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WSSA Herbicide Resistance Management Lesson 3 © 2011 WSSA All Rights Reserved What is Herbicide Resistance? Lesson 3 1 The copyright in these Weed Science Society of America (WSSA) training lessons is owned by the WSSA. WSSA grants you a limited license to use these materials solely for training and educational purposes. Slides may be used individually, and their order of use may be changed; however, the content of each slide and the associated narrative may not be altered. If you have questions, please contact Joyce Lancaster at (email@example.com) and phone (785-865-9250).
WSSA Herbicide Resistance Management Lesson 3 © 2011 WSSA All Rights Reserved 2 Objectives By the end of this lesson, you will: Define the different types of herbicide resistance. Recognize the factors that influence selection for herbicide resistance. Understand what herbicide resistance is and how it evolves in the field. Above: Immature stage of annual ryegrass, a weed that is known to be resistant to several herbicides. Photo: Jason Bond, Mississippi State University
WSSA Herbicide Resistance Management Lesson 3 © 2011 WSSA All Rights Reserved Herbicide Resistance Defined 3 Herbicide resistance can be defined as the acquired ability of a weed population to survive a herbicide application that previously was known to control the population. Herbicide tolerance is the inherent ability of a species to survive and reproduce after herbicide treatment. There has been no selection acting on the tolerant weed species, and there has been no change in the weed species lack of response to the herbicide over time. Year 1Year 2Later years The number of herbicide-resistant individuals in the population changes over time. Year 1Year 2Later years The number of herbicide-tolerant individuals is not affected directly by the herbicide. In herbicide resistance there is a change in the response of the weed population over time; it is no longer controlled by the herbicide. In herbicide tolerance, there is no change over time, the population has always been tolerant to the herbicide. In herbicide resistance there is a change in the response of the weed population over time; it is no longer controlled by the herbicide. In herbicide tolerance, there is no change over time, the population has always been tolerant to the herbicide.
WSSA Herbicide Resistance Management Lesson 3 © 2011 WSSA All Rights Reserved Herbicide Resistance: Basic Principles 4 Herbicide resistance is the result of naturally occurring processes. * Biotypes are plants within a species that have biological characteristics that are not common to the population as a whole. Herbicide-resistant individuals or biotypes* are present naturally within the weed population at very low frequencies. These individuals have a herbicide resistance mechanism that allows them to survive the application of a herbicide. Weed control failures do not automatically mean that the weeds are herbicide-resistant. Resistance is heritable. It can be passed from one generation to the next. In general, weed populations are genetically diverse, and individual plants within a species can respond differently to the same herbicide rate. This does not mean, in all cases, that the least sensitive individuals are herbicide-resistant, but it is a possibility. Herbicide rates are initially established to be effective on the vast majority of the individuals in a population under normal growing conditions. This is why using labeled rates is important. [Click to close.]
WSSA Herbicide Resistance Management Lesson 3 © 2011 WSSA All Rights Reserved Spray with herbicideSusceptible weeds dieResistant weeds matureResistant weeds produce seed 5 Year 1 1 in a million resistant to a herbicide Year 2 begins with more resistant weeds Example Year 2 Selection by Herbicides Changes the Population Over Time
WSSA Herbicide Resistance Management Lesson 3 © 2011 WSSA All Rights Reserved 6 Year 2 The process repeats… Year 3 …Until Year 3 has significant weed resistance… And in later years even more herbicide- resistant weeds are present And in later years even more herbicide- resistant weeds are present Example Selection by Herbicides Changes the Population Over Time
WSSA Herbicide Resistance Management Lesson 3 © 2011 WSSA All Rights Reserved Factors Affecting Speed of Selection 7 The length of time for selection of resistance varies by : Cultural practices Frequency of herbicide use Herbicide mechanism of action Year 0Year 2Year 4Year 6Year 8Year ?Later Biology of weed species Frequency of resistant biotypes among weed species Another factor affecting the speed of selection is the mechanism of herbicide resistance. There are two general types of mechanisms: (1) exclusionary resistance (for example, differential uptake and translocation, compartmentalization and metabolic detoxification) and (2) target site resistance (alteration of the targeted enzyme and overproduction of a specific enzyme). Exclusionary resistance generally takes longer to evolve in the field. [Click to close.]
WSSA Herbicide Resistance Management Lesson 3 © 2011 WSSA All Rights Reserved Level of Herbicide Resistance 8 The level of herbicide resistance in weeds varies by weed biology and resistance mechanism. In some cases, resistance occurs when the species survives application of a labeled rate, while in other cases, the species can survive up to 1000 times the labeled rate. (1X equals the labeled rate.) This is important in terms of being able to identify herbicide resistance in the field.
WSSA Herbicide Resistance Management Lesson 3 © 2011 WSSA All Rights Reserved Herbicide Resistance Characteristics 9 – Plants are slightly injured to uninjured – Few plants have an intermediate responses – Susceptible plants can be present in the population GROUP5HERBICIDE Diuron, Princep, Hyvar, etc. GROUP2HERBICIDE Outrider, Escort, Plateau, etc. GROUP1HERBICIDE Envoy, etc. – A continuum of plant responses from slightly injured to nearly dead – The majority of plants display an intermediate response – Susceptible plants will be present in the population, especially when herbicide resistance is determined early GROUP9HERBICIDE Roundup, etc. GROUP 14 + 15 HERBICIDE Piper, etc. GROUP4HERBICIDE Garlon, 2,4 D, etc. GROUP22HERBICIDE Reward, etc. Examples High-Level ResistanceLow-Level Resistance Examples
WSSA Herbicide Resistance Management Lesson 3 © 2011 WSSA All Rights Reserved Herbicide Resistance Types 10 Single Herbicide Resistance Resistant to only one herbicide Cross Herbicide Resistance Resistant to two or more herbicide families with same mechanism of action Single resistance mechanism Multiple Herbicide Resistance Resistant to two or more herbicides with different mechanisms of action May be the result of two or more different resistance mechanisms
WSSA Herbicide Resistance Management Lesson 3 © 2011 WSSA All Rights Reserved Herbicide Resistance Types: Cross Resistance 11 Oust, a sulfonylurea, and Outrider, an imidazolinone, both belong to the ALS- inhibitors, or group 2 herbicides. Both herbicide products have the same mechanism of action. CAUTION: Weeds that are herbicide-resistant to one member of a herbicide mechanism of action group may or may not be cross-resistant to all herbicides within that group. Consult your local extension specialist for more information. Year 1Year 2Year 3 Apply Oust® Resistant to Oust Apply Oust Resistant to Oust Apply Plateau® An example with common ragweed Resistant to Oust and Plateau herbicides (group 2, ALS-inhibitors)
WSSA Herbicide Resistance Management Lesson 3 © 2011 WSSA All Rights Reserved Herbicide Resistance Types: Multiple Resistance 12 Multiple resistance can occur following repeated applications of a single herbicide and selection for herbicide-resistant biotypes followed by repeated applications of another herbicide and selection for herbicide-resistant biotypes. Years 1-5Years 5-8Years 8-13 Apply Overdrive Select for weeds resistant to group 4 herbicides (shown in black) The population with resistance to group 4 herbicides increases Switch to and apply glyphosate Select for weeds resistant to group 9 herbicides (shown in pink) from a population that is resistant to group 5 Example The population with multiple resistance to group 4 and 9 increases Years 14 +
WSSA Herbicide Resistance Management Lesson 3 © 2011 WSSA All Rights Reserved Conclusions Repeated use of a herbicide selects for herbicide-resistant biotypes. Over time, the number of resistant individuals in the weed population increases until the majority of the population is herbicide-resistant. Several factors affect the selection of herbicide-resistant weeds. Once a weed is resistant to a single herbicide, it is possible for it to also be resistant to another herbicide, with either the same or a different mechanism of action. 13
WSSA Herbicide Resistance Management Lesson 3 © 2011 WSSA All Rights Reserved This lesson was developed by a WSSA sub-committee and reviewed by the WSSA Board of Directors and other WSSA members before being released. The sub-committee was composed of the following individuals. Wes Everman, PhD (North Carolina State University) Les Glasgow, PhD (Syngenta Crop Protection) Lynn Ingegneri, PhD(Consultant) Jill Schroeder, PhD (New Mexico State University) David Shaw, PhD (Mississippi State University) John Soteres, PhD (Monsanto Company) (Sub-committee chairman) Jeff Stachler, PhD (North Dakota State University and University of Minnesota) François Tardif, PhD (University of Guelph) The module was adapted for noncropland applicators by John D. Byrd, Jr., Ph. D. (Mississippi State University) and William W. Witt, Ph. D. (University of Kentucky, retired). Financial support for this was provided by Global HRAC, North America HRAC, and WSSA. Our thanks are extended to the National Corn Growers Association for allowing us to use training materials posted on their website as the starting point for these training lessons. Credits: 14
WSSA Herbicide Resistance Management Lesson 3 © 2011 WSSA All Rights Reserved Herbicide Resistance WSSA Definitions 15 "Herbicide resistance is the inherited ability of a plant to survive and reproduce following exposure to a dose of herbicide normally lethal to the wild type. In a plant, resistance may be naturally occurring or induced by such techniques as genetic engineering or selection of variants produced by tissue culture or mutagenesis." "Herbicide tolerance is the inherent ability of a species to survive and reproduce after herbicide treatment. This implies that there was no selection or genetic manipulation to make the plant tolerant; it is naturally tolerant." Year 1Year 2Later years Resistant biotype Year 1Year 2Later years Tolerant species
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