Presentation on theme: "AMERICA IN WORLD WAR II. BACKGROUND After WWI, Americans had returned to their traditional policy of isolation More concerned with events at home than."— Presentation transcript:
BACKGROUND After WWI, Americans had returned to their traditional policy of isolation More concerned with events at home than abroad Raised tariffs, restricted immigration, and insisted that allies pay back the war debts owed to Americans Some exceptions Washington Naval Conference – leading world posers agreed to limit the size of navies Kellog-Briand Peace Pact – signed by 62 nations, renouncing the use of war
Continued… Hoover and Roosevelt tried to improve U.S. relations with Latin America Good Neighbor Policy – the U.S. agreed not to interfere in the internal affairs of Latin American nations Relations between U.S. and Latin America began to improve
ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS What factors led to the outbreak of World War II? How were the United States and its Allies able to win victory in World War II? What were the major effects of World War II on America and world?
RISE OF DICTATORSHIPS After the Russian Revolution on 1917, Russia became the world’s first Communist state (Soviet Union) Joseph Stalin seized power by eliminating his adversaries Established a totalitarian dictatorship Many democracies in Europe stood on shaky ground Violence became commonplace following WWI In Japan, military leaders assumed power with the support of the Japanese Emperor
CONTINUED… Italy – Benito Mussolini developed a new type of political party, the Italian Fascists, and seized power Germany – following the Great Depression, Adolf Hitler came to power in the Nazi party when the democratic Weimar Republic lost the confidence of the people Established a brutal dictatorship Determined to achieve German domination of Europe
FAILURE OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS It was too weak to resist the dictators The idea of collective security (peaceful nations banning together to stop aggression) failed when key countries failed to become members Germany and Japan left the League in the 1930s It did nothing to prevent Hitler, Mussolini, or Japan from rebuilding armies and attacking other countries
POLICY OF APPEASEMENT FAILS Hitler wanted to expand Germany Annexed Austria in 1938 and wanted Sudetenland (part of Czechoslovakia) France and Britain initially promised to protect Czechoslovakia, but at the Munich Conference (1938) they agreed to give Hitler part of Czechoslovakia to try to avoid war Appeasement is the policy of giving in to satisfy the demand of a potential enemy This only convinced Hitler that France and Britain were weak, so he continued to make demands
GERMAN INVASION OF POLAND In 1939, Hitler made new demands for territory in Poland Britain and France refused to give in Hitler signed a non-aggression pact with Stalin Both secretly agreed to invade and divide Poland Hitler later refused to give half to the Soviets Hitler invaded Poland in September, 1939 Britain and France declared war
A NEW TYPE OF WARFARE Blitzkreig – rapid, coordinated movements by airplanes, tanks, troop carriers, and infantry Quickly defeated the Poles, and before long had defeated the French and taken over much of Europe It became an offensive war, aided by airplanes, tanks, and mechanized transport The Germans and allies both bombed civilians in cities to increase the terrors of war
ASSIGNMENT: Using “Simplemind”, create a mind map of “Causes of WWII in Europe”. Include as subtopics: 1)The Rise of Dictatorships, 2)The Failure of the League of Nations, 3)Appeasement Fails, and 4)German Invasion of Poland If you do not have an iPad, draw it on paper. You will submit your mind maps on homeroom or turn them in to me by Thursday.
AMERICA’S CAUTIOUS NEUTRALITY Too absorbed with recovering from Depression to get involved To avoid being drawn into war, the Neutrality Acts (1935-1937) were passed, prohibiting Americans from traveling on the ships of nations at war, selling arms to countries at war, and could only sell non-military goods on a “cash-and-carry” basis Roosevelt’s “Quarantine” Speech was given following Japan’s invasion of China in 1937, urging peaceful nations to act together to isolate aggressive nations.
CONTINUED… Most Americans opposed U.S. military action in either Europe or Asia (Roosevelt encouraged democratic nations to boycott aggressors) America began making preparations in case it was dragged into the conflict Congress increased spending on army and navy Enacted the first peacetime draft Roosevelt ran for a third term
CONTINUED… Lend-Lease Act – in 1941, Roosevelt proposed to sell, lease, or lend war materials to any country deemed vital to the defense of the U.S. Four Freedoms – freedom of speech & expression, freedom of religion, freedom from want and from fear. Proposed by Roosevelt as a basis for world peace Atlantic Charter – agreement between U.S. & Britain to seek no territorial gains, freedom of the seas, and an end to war. It became the foundation for the United Nations
THE FLYING TIGERS When the Burma Road, a supply route for Britain to send supplies to China, was cut off, a group of American volunteer fighter pilots were recruited to send supplies and engage in combat with Japanese pilots Known as the Flying Tigers, they destroyed almost 300 Japanese aircraft Their abilities as pilots and air victories were positive new stories when most were filled with reports of Japanese forces advancing in the Pacific
AMERICA ENTERS THE WAR Fearing that if Hitler defeated Britain, it would only be a matter of time before he would attack the U.S., armed American merchant ships were authorized to carry supplies to Britain Japanese aggression in Asia, led Roosevelt to freeze Japanese assets in the U.S. and cut off all trade with Japan. Trade would only resume if Japan withdrew from China and Indochina. Japanese leaders refused.
JAPAN’S SURPRISE ATTACK Japan attacked Indonesia to get oil for their war effort To avoid U.S. retaliation, they decided to attack first in order to catch the Americans unprepared and temporarily eliminate U.S. naval power from the Pacific They also believed the U.S. would soon tire of war and negotiate a compromise treaty, allowing Japan to control East Asia On the morning of Dec. 7, 1941, two waves of Japanese airplanes attacked the U.S. Pacific fleet stationed in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii They sank or severely damaged 18 U.S. ships and damaged or destroyed 260 airplanes. Almost 6,000 Americans were killed or injured.
ASSIGNMENT Document analysis of the “Day That Will Live in Infamy” speech. On the back of your analysis worksheet, write a 3 sentence summary of why the U.S. felt the need to join WWII.
AMERICANS AT WAR: THE HOMEFRONT The U.S. government faces the giant task of mobilizing American manpower and production to meet wartime needs. It brings an end to the lingering effects of the Great Depression.
PAYING FOR THE WAR War Bonds – issued by the government and encouraged citizens to buy. Reduced the amount of currency in the economy which helped keep inflation down 85 million Americans bought bonds = $185 billion into the federal treasury The war ended up costing $350 billion (10 times that of WWI) The buying of bonds demonstrated the high level of volunteerism during the war
INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION AND RATIONING Switched quickly from peacetime to wartime production Automobile factories switched to tanks Special advisory boards instituted rationing to control the use of raw materials It regulated the amount of goods consumers could buy Limited public anger over shortages and helped share sacrifices of war
CONTINUED… Ration coupons were issued to each family based on its size Food, coffee, tires, gasoline, clothing The draft and expansion of industrial production brought an end to high unemployment of the Great Depression Women, African Americans and other minorities filled the gap as workers went to fight in the war
VICTORY GARDENS Planted by Americans to help make sure that an adequate food supply was available for both troops and civilians Helped people in rural and urban neighborhoods grow their own food More food from farmers was available to the government to ship to soldiers overseas
THE OFFICE OF WAR INFORMATION Controlled the content and imagery of war messages Produced pro-Allied and anti-Axis propaganda (movies, radio programs, posters, etc.) Asked citizens to contribute time and money, create products, conserve resources, and donate personally to the war effort Started the “Voice of America” to send messages overseas Tried to stir up distrust of German, Italian, and Japanese, leaders to lower morale of enemy troops and populations and encourage surrender
WOMEN IN THE WORK FORCE WWII brought both sacrifices and jobs Prevented from enlisting in the regular armed forces but could join the Women’s Army Corps (WACS). Most held clerical jobs in the military after completing training. Many worked in shipbuilding and aircraft production Between 1941 & 1945, more than 6.5 million women entered the work force
OPPORTUNITIES AND OBSTACLES FOR ETHNIC MINORITIES African-Americans – worked in war industries and government agencies African-American soldiers played a significant role in the war More than 2 ½ million registered for the draft – about 1 million eventually served, though they were in segregated units The Tuskegee Airmen – a group of African- American pilots that provided escorts for bombing missions
CONTINUED… Native American – enlisted for military service in higher proportions than any other minority group Nearly 40,000 left reservations for the first time to work in defense industries More than 25,000 served in combat Some of the most noted were the Navajo Code Talkers, who used their language as code that could not be broken by the Japanese in the Pacific
CONTINUED… Mexican Americans – served in both the army and navy Fought in all of the major campaigns Despite this, Mexican Americans continued to face segregated housing, high unemployment, and low wages (especially in California)
ASSIGNMENT Finish your vocabulary for our quiz on Monday!
Background of the War in Europe Although the Japanese had attacked Pearl Harbor, President Roosevelt decided to focus American energies on defeating Germany first. By the time the U.S. entered the war, Hitler was in control of most of Europe and North Africa He made his greatest mistake when he invaded the Soviet Union in June of 1941 and declared war on the U.S. before defeating Britain Roosevelt and Churchill (Great Britain) promised Stalin (Soviet Union) they would open a second front against Germany in the West, to relieve pressure on the Soviet army.
THE CAMPAIGN IN AFRICA Americans and British began one of the greatest collaborations in military history Allied troops landed in N. Africa in November 1942 and quickly spread eastward, chasing the Afrika Korps (German troops) The German commander in Africa was General Erwin Rommel (The Desert Fox) The Germans surrendered Africa in May 1943
THE ITALIAN CAMPAIGN George Patton was a commander of U.S. forces that invaded Africa and Sicily Tanks were important in the taking of Italy The Third Army moved quickly through Italy and later the rest of Europe Captured large numbers of enemy soldiers and freed a vast territory
INVASION OF FRANCE On June 6, 1944 (D-Day), 156,000 Allied troops commanded by General Dwight Eisenhower began the invasion of Normandy by landing at 5 beaches on the northwest coast of France General Omar Bradley led the first American army to land in France Prior to the landings, Allied planes attacked Nazi forces Then amphibious landing craft carried thousands of troops to the beaches (it was the largest amphibious operation up to that time)
CONTINUED… The Allies began moving eastward, liberating Paris in August of 1944 They had moved so quickly, they were surprised by a German counter-attack in the Battle of the Bulge in December, 1944 After the German attack collapsed, Allied troops crossed the Rhine River and Gen. Bradley pushed his troops for the final offensive into Germany
INVASION OF GERMANY American, British and Free French forces led the invasion of Germany from the west, while the Soviets entered from the east In May 1945, the Soviets captured Berlin Rather than be taken prisoner, Hitler committed suicide and Germany surrendered The Soviets had sustained the greatest losses (more than 20 million soldiers and citizens were killed in the war)
HOLOCAUST During the last months of the war, Allies advanced into Germany where they discovered the true horror of Nazi brutality American army units were the first to liberate concentration camps They were shocked to see the half-starved, dehydrated, disease-ridden prisoners Hitler’s attempts at genocide were revealed
MEDAL OF HONOR One of the most prestigious military honors is the Congressional Medal of Honor It is the highest praise for battlefield courage Among noted Medal of Honor winners is Texan, Audie Murphy and African-American, Vernon Baker It took fifty-two years before Baker was finally awarded the Medal of Honor, since racism kept him from being recognized earlier 22 Asian-Americans weren’t honored until 2000 for the same reason
ASSIGNMENT: Graphic Organizer – The War in Europe Complete the graphic organizer below by describing some of the significant events of WWII in North Africa and Europe Campaign in North Africa & Italy:D-Day / Normandy Landings: Campaign in France & Germany:The Holocaust: THE WAR IN EUROPE
FORCED RELOCATION OF JAPANESE AMERICANS Pearl Harbor created fear among many Americans that Japanese Americans (Nisei) might commit acts of sabotage Executive Order 9066 was issued by FDR that permitted military commanders to require Japanese Americans to relocate to internment camps away from Western coastal regions Conditions in these camps were primitive and crowded
CHALLENGES TO INTERNMENT Roosevelt justified internment as a military necessity The Supreme Court upheld it in Korematsu v. U.S. Korematsu believed his constitutional rights had been violated and was convicted of continuing to live in a restricted area The court held that constitutional liberties may be limited in wartime 50 years later, Congress apologized to those interned and voted to pay compensation Small numbers of German and Italian resident aliens were also interned, and about 2,000 Germans were forcibly sent back to Germany
THE PACIFIC FRONT At the same time the war in Europe was going on, America remained at war with Japan Geography played a big part in the Pacific campaign, since the U.S. and Japan were separated by the vast ocean After Pearl Harbor, the Japanese achieved quick victories in Asia and nearby islands They soon threatened Australia, India, Midway, and Hawaii
THE BATAAN DEATH MARCH – 1942 The Japanese began an invasion of the Philippines on the day Pearl Harbor was attacked U.S. and Filipino forces surrendered to the Japanese a month later Prisoners were forced to undertake a 60 mile march through the jungle They faced starvation, disease, sun exposure, and no water Almost half (5000) died along the way (some were bayoneted, shot, beheaded or left to die)
ISLAND HOPPING In 1943, the U.S. regained naval superiority in the Pacific American forces began “Island- hopping” – liberating Pacific islands from Japanese control one at a time
THE BATTLE OF MIDWAY The turning point in the war in the Pacific The Japanese Pacific fleet commander planned to lure the U.S. Pacific fleet into a battle near Midway, where he believed he could destroy them. The U.S. Navy could decipher Japanese secret codes and knew what was in store U.S. forces, commanded by Admiral Chester Nimitz, destroyed four of Japan’s aircraft carriers This ended Japan’s strength in the Pacific and halted their advance
THE ARMY IN THE PACIFIC Was commanded by General Douglas MacArthur With American reinforcements arriving, MacArthur and Nimitz began a campaign in the Solomon Islands centered at Guadalcanal This drained Japanese resources MacArthur retook the Philippines and Guam By June 1945, American forces had captured Iwo Jima and Okinawa allowing access to bases that could attack Japan’s home islands
CONTINUED… Throughout the war, General George C. Marshall acted as Chief of Staff and the “organizer of victory.” He worked closely with President Roosevelt to urge military preparedness before Pearl Harbor Built up and supplied an army of 8 million men and helped to oversee the creation of the first atomic bomb
ASSIGNMENT: Finish the Key people chart and start quizzing each other in your group as review Warm-up and Video tomorrow!
DECISION TO USE THE BOMB In 1939, Albert Einstein sent a letter to President Roosevelt telling him it was possible the Germans might be developing an atomic bomb In 1942, Roosevelt sent a team of American scientists to New Mexico, where they developed and exploded the world’s first atomic bomb in July of 1945 By then, Germany had been defeated and America was preparing to invade Japan
CONTINUED… President Roosevelt died suddenly of a heart attack in April, 1945 (just before Germany surrendered) President Harry Truman feared that an invasion of Japan would lead to a million American casualties He preferred to use the atomic bomb against Japan rather that sustain such high losses He selected centers of high Japanese military production as targets
CONTINUED… On August 6, 1945, an atomic bomb was exploded over the city of Hiroshima When the Japanese failed to surrender, a second bomb was exploded over Nagasaki three days later 230,000 people were killed in the combined explosions Critics of Truman argued that he could have exploded bombs on unoccupied islands in the Pacific as a demonstration of power instead of on heavily populated cities
THE WAR ENDS Japan surrendered shortly after the second explosion U.S. leaders had agreed to allow the Japanese Emperor to remain on his throne WWII was a global disaster of unprecedented dimensions More than 70 million people lost their lives It was the largest and deadliest war in history The majority of people killed were civilians
The Nuremberg Trials (1945-1946) Seeing the full extent of Nazi brutality, the Allies put surviving Nazi leaders on trial for “crimes against humanity” Those on trial defended themselves by claiming they were following orders Many were found guilty and were hanged or imprisoned The trials demonstrated that individuals are responsible for their actions, even in times of war
“DENAZIFICATION” AND DIVISION OF GERMANY Germany was divided into 4 zones by the U.S., Britain, France, and the Soviet Union Each occupied one zone The occupying powers introduced programs explaining the evils of the Nazi beliefs (racism, Semitism, Social Darwinism, and Eugenics) This contributed to the civil rights movement in the U.S.
THE OCCUPATION OF JAPAN MacArthur was assigned the task of rebuilding and reforming post-war Japan Japan’s overseas empire was taken away Military leaders were put on trial and punished Japan renounced the use of nuclear weapons and the waging of war Japan’s navy and army were limited in size Adopted a new constitution creating a democracy
ASSIGNMENT: Complete the Guided Reading about the formation of the United Nations Study for your Key People and events quiz