin 7-32 Pro Forma Balance Sheet The new store has no contributed capital because its operations will be financed through debt (line-of- credit) and retained earnings. The amount of retained earnings will be equal to the net income because there are no prior periods. The fixtures purchased in October will be depreciated for a full three months. Total accumulated depreciation will be $3,000.

33 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2008McGraw-Hill/Irwin 7-33

34 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2008McGraw-Hill/Irwin 7-34 Pro Forma Statement of Cash Flows Almost all the information for the Pro Forma Statement of Cash Flows can be found on the Cash Budget.

35 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2008McGraw-Hill/Irwin 7-35

36 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2008McGraw-Hill/Irwin 7-36 End of Chapter 7


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