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Catalyst (5 min) 9/26/11 Electron Orbitals EQ: How are electrons organized in an atom? How were the models of JJ Thomson, Niels Bohr, and Erwin Schrodinger different from each other with respect to their ideas about electrons in an atom? Draw pictures if it will help you explain yourself. (Hint: Use your foldable.)

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JJ Thomson believed negative electrons floated within a positive sphere, & look similar to raisins in a plum pudding. Niels Bohr believed electrons orbited the positive nucleus in circles like planets orbiting the sun. Erwin Schrödinger believed electrons travelled extremely quickly around the positive nucleus in recognizable patterns. Catalyst

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Modern Orbital Theory There are four kinds of electron orbitals: s, p, d, & f Lower energy orbitals are closer to the nucleus and higher energy orbitals are farther from the nucleus. Each orbital can hold a maximum of 2 electrons

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s Orbitals s orbitals are spherical, and there is 1 in each energy level Examples: 1s, 2s, 3s, 4s, 5s, 6s, 7s

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p Orbitals p orbitals are shaped like dumbbells, and there are 3 in each energy level Examples: 2p, 3p, 4p, 5p, 6p, 7p

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d Orbitals d orbitals are shaped like clovers, and there are 5 in each energy level Examples: 3d, 4d, 5d, 6d

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f Orbitals f orbitals are oddly shaped, and there are 7 in each energy level Examples: 4f, 5f, 6f, 7f

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Reviewing orbitals Each orbital can hold ____ electrons. There is ____ kind of s orbital. Therefore, s can hold ____ electrons. There are ___ kinds of p orbitals. Therefore, p can hold ___ electrons. There are ___ kinds of d orbitals. Therefore, d can hold ___ electrons. There are ___ kinds of f orbitals. Therefore, f can hold ___ electrons. 2 1 2 3 6 5 10 7 14

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Orbitals Orbital names have 2 parts The energy level is the first part. For example: n=1, n=2, n=3, etc. The shape of the orbital is the second part. For example: s, p, d, or f Examples of orbital names include 1s, 2p, 3d, 3f, 4d, 5s, 5d, etc.

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Do you notice any patterns on the periodic table that match the # of electrons in each orbital shape? s = 2, p = 6, d = 10, and f=14

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Notes: Atomic Orbitals Summary of Principal Energy Levels, Sublevels and Orbitals: Principal Energy Level Type of Sublevel Maximum Number of Electrons n = 11s2 n = 22s, 2p 8 (2+6) n = 33s, 3p, 3d 18 (2+6+10) n = 44s, 4p, 4d, 4f 32 (2+6+10+14)

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Notes: Orbital Diagrams Fold your paper so that you have two columns – the left side column should be larger than the right Orbital Diagrams Electron Configuration

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Notes: Orbital Diagrams The Aufbau Principle states that an electron will occupy the lowest energy level orbital available Energy 1s 3s 2p 2s Hydrogen

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The Pauli Exclusion Principle states that two electrons in the same orbital will have opposite spins Notes: Orbital Diagrams Energy 1s 3s 2p 2s Helium

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Notes: Orbital Diagrams Energy 1s 3s 2p 2s Lithium

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Notes: Orbital Diagrams Energy 1s 3s 2p 2s Beryllium

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Notes: Orbital Diagrams Energy 1s 3s 2p 2s Boron

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Notes: Orbital Diagrams Hund’s Rule states that electrons in an equal energy level orbital will go in singly before doubling up Energy 1s 3s 2p 2s Carbon

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Notes: Orbital Diagrams Hund’s Rule states that electrons in an equal energy level orbital will go in singly before doubling up Energy 1s 3s 2p 2s Nitrogen

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Notes: Orbital Diagrams Hund’s Rule states that electrons in an equal energy level orbital will go in singly before doubling up Energy 1s 3s 2p 2s Oxygen

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Practice Draw the orbital diagrams for fluorine, neon and sodium in your notes. 1s 3s 2p 2s 1s 3s 2p 2s 1s 3s 2p 2s fluorine neon sodium

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Notes: Orbital Diagrams Energy 1s 3s 2p 2s 3p 4s

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Homework Draw orbital diagrams for: AluminumPhosphorousChlorine

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Catalyst (5 min) 9/28/11 Electron Configurations EQ: How do we represent the organization of electrons in an atom? Draw an electron orbital diagram for sulfur.

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Catalyst Energy 1s 3s 2p 2s 3p 4s Sulfur

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Principles of Orbital Filling The Aufbau Principle states that an electron will occupy the lowest energy level orbital available The Pauli Exclusion Principle states that two electrons in the same orbital will have opposite spins Hund’s Rule states that electrons in an equal energy level orbital will go in singly before doubling up

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Review: Orbital Diagrams Energy 1s 3s 2p 2s Hydrogen

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Review : Orbital Diagrams Energy 1s 3s 2p 2s Helium

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Review : Orbital Diagrams Energy 1s 3s 2p 2s Lithium

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Review: Orbital Diagrams Energy 1s 3s 2p 2s Beryllium

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Review: Orbital Diagrams Energy 1s 3s 2p 2s Boron

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Review: Orbital Diagrams Energy 1s 3s 2p 2s Carbon

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Review: Orbital Diagrams Energy 1s 3s 2p 2s Nitrogen

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Review: Orbital Diagrams Energy 1s 3s 2p 2s Oxygen

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Review: Orbital Diagrams Energy 1s 3s 2p 2s Fluorine

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Review: Orbital Diagrams Energy 1s 3s 2p 2s Neon

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Review: Orbital Diagrams Energy 1s 3s 2p 2s Sodium

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Homework: Orbital Diagrams Energy 1s 3s 2p 2s 3p 4s Aluminum Energy 1s 3s 2p 2s 3p 4s Phosphorous

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Homework: Orbital Diagrams Energy 1s 3s 2p 2s 3p 4s Chlorine

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Electron Configuration Electron configuration is a less complicated way to show the electrons in an atom. Energy 1s 2s Orbital Diagram for Hydrogen become s 1s 1 The Orbital Number of electrons in the orbital

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Electron Configuration Energy 1s 2s He Energy 1s 2s Li becomes 1s 2 becomes 1s 2 2s 1

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Electron Configuration Energy 1s 2s Be Energy 1s 2s B 2p becomes 1s 2 2s 2 2p 1 becomes 1s 2 2s 2

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Practice Write the electron configuration for carbon through neon. Carbon = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 Nitrogen = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 3 Oxygen = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4 Fluorine = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5 Neon = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6

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Classwork/Homework On a separate sheet of paper, make 2 columns just like you did on Thursday. Keep going! I need to see orbital diagrams & electron configurations for elements #11-22 (sodium through titanium). Orbital Diagrams Electron Configuration

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Classwork/Homework Energy 1s 3s 2p 2s 3p 4s 4p 3d

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Homework Write electron configurations for Al, P, Cl, & S (aluminum, phosphorous, chlorine, and sulfur). Hint: You should have the electron orbital diagrams for all of these from last night’s homework and today’s warm-up.

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Catalyst (5 min) 9/28/11 Electron Configurations EQ: How do we represent the organization of electrons in an atom? 1.How many types of s, p, d, & f orbitals are there? 2.How many electrons will fit in one orbital? 3.If phosphorous has 15 electrons, where is each one located?

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Catalyst Review 1 & 2:s = 1 type, 2 electrons p = 3 types, 6 electrons d = 5 types, 10 electrons f = 7 types, 14 electrons 3: Phosphorous has 15 electrons. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 3 1 st energy level has 2 electrons in the 1s orbital 2 nd energy level has 8 electrons in the 2s & 2p orbitals 2 electrons in 2s, 6 electrons in 2p 3 rd energy level has 5 electrons in the 3s & 3p orbitals 2 electrons in 3s, 3 electrons in 2p

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Homework: Orbital Diagrams Energy 1s 3s 2p 2s 3p 4s Aluminum: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 1 Energy 1s 3s 2p 2s 3p 4s Phosphorous 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 3

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Homework: Orbital Diagrams Energy 1s 3s 2p 2s 3p 4s Chlorine 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 5 Energy 1s 3s 2p 2s 3p 4s Sulfur 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 4

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Labeling s, p, d, & f s d f p

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Writing Electron Configurations s d f p C Carbon 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2

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Writing Electron Configurations s d f p Mg Magnesium 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2

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Writing Electron Configurations s d f p Cl Chlorine 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 5

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Writing Electron Configurations s d f p As Arsenic 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 3

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Identifying Elements 1s 2 2s 2 2p 3 Nitrogen 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 1 Gallium

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Identifying Elements 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 3 Phosphorous 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 1 Rubidium

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Catalyst (5 min) 9/29/11 Valence Electrons EQ: What are valence electrons? Write the electron configuration for neon. Write the electron configuration for aluminum. Write the electron configuration for argon. Write the electron configuration for calcium.

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Catalyst Review Neon 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 Aluminum1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 1 Argon1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 Calcium1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2

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