2BACKGROUNDAfter WWI, Americans had returned to their traditional policy of isolationMore concerned with events at home than abroadRaised tariffs, restricted immigration, and insisted that allies pay back the war debts owed to AmericansSome exceptionsWashington Naval Conference – leading world posers agreed to limit the size of naviesKellog-Briand Peace Pact – signed by 62 nations, renouncing the use of war
3Continued…Hoover and Roosevelt tried to improve U.S. relations with Latin AmericaGood Neighbor Policy – the U.S. agreed not to interfere in the internal affairs of Latin American nationsRelations between U.S. and Latin America began to improve
4ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS What factors led to the outbreak of World War II? How were the United States and its Allies able to win victory in World War II?What were the major effects of World War II on America and world?
5RISE OF DICTATORSHIPSAfter the Russian Revolution on 1917, Russia became the world’s first Communist state (Soviet Union)Joseph Stalin seized power by eliminating his adversariesEstablished a totalitarian dictatorshipMany democracies in Europe stood on shaky groundViolence became commonplace following WWIIn Japan, military leaders assumed power with the support of the Japanese Emperor
6CONTINUED…Italy – Benito Mussolini developed a new type of political party, the Italian Fascists, and seized powerGermany – following the Great Depression, Adolf Hitler came to power in the Nazi party when the democratic Weimar Republic lost the confidence of the peopleEstablished a brutal dictatorshipDetermined to achieve German domination of Europe
7FAILURE OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS It was too weak to resist the dictatorsThe idea of collective security (peaceful nations banning together to stop aggression) failed when key countries failed to become membersGermany and Japan left the League in the 1930sIt did nothing to prevent Hitler, Mussolini, or Japan from rebuilding armies and attacking other countries
8POLICY OF APPEASEMENT FAILS Hitler wanted to expand GermanyAnnexed Austria in 1938 and wanted Sudetenland (part of Czechoslovakia)France and Britain initially promised to protect Czechoslovakia, but at the Munich Conference (1938) they agreed to give Hitler part of Czechoslovakia to try to avoid warAppeasement is the policy of giving in to satisfy the demand of a potential enemyThis only convinced Hitler that France and Britain were weak, so he continued to make demands
9GERMAN INVASION OF POLAND In 1939, Hitler made new demands for territory in PolandBritain and France refused to give inHitler signed a non-aggression pact with StalinBoth secretly agreed to invade and divide PolandHitler later refused to give half to the SovietsHitler invaded Poland in September, 1939Britain and France declared war
10A NEW TYPE OF WARFAREBlitzkreig – rapid, coordinated movements by airplanes, tanks, troop carriers, and infantryQuickly defeated the Poles, and before long had defeated the French and taken over much of EuropeIt became an offensive war, aided by airplanes, tanks, and mechanized transportThe Germans and allies both bombed civilians in cities to increase the terrors of war
11ASSIGNMENT:Using “Simplemind”, create a mind map of “Causes of WWII in Europe”. Include as subtopics: 1)The Rise of Dictatorships, 2)The Failure of the League of Nations, 3)Appeasement Fails, and 4)German Invasion of PolandIf you do not have an iPad, draw it on paper.You will submit your mind maps on homeroom or turn them in to me by Thursday.
13AMERICA’S CAUTIOUS NEUTRALITY Too absorbed with recovering from Depression to get involvedTo avoid being drawn into war, the Neutrality Acts ( ) were passed, prohibiting Americans from traveling on the ships of nations at war, selling arms to countries at war, and could only sell non-military goods on a “cash-and-carry” basisRoosevelt’s “Quarantine” Speech was given following Japan’s invasion of China in 1937, urging peaceful nations to act together to isolate aggressive nations.
14CONTINUED…Most Americans opposed U.S. military action in either Europe or Asia (Roosevelt encouraged democratic nations to boycott aggressors)America began making preparations in case it was dragged into the conflictCongress increased spending on army and navyEnacted the first peacetime draftRoosevelt ran for a third term
15CONTINUED…Lend-Lease Act – in 1941, Roosevelt proposed to sell, lease, or lend war materials to any country deemed vital to the defense of the U.S.Four Freedoms – freedom of speech & expression, freedom of religion, freedom from want and from fear. Proposed by Roosevelt as a basis for world peaceAtlantic Charter – agreement between U.S. & Britain to seek no territorial gains, freedom of the seas, and an end to war. It became the foundation for the United Nations
16THE FLYING TIGERSWhen the Burma Road, a supply route for Britain to send supplies to China, was cut off, a group of American volunteer fighter pilots were recruited to send supplies and engage in combat with Japanese pilotsKnown as the Flying Tigers, they destroyed almost 300 Japanese aircraftTheir abilities as pilots and air victories were positive new stories when most were filled with reports of Japanese forces advancing in the Pacific
17AMERICA ENTERS THE WARFearing that if Hitler defeated Britain, it would only be a matter of time before he would attack the U.S., armed American merchant ships were authorized to carry supplies to BritainJapanese aggression in Asia, led Roosevelt to freeze Japanese assets in the U.S. and cut off all trade with Japan. Trade would only resume if Japan withdrew from China and Indochina. Japanese leaders refused.
18JAPAN’S SURPRISE ATTACK Japan attacked Indonesia to get oil for their war effortTo avoid U.S. retaliation, they decided to attack first in order to catch the Americans unprepared and temporarily eliminate U.S. naval power from the PacificThey also believed the U.S. would soon tire of war and negotiate a compromise treaty, allowing Japan to control East AsiaOn the morning of Dec. 7, 1941, two waves of Japanese airplanes attacked the U.S. Pacific fleet stationed in Pearl Harbor, HawaiiThey sank or severely damaged 18 U.S. ships and damaged or destroyed 260 airplanes. Almost 6,000 Americans were killed or injured.
19ASSIGNMENTDocument analysis of the “Day That Will Live in Infamy” speech.On the back of your analysis worksheet, write a 3 sentence summary of why the U.S. felt the need to join WWII.
20AMERICANS AT WAR: THE HOMEFRONT The U.S. government faces the giant task of mobilizing American manpower and production to meet wartime needs. It brings an end to the lingering effects of the Great Depression.
21PAYING FOR THE WARWar Bonds – issued by the government and encouraged citizens to buy.Reduced the amount of currency in the economy which helped keep inflation down85 million Americans bought bonds = $185 billion into the federal treasuryThe war ended up costing $350 billion (10 times that of WWI)The buying of bonds demonstrated the high level of volunteerism during the war
22INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION AND RATIONING Switched quickly from peacetime to wartime productionAutomobile factories switched to tanksSpecial advisory boards instituted rationing to control the use of raw materialsIt regulated the amount of goods consumers could buyLimited public anger over shortages and helped share sacrifices of war
23CONTINUED… Ration coupons were issued to each family based on its size Food, coffee, tires, gasoline, clothingThe draft and expansion of industrial production brought an end to high unemployment of the Great DepressionWomen, African Americans and other minorities filled the gap as workers went to fight in the war
24VICTORY GARDENSPlanted by Americans to help make sure that an adequate food supply was available for both troops and civiliansHelped people in rural and urban neighborhoods grow their own foodMore food from farmers was available to the government to ship to soldiers overseas
25THE OFFICE OF WAR INFORMATION Controlled the content and imagery of war messagesProduced pro-Allied and anti-Axis propaganda (movies, radio programs, posters, etc.)Asked citizens to contribute time and money, create products, conserve resources, and donate personally to the war effortStarted the “Voice of America” to send messages overseasTried to stir up distrust of German, Italian, and Japanese, leaders to lower morale of enemy troops and populations and encourage surrender
26WOMEN IN THE WORK FORCE WWII brought both sacrifices and jobs Prevented from enlisting in the regular armed forces but could join the Women’s Army Corps (WACS). Most held clerical jobs in the military after completing training.Many worked in shipbuilding and aircraft productionBetween 1941 & 1945, more than 6.5 million women entered the work force
27OPPORTUNITIES AND OBSTACLES FOR ETHNIC MINORITIES African-Americans – worked in war industries and government agenciesAfrican-American soldiers played a significant role in the warMore than 2 ½ million registered for the draft – about 1 million eventually served, though they were in segregated unitsThe Tuskegee Airmen – a group of African-American pilots that provided escorts for bombing missions
28CONTINUED…Native American – enlisted for military service in higher proportions than any other minority groupNearly 40,000 left reservations for the first time to work in defense industriesMore than 25,000 served in combatSome of the most noted were the Navajo Code Talkers, who used their language as code that could not be broken by the Japanese in the Pacific
29CONTINUED… Mexican Americans – served in both the army and navy Fought in all of the major campaignsDespite this, Mexican Americans continued to face segregated housing, high unemployment, and low wages (especially in California)
30ASSIGNMENTFinish your vocabulary for our quiz on Monday!
32Background of the War in Europe Although the Japanese had attacked Pearl Harbor, President Roosevelt decided to focus American energies on defeating Germany first.By the time the U.S. entered the war, Hitler was in control of most of Europe and North AfricaHe made his greatest mistake when he invaded the Soviet Union in June of 1941 and declared war on the U.S. before defeating BritainRoosevelt and Churchill (Great Britain) promised Stalin (Soviet Union) they would open a second front against Germany in the West, to relieve pressure on the Soviet army.
33THE CAMPAIGN IN AFRICAAmericans and British began one of the greatest collaborations in military historyAllied troops landed in N. Africa in November 1942 and quickly spread eastward, chasing the Afrika Korps (German troops)The German commander in Africa was General Erwin Rommel (The Desert Fox)The Germans surrendered Africa in May 1943
34THE ITALIAN CAMPAIGNGeorge Patton was a commander of U.S. forces that invaded Africa and SicilyTanks were important in the taking of ItalyThe Third Army moved quickly through Italy and later the rest of EuropeCaptured large numbers of enemy soldiers and freed a vast territory
35INVASION OF FRANCEOn June 6, 1944 (D-Day), 156,000 Allied troops commanded by General Dwight Eisenhower began the invasion of Normandy by landing at 5 beaches on the northwest coast of FranceGeneral Omar Bradley led the first American army to land in FrancePrior to the landings, Allied planes attacked Nazi forcesThen amphibious landing craft carried thousands of troops to the beaches (it was the largest amphibious operation up to that time)
36CONTINUED…The Allies began moving eastward, liberating Paris in August of 1944They had moved so quickly, they were surprised by a German counter-attack in the Battle of the Bulge in December, 1944After the German attack collapsed, Allied troops crossed the Rhine River and Gen. Bradley pushed his troops for the final offensive into Germany
37INVASION OF GERMANYAmerican, British and Free French forces led the invasion of Germany from the west, while the Soviets entered from the eastIn May 1945, the Soviets captured BerlinRather than be taken prisoner, Hitler committed suicide and Germany surrenderedThe Soviets had sustained the greatest losses (more than 20 million soldiers and citizens were killed in the war)
39HOLOCAUSTDuring the last months of the war, Allies advanced into Germany where they discovered the true horror of Nazi brutalityAmerican army units were the first to liberate concentration campsThey were shocked to see the half-starved, dehydrated, disease-ridden prisonersHitler’s attempts at genocide were revealed
40MEDAL OF HONOROne of the most prestigious military honors is the Congressional Medal of HonorIt is the highest praise for battlefield courageAmong noted Medal of Honor winners is Texan, Audie Murphy and African-American, Vernon BakerIt took fifty-two years before Baker was finally awarded the Medal of Honor, since racism kept him from being recognized earlier22 Asian-Americans weren’t honored until 2000 for the same reason
41ASSIGNMENT: Graphic Organizer – The War in Europe Complete the graphic organizer below by describing some of the significant events of WWII in North Africa and EuropeCampaign in North Africa & Italy:D-Day / Normandy Landings:THE WAR IN EUROPECampaign in France & Germany:The Holocaust:
43FORCED RELOCATION OF JAPANESE AMERICANS Pearl Harbor created fear among many Americans that Japanese Americans (Nisei) might commit acts of sabotageExecutive Order 9066 was issued by FDR that permitted military commanders to require Japanese Americans to relocate to internment camps away from Western coastal regionsConditions in these camps were primitive and crowded
44CHALLENGES TO INTERNMENT Roosevelt justified internment as a military necessityThe Supreme Court upheld it in Korematsu v. U.S.Korematsu believed his constitutional rights had been violated and was convicted of continuing to live in a restricted areaThe court held that constitutional liberties may be limited in wartime50 years later, Congress apologized to those interned and voted to pay compensationSmall numbers of German and Italian resident aliens were also interned, and about 2,000 Germans were forcibly sent back to Germany
45THE PACIFIC FRONTAt the same time the war in Europe was going on, America remained at war with JapanGeography played a big part in the Pacific campaign, since the U.S. and Japan were separated by the vast oceanAfter Pearl Harbor, the Japanese achieved quick victories in Asia and nearby islandsThey soon threatened Australia, India, Midway, and Hawaii
46THE BATAAN DEATH MARCH – 1942 The Japanese began an invasion of the Philippines on the day Pearl Harbor was attackedU.S. and Filipino forces surrendered to the Japanese a month laterPrisoners were forced to undertake a 60 mile march through the jungleThey faced starvation, disease, sun exposure, and no waterAlmost half (5000) died along the way (some were bayoneted, shot, beheaded or left to die)
47ISLAND HOPPINGIn 1943, the U.S. regained naval superiority in the PacificAmerican forces began “Island-hopping” – liberating Pacific islands from Japanese control one at a time
48THE BATTLE OF MIDWAY The turning point in the war in the Pacific The Japanese Pacific fleet commander planned to lure the U.S. Pacific fleet into a battle near Midway, where he believed he could destroy them.The U.S. Navy could decipher Japanese secret codes and knew what was in storeU.S. forces, commanded by Admiral Chester Nimitz, destroyed four of Japan’s aircraft carriersThis ended Japan’s strength in the Pacific and halted their advance
49THE ARMY IN THE PACIFIC Was commanded by General Douglas MacArthur With American reinforcements arriving, MacArthur and Nimitz began a campaign in the Solomon Islands centered at GuadalcanalThis drained Japanese resourcesMacArthur retook the Philippines and GuamBy June 1945, American forces had captured Iwo Jima and Okinawa allowing access to bases that could attack Japan’s home islands
50CONTINUED…Throughout the war, General George C. Marshall acted as Chief of Staff and the “organizer of victory.”He worked closely with President Roosevelt to urge military preparedness before Pearl HarborBuilt up and supplied an army of 8 million men and helped to oversee the creation of the first atomic bomb
51ASSIGNMENT:Finish the Key people chart and start quizzing each other in your group as reviewWarm-up and Video tomorrow!
52DECISION TO USE THE BOMB In 1939, Albert Einstein sent a letter to President Roosevelt telling him it was possible the Germans might be developing an atomic bombIn 1942, Roosevelt sent a team of American scientists to New Mexico, where they developed and exploded the world’s first atomic bomb in July of 1945By then, Germany had been defeated and America was preparing to invade Japan
53CONTINUED…President Roosevelt died suddenly of a heart attack in April, 1945 (just before Germany surrendered)President Harry Truman feared that an invasion of Japan would lead to a million American casualtiesHe preferred to use the atomic bomb against Japan rather that sustain such high lossesHe selected centers of high Japanese military production as targets
54CONTINUED…On August 6, 1945, an atomic bomb was exploded over the city of HiroshimaWhen the Japanese failed to surrender, a second bomb was exploded over Nagasaki three days later230,000 people were killed in the combined explosionsCritics of Truman argued that he could have exploded bombs on unoccupied islands in the Pacific as a demonstration of power instead of on heavily populated cities
55THE WAR ENDS Japan surrendered shortly after the second explosion U.S. leaders had agreed to allow the Japanese Emperor to remain on his throneWWII was a global disaster of unprecedented dimensionsMore than 70 million people lost their livesIt was the largest and deadliest war in historyThe majority of people killed were civilians
58The Nuremberg Trials (1945-1946) Seeing the full extent of Nazi brutality, the Allies put surviving Nazi leaders on trial for “crimes against humanity”Those on trial defended themselves by claiming they were following ordersMany were found guilty and were hanged or imprisonedThe trials demonstrated that individuals are responsible for their actions, even in times of war
59“DENAZIFICATION” AND DIVISION OF GERMANY Germany was divided into 4 zones by the U.S., Britain, France, and the Soviet UnionEach occupied one zoneThe occupying powers introduced programs explaining the evils of the Nazi beliefs (racism, Semitism, Social Darwinism, and Eugenics)This contributed to the civil rights movement in the U.S.
60THE OCCUPATION OF JAPAN MacArthur was assigned the task of rebuilding and reforming post-war JapanJapan’s overseas empire was taken awayMilitary leaders were put on trial and punishedJapan renounced the use of nuclear weapons and the waging of warJapan’s navy and army were limited in sizeAdopted a new constitution creating a democracy
61ASSIGNMENT:Complete the Guided Reading about the formation of the United NationsStudy for your Key People and events quiz