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 Topic 1: Causes, practices, and effects of wars ◦ Major Themes  Different Types & nature of 20 th Century Warfare  Civil, Guerrilla, Limited War, Total.

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Presentation on theme: " Topic 1: Causes, practices, and effects of wars ◦ Major Themes  Different Types & nature of 20 th Century Warfare  Civil, Guerrilla, Limited War, Total."— Presentation transcript:

1  Topic 1: Causes, practices, and effects of wars ◦ Major Themes  Different Types & nature of 20 th Century Warfare  Civil, Guerrilla, Limited War, Total War  Origins and Causes of Wars  Long term, short term and immediate causes  Nature of 20 th Century Wars  Technological Developments, tactics, and strategies, air land and sea  Effects and Results of Wars  Peace Settlements and wars ending without treaties  QUESTIONS THAT WE SHOULD ANSWER ~ First World War, Second World War, Vietnam War, Korean War, Chinese Civil War, Peace Settlements  Questions that we should not answer ~ Africa Algerian War, Nigerian Civil War, American (Latin American Revolutions), Spanish Civil War, Iran Iraq War, Gulf War

2  Major Themes ◦ Origins and nature of authoritarian and single party states  Conditions that produced authoritarian and single party states, emergence of leaders: aims, ideology, support; totalitarianism ◦ Establishment of authoritarian and single party states  Methods: force, legal; left and right wing ideology ◦ Domestic Policies and impact  Structure and organization of government and administration  Political, economic, social, religious policies  Role of education, women, arts, media

3  Origins of the Cold War ~ Ideological Differences, mutual suspicion and fear, wartime allies to enemies  Nature of the Cold War ◦ Ideological Opposition, Superpowers spheres of influence, alliances and diplomacy in the Cold War  Development and impact of the Cold War ◦ Global spread from its European origin, Cold War policies of containment, brinkmanship, peaceful coexistence, détente, role of significant leaders, arms race, proliferation, and limitation, social structure and economic impact  End of the Cold War ◦ Break up of the Soviet Union, breakdown of Soviet control over Central and E. Europe ◦ Material you SHOULD ANSWER: Wartime Conferences: Yalta and Potsdam; US policies and developments in Europe: Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, NATO, Soviet policies – Sovietization of E. Europe, and Central Europe, COMECON & Warsaw Pact; Germany ~ Berlin, Korea, Afghanistan, Cuba, Vietnam, Castro, Gorbachev, Kennedy, Mao, Reagan, Stalin, Truman ◦ Material you SHOULD STAY away from: Sino Soviet Relations, US Chinese Relations, Congo

4  Icebreaker ~ What were the 5 causes to the start of WWI?  If you do not know this….you should probably write the notes down today…

5  The causes of WWI can be explained through the acronym M.A.N.I.A ◦ Militarism – countries expanded their armies, competing to build battleships ◦ Alliances – All the major powers, were linked, made it more likely that a war would start, made it more likely war would spread ◦ Nationalism – an age that all nations wanted to assert their power and independence ◦ Imperialism – All the great powers were competing for colonies and territories ◦ Assassination – Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria Hungary in Serbia

6  All European states had concluded that large military forces were essential for their national existence  One, two, or even three years of service became mandatory  Each of the Continental Great Powers had not only a huge army but a huge standing civilian army  Naval competition between Germany and Great Britain…needed to protect their colonies, secure foreign trade and for the general purpose of greatness

7  Starting in 1870 Germany embarked on an industrial revolution of their own..(A “place in the sun”)  German merchants started to appear in foreign markets around the same time offering goods cheaper than those of the British  Germany turned up as a colonial rival of Britain and France in Africa, Middle East, and Far East  Otto von Bismarck of Germany formed a military alliance in 1879 with Austria-Hungary to which Italy was added in 1882 forming the Triple Alliance  The French faced by the Triple Alliance soon signed the Franco-Russian Alliance in 1894  Thus the continent was divided into two opposed camps

8  Germany was eager to test how far the British would go in support of France  Kaiswer William II was in favor of Moroccan independence (mainly to break up understanding between France & Britain )  The Old Ottoman Empire was ethnically and religiously divided  First Balkan Crisis – Austria proclaimed annexation of Bosnia…this angered the Serbs who had marked Bosnia their own

9  On June 28 th, 1914 Gravrilo Princip of the Black Hand of Serbia assassinated Archduke Francis Ferdinand in the streets of Sarajevo, the Bosnian capital, in the Austrian Empire  The Archduke would have soon become the emperor of  Austria gave Serbia an ultimatum demanding that Austrian officials be permitted to collaborate in investigating and punishing those responsible for the assassination  The Serbs rejected and the system of alliances would come into effect…

10  June 28, 1914: In Sarajevo a Serbian nationalist/terrorist assassinated Austrian Archduke Ferdinand (the heir to the throne of Austria) and his wife   July 27, 1914: Austria invades Serbia causing Russia a secret ally of Serbia to mobilize for war   August 1, 1914: Germany, an ally of Austria, declared war on Russia   August 3, 1914: Germany, declared war on France and invades Belgium (as the fastest way for the German Army to reach Paris)   August 4, 1914: Great Britain, ally of France, declared war on Germany

11  U.S foreign policy - neutral  Immigrants – many were sympathetic to their ethnic heritage  Prospect of business interests  Monroe Doctrine  Representation of Peace

12 The US was experiencing an economic boom due to the export of war supplies, mainly to Britain and France Between 1914 and 1917 trade with the allies quadrupled Britain’s blockade of Germany was effective at keeping supplies out of Germany without sinking merchant ships Loans o The Allies wanted to purchase more than they had money for at the time o The US government allowed JP Morgan and other bankers to extend up to $3 billion in credit to Great Britain and France

13  Neutrality only works if all parties respect it  International law prohibited blockading non-war material  Led to the sinking of the Lusitania (1915) ◦ Killed 1195 (123 Americans)  German blockade threatened

14 President Wilson issued a proclamation of neutrality… but found this would be difficult to enforce. 1) Sinking of the Lusitania-On May 7, 1915 the British ship sank off the coast of of Scotland killing 128 Americans. 2) Unrestricted Submarine Warfare- On January 31, 1917 Germany announced its decision… 3) Zimmerman Telegram- On March 1, 1917 US newspapers reported that Germany was trying to get Mexico to invade the US… (to keep us occupied) 4) Russian Revolution- On March 15, the Bolsheviks overthrew the government of Tzar Nicholas II

15 April 2, 1917 Wilson asked a special joint session of Congress to declare war on Germany Wilson’s speech: o Condemned Germany’s unrestricted submarine warfare as “warfare against mankind” o Declared “the world must be made safe for democracy” April 6, 1917 Congress voted for a declaration of war

16 Major Causes of World War II Treaty of Versailles Rise of fascism in Italy Japanese expansionism Economic depression Anti- communism AppeasementMilitarismNationalism Rise of Hitler

17 Treaty of Versailles After Germany lost WWI, the winning nations drafted a treaty to address issues such as territorial adjustments, reparations, armament restrictions, war guilt and the League of Nations. The treaty punished Germany and left bitter feelings. Germany was forced to accept all the blame for the war and pay millions in reparations to Britain and France. Italy was disappointed that it was denied territory promised by Britain and France. U.S. President Wilson French Prime Minister Clemenceau Italian Prime Minister Orlando British Prime Minister George “Big Four”

18 The Rise of Fascism in Italy Fascism is a totalitarian form of government which: Glorifies the state Has one leader and one party All aspects of society are controlled by the government No opposition or protests are tolerated Propaganda and censorship are widely practiced Benito Mussolini came to power in 1922 and helped found the political ideology of fascism. He sided with the Axis powers in 1940.

19 In Germany, depression, unemployment and hard times led to a dramatic increase in votes for Hitler and the Nazi Party. Election dateVotes in millions Share May 20, % September 14, % July 31, % November 6, % March 5, % Voting for Hitler’s party increased as unemployment rates rose

20 Worldwide Economic Depression After WWI many European economies were unstable. The boom in the U.S. throughout the 1920s helped sustain worldwide trade. The 1929 stock market crash in the U.S. and the resulting Great Depression spread throughout the world. U.S. restrictive tariff policies worsened the depression. As economies plummeted and unemployment rose, many people turned to powerful leaders and governments who promised success through military buildup and the conquest of territory. German breadlines Japanese children eating radish roots during famine

21 Japanese Expansionism In 1931 Japan invaded Manchuria for raw materials. The same year, Japan began to attack China, with full-scale war breaking out in 1937 in the Sino- Japanese War. In 1938, war broke out between Japan and the Soviet Union in what were known as the Soviet-Japanese Border Wars.

22 Anti-Communism Under communism, all means of production are controlled by the government, as are property, the media, and all other aspects of society. The 1930s saw the rise of many totalitarian regimes; but most people chose fascism over communism. Hitler exploited people’s fear of a communist takeover in Germany to rise to power in A Battle for Germany: Nazi anti- communist book from 1933

23 Appeasement Appeasement is the act of giving in to an enemy’s demands in hopes of avoiding further conflict. In 1938, Hitler demanded that Czechoslovakia cede the Sudetenland to Germany. He claimed that the German population living there was being mistreated. The British and French prime ministers agreed to Hitler’s demands without consulting Czechoslovakian leaders, in the hopes that this would avoid a war in Europe.

24 Militarism The glorification of war, in which a nation strengthens its military and stockpiles weapons in preparation for war. An important aspect of militarism is that the glorification of war is incorporated into all levels of society, including education of the nation’s youth. Militaristic societies have existed throughout human history. Ancient Sparta is an example of a militaristic society Hitler Youth group

25 Nationalism  Nationalism is the belief in the superiority of one’s own nation over all others.  In the extreme, it can lead to major conflicts between nations.  Hitler, Mussolini, and Japan’s Tojo each touted their nation’s ability to dominate all others in the years leading up to WWII. Nazi flag, Italian fascist logo, Japanese flag

26 American Isolationism The failure of peace efforts such as the Kellogg Briand Treaty during the 1920s disillusioned many Americans about international involvement. The U.S. was in a major depression throughout the 1930s and was mostly concerned with its own problems. Conflict in Europe seemed distant, and the U.S. tried to remain neutral. This policy weakened the European democracies. The Nye Committee held congressional hearings in the mid-1930s, concluding that the U.S. was tricked into entering WWI by arms manufacturers and Allied propaganda.

27 Theaters of War: Where WWII Was Fought Pacific Asia North Africa Europe Atlantic Ocean

28 HITLER’S WWII PARTNERS

29 Brazil India THE ALLIED POWERS IN WWII

30  Describe why each of the following and their actions in detail contributed to WWII: ◦ Appeasement - ◦ Treaty of Versailles - ◦ Rise of Mussolini & Hitler -


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