Presentation on theme: "Topic 1: Causes, practices, and effects of wars Major Themes"— Presentation transcript:
14/21 & 4/22 ~ 20th Century Review ~ Paper II~ 2 Essay Questions ~ Topic 1, 3, 5!!!! Topic 1: Causes, practices, and effects of warsMajor ThemesDifferent Types & nature of 20th Century WarfareCivil, Guerrilla, Limited War, Total WarOrigins and Causes of WarsLong term, short term and immediate causesNature of 20th Century WarsTechnological Developments, tactics, and strategies, air land and seaEffects and Results of WarsPeace Settlements and wars ending without treatiesQUESTIONS THAT WE SHOULD ANSWER ~ First World War, Second World War, Vietnam War, Korean War, Chinese Civil War, Peace SettlementsQuestions that we should not answer ~ Africa Algerian War, Nigerian Civil War, American (Latin American Revolutions), Spanish Civil War, Iran Iraq War, Gulf War
2Topic #3 ~ Origins and development of authoritarian and single party states Major ThemesOrigins and nature of authoritarian and single party statesConditions that produced authoritarian and single party states, emergence of leaders: aims, ideology, support; totalitarianismEstablishment of authoritarian and single party statesMethods: force, legal; left and right wing ideologyDomestic Policies and impactStructure and organization of government and administrationPolitical, economic, social, religious policiesRole of education, women, arts, media
3Topic #5 ~ The Cold War Origins of the Cold War Nature of the Cold War ~ Ideological Differences, mutual suspicion and fear, wartime allies to enemiesNature of the Cold WarIdeological Opposition, Superpowers spheres of influence, alliances and diplomacy in the Cold WarDevelopment and impact of the Cold WarGlobal spread from its European origin, Cold War policies of containment, brinkmanship, peaceful coexistence, détente, role of significant leaders, arms race, proliferation, and limitation, social structure and economic impactEnd of the Cold WarBreak up of the Soviet Union, breakdown of Soviet control over Central and E. EuropeMaterial you SHOULD ANSWER: Wartime Conferences: Yalta and Potsdam; US policies and developments in Europe: Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, NATO, Soviet policies – Sovietization of E. Europe, and Central Europe, COMECON & Warsaw Pact; Germany ~ Berlin, Korea, Afghanistan, Cuba, Vietnam, Castro, Gorbachev, Kennedy, Mao, Reagan, Stalin, TrumanMaterial you SHOULD STAY away from: Sino Soviet Relations, US Chinese Relations, Congo
4REVIEW TOPIC 1 ~ Causes, Practices, and effects of war Icebreaker ~ What were the 5 causes to the start of WWI?If you do not know this….you should probably write the notes down today…
5Long Term Causes of WWI ~ M.A.N.I.A The causes of WWI can be explained through the acronym M.A.N.I.AMilitarism – countries expanded their armies, competing to build battleshipsAlliances – All the major powers, were linked, made it more likely that a war would start, made it more likely war would spreadNationalism – an age that all nations wanted to assert their power and independenceImperialism – All the great powers were competing for colonies and territoriesAssassination – Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria Hungary in Serbia
6MilitarismAll European states had concluded that large military forces were essential for their national existenceOne, two, or even three years of service became mandatoryEach of the Continental Great Powers had not only a huge army but a huge standing civilian armyNaval competition between Germany and Great Britain…needed to protect their colonies, secure foreign trade and for the general purpose of greatness
7Triple Alliance versus Triple Entente Starting in 1870 Germany embarked on an industrial revolution of their own..(A “place in the sun”)German merchants started to appear in foreign markets around the same time offering goods cheaper than those of the BritishGermany turned up as a colonial rival of Britain and France in Africa, Middle East, and Far EastOtto von Bismarck of Germany formed a military alliance in with Austria-Hungary to which Italy was added in forming the Triple AllianceThe French faced by the Triple Alliance soon signed the Franco-Russian Alliance in 1894Thus the continent was divided into two opposed camps
8Crisis in Morocco & the Balkans Germany was eager to test how far the British would go in support of FranceKaiswer William II was in favor of Moroccan independence (mainly to break up understanding between France & Britain)The Old Ottoman Empire was ethnically and religiously dividedFirst Balkan Crisis – Austria proclaimed annexation of Bosnia…this angered the Serbs who had marked Bosnia their own
9The Sarajevo CrisisOn June 28th, 1914 Gravrilo Princip of the Black Hand of Serbia assassinated Archduke Francis Ferdinand in the streets of Sarajevo, the Bosnian capital, in the Austrian EmpireThe Archduke would have soon become the emperor ofAustria gave Serbia an ultimatum demanding that Austrian officials be permitted to collaborate in investigating and punishing those responsible for the assassinationThe Serbs rejected and the system of alliances would come into effect…
10Sequence of events that led to the outbreak of European war in 1914 June 28, 1914: In Sarajevo a Serbian nationalist/terrorist assassinated Austrian Archduke Ferdinand (the heir to the throne of Austria) and his wife July 27, 1914: Austria invades Serbia causing Russia a secret ally of Serbia to mobilize for warAugust 1, 1914: Germany, an ally of Austria, declared war on RussiaAugust 3, 1914: Germany, declared war on France and invades Belgium (as the fastest way for the German Army to reach Paris)August 4, 1914: Great Britain, ally of France, declared war on Germany
11Causes for US Involvement in WWI U.S foreign policy - neutralImmigrants – many were sympathetic to their ethnic heritageProspect of business interestsMonroe DoctrineRepresentation of Peace
12How did economic ties to the Allied Powers make US neutrality difficult? The US was experiencing an economic boom due to the export of war supplies, mainly to Britain and FranceBetween 1914 and 1917 trade with the allies quadrupledBritain’s blockade of Germany was effective at keeping supplies out of Germany without sinking merchant shipsLoanso The Allies wanted to purchase more than they had money for at the timeo The US government allowed JP Morgan and other bankers to extend up to $3 billion in credit to Great Britain and France
13Allied Blockade Neutrality only works if all parties respect it International law prohibited blockading non-war materialLed to the sinking of the Lusitania (1915)Killed 1195 (123 Americans)German blockade threatened
14US InvolvementPresident Wilson issued a proclamation of neutrality… but found this would be difficult to enforce.1) Sinking of the Lusitania-On May 7, 1915 the British ship sank off the coast of of Scotland killing 128 Americans.2) Unrestricted Submarine Warfare- On January 31, Germany announced its decision…3) Zimmerman Telegram- On March 1, 1917 US newspapers reported that Germany was trying to get Mexico to invade the US… (to keep us occupied)4) Russian Revolution- On March 15, the Bolsheviks overthrew the government of Tzar Nicholas II
15When did the US declare war on Germany? April 2, 1917 Wilson asked a special joint session of Congress to declare war on Germany Wilson’s speech:o Condemned Germany’s unrestricted submarine warfare as “warfare against mankind”o Declared “the world must be made safe for democracy”April 6, 1917 Congress voted for a declaration of war
17Treaty of VersaillesAfter Germany lost WWI, the winning nations drafted a treaty to address issues such as territorial adjustments, reparations, armament restrictions, war guilt and the League of Nations.The treaty punished Germany and left bitter feelings.Germany was forced to accept all the blame for the war and pay millions in reparations to Britain and France.Italy was disappointed that it was denied territory promised by Britain and France.British Prime Minister GeorgeItalian Prime Minister OrlandoFrench Prime Minister ClemenceauU.S. President Wilson“Big Four”
18The Rise of Fascism in Italy Fascism is a totalitarian form of government which:Glorifies the stateHas one leader and one partyAll aspects of society are controlled by the governmentNo opposition or protests are toleratedPropaganda and censorship are widely practicedBenito Mussolini came to power in 1922 and helped found the political ideology of fascism. He sided with the Axis powers in 1940.
19Voting for Hitler’s party increased as unemployment rates rose In Germany, depression, unemployment and hard times led to a dramatic increase in votes for Hitler and the Nazi Party.Election dateVotes in millionsShareMay 20, 19280.812.6%September 14, 19306.4118.3%July 31, 193213.7537.3%November 6, 193211.7433.1%March 5, 193317.2843.9%Voting for Hitler’s party increased as unemployment rates rose
20Worldwide Economic Depression After WWI many European economies were unstable.The boom in the U.S. throughout the 1920s helped sustain worldwide trade.The 1929 stock market crash in the U.S. and the resulting Great Depression spread throughout the world. U.S. restrictive tariff policies worsened the depression.As economies plummeted and unemployment rose, many people turned to powerful leaders and governments who promised success through military buildup and the conquest of territory.German breadlinesJapanese children eating radish roots during famine
21Japanese Expansionism In 1931 Japan invaded Manchuria for raw materials.The same year, Japan began to attack China, with full-scale war breaking out in 1937 in the Sino-Japanese War.In 1938, war broke out between Japan and the Soviet Union in what were known as the Soviet-Japanese Border Wars.
22A Battle for Germany: Nazi anti-communist book from 1933 Anti-CommunismUnder communism, all means of production are controlled by the government, as are property, the media, and all other aspects of society.The 1930s saw the rise of many totalitarian regimes; but most people chose fascism over communism.Hitler exploited people’s fear of a communist takeover in Germany to rise to power in 1933.A Battle for Germany: Nazi anti-communist book from 1933
23AppeasementAppeasement is the act of giving in to an enemy’s demands in hopes of avoiding further conflict.In 1938, Hitler demanded that Czechoslovakia cede the Sudetenland to Germany. He claimed that the German population living there was being mistreated.The British and French prime ministers agreed to Hitler’s demands without consulting Czechoslovakian leaders, in the hopes that this would avoid a war in Europe.
24Ancient Sparta is an example of a militaristic society MilitarismThe glorification of war, in which a nation strengthens its military and stockpiles weapons in preparation for war.An important aspect of militarism is that the glorification of war is incorporated into all levels of society, including education of the nation’s youth.Militaristic societies have existed throughout human history.Hitler Youth groupAncient Sparta is an example of a militaristic society
25Nazi flag, Italian fascist logo, Japanese flag NationalismNationalism is the belief in the superiority of one’s own nation over all others.In the extreme, it can lead to major conflicts between nations.Hitler, Mussolini, and Japan’s Tojo each touted their nation’s ability to dominate all others in the years leading up to WWII.Nazi flag, Italian fascist logo, Japanese flag
26American Isolationism The failure of peace efforts such as the Kellogg Briand Treaty during the 1920s disillusioned many Americans about international involvement.The U.S. was in a major depression throughout the 1930s and was mostly concerned with its own problems.Conflict in Europe seemed distant, and the U.S. tried to remain neutral. This policy weakened the European democracies.The Nye Committee held congressional hearings in the mid-1930s, concluding that the U.S. was tricked into entering WWI by arms manufacturers and Allied propaganda.
27Theaters of War: Where WWII Was Fought EuropeAtlantic OceanAsiaNorth AfricaPacific