2INTERESTING WWII TIDBITS: THE YALTA CONFERENCERoosevelt and Churchill got a promise from Stalin that free elections would be held in the countries in Eastern Europe that were occupied by the Soviet armyTHE NUREMBERG TRIALSImportant Nazi leaders were tried and convicted by an international tribunal for “crimes against humanity”Revealed German atrocities to the worldReaffirmed that not just a country, but individuals were accountable for violations of international law
3Continued… Hideki Tojo Albert Einstein was the prime minister of Japan who convinced Emperor Hirohito to attack the U.S. at Pearl HarborAfter being found guilty at his trial for war crimes, he was executed after the warAlbert EinsteinPlayed a key role in developing the atomic bombHe had fled Germany after Hitler came to power and came to the U.S.During the war, he feared Germany was developing atomic weapons
4Continued… The destruction of WWII was unparalleled As many as 70 million people diedMuch of Europe and Asia was in ruinsGermany, Italy, and Japan were occupied and turned into democratic nationsBrought about the end of imperialism in Africa and AsiaCost more than two trillion dollars
5UNITED NATIONS Replaced the League of Nations Guaranteed the security of member nationsFostered good will through equal rightsEncouraged economic, cultural, and humanitarian cooperation
6NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization was a military alliance Formed in April 1949Original members: Belgium, Luxembourg, France, the Netherlands, Great Britain, Italy, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Iceland, the United States, and CanadaSought security during the Cold War
7OTHER ALLIANCESThe Warsaw Pact: Soviet Union, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and RomaniaSEATO (Southeast Asia Treaty Organization): U.S., Great Britain, France, Pakistan, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia, and New ZealandCENTO (Central Treaty Organization): Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, Great Britain, and U.S.
8U.S. ACTIONSTHE MARSHALL PLANDesigned to rebuild the prosperity and stability of war-torn EuropeIncluded economic recoveryTHE TRUMAN DOCTRINEStated that the U.S. would provide money to countries threatened by Communist expansion
10NATIONAL POLICIESWestern allies wanted to achieve security by strengthening democracySoviets wanted to establish pro-soviet governments in Eastern EuropeThe “iron curtain”, a soviet-made barrier that split Europe into communist and non-communist countries, developedThe U.S. implemented a policy of “containment” or keeping communism within its existing boundaries and prevent further Soviet aggression.
13The Berlin Blockade The soviets blocked allied supplies from entering Berlin (West Germany)from June 1948-May 1949In 1949, the 3 westernzones merged into a newindependent state –Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany)Stalin turned the Soviet zone into the German Democratic Republic (East Germany)
15THE BERLIN WALLIn 1955, The Berlin Wall was built to prevent East Germans from escaping through West Berlin
16Communist Revolution in China Chinese leader, Chiang Kai-Shek, had united China in 1928After WWII, Mao Zedong led communist forces against the nationalist governmentHe was helped by the SovietsMao won the support of the peasants through land reform programs and finally drove out ChiangNationalists retreated to the island of Taiwan and vowed to return to mainland China
17CHINA UNDER MAOThe Great Leap Forward – 1956, he introduced a Five-Year Plan to turn China into an industrial power. Used large population to build dams, roads, and factories. Poor planning and high costs caused economic disaster (30-50 million died)Cultural Revolution – laid out his blueprint in his “Little Red Book” to create the ideal Communist society. Created Red Guards to revitalize society, but they created a lot of violence, instead (as many as 1 million died)
18Korean War A fight to halt the spread of communism in Korea A civil war attempting to reunite Korea, fought by opposing regimes (the North backed by Soviet forces and the South backed by U.S. forces)June 25, 1950 to July 27, 1953
21Bay of PigsUnsuccessful attempt by American-backed Cuban exiles to overthrow Fidel CastroApril 1961 (three months after John F. Kennedy took office as president)Further strained U.S. – Cuban relations
25Vietnam WarA fight to halt the spread of communism in Viet Nam by nationalist leader, Ho Chi MinhNorth Vietnam (Viet Cong) backed by communist allies were opposed by the South Vietnamese rebels backed by U.S. forcesU.S. military advisors first arrived in 1950U.S. involvement escalated in the early 1960s and combat units were deployed beginning in 1965The Tet Offensive in 1968 demonstrated the strength of the Viet CongA peace treaty was signed in 1973 by all parties and the U.S. withdrew its troops1975 Saigon fell to North Vietnam
27CambodiaAmerican withdrawal from Vietnam led to the collapse of the government in CambodiaKhmer Rouge (Cambodian Communists) seized controlPol Pot (leader of Khmer Rouge) carried out the genocide of city dwellers and other opponentsAs many as four million died between 1975 and 1978
28CHANGE IN THE SOVIET UNION Stalin died March 5, 1953 leaving power to a group of leadersNikita Krushchev emerged as the chief Soviet policy maker and began a process of de-Stalinization. He implemented economic reforms and loosened government controls on literary works.When Krushchev was removed from office in 1964, Leonid Brezhnev emerged as the dominant leader in the 1970s. He allowed soviets more access to Western culture.A long period of stagnation (failure to advance) began: there was little incentive to work, farms failed to produce enough food, poor quality goods, and low living standards – alcoholism, corruption
29Problems for the Soviets Natan SharanskyFounded the Refusenik MovementImprisoned for demanding human rights and permission to emigrateReleased in 1986 after 9 years in a concentration campAfghanistanLong, drawn-out war against local nationalsTied up large numbers of forces and soldier deathsUSSR’s “Vietnam”
30The Gorbachev Years (1985-1991) In March 1985, communist party leaders chose Mikhail Gorbachev to lead the Soviet Union.He implemented economical and political reforms known as perestroikaGlasnost: greater openness of Soviet society, released dissidents, eased restrictions on Jews and others, began electionsNew Directions in foreign policy: withdrew troops from Afghanistan, entered into talks with President Reagan, permitted democratic elections in Eastern Europe
31DetenteA relaxation of tensions between the U.S. and Soviets1972
33FALL OF THE IRON CURTAIN IN EASTERN EUROPE Poland led the way in the demand for changePope John Paul II (1st non-Italian Pope in 400 years) inspired other Poles to challenge the status quoLech Walesa organized an independent trade union named Solidarity and led a strike of workers which spread throughout PolandPoland became the first Eastern European nation to elect a non-Communist government
34Continued…This promoted a lifting of the “Iron Curtain” in other places (East Germany, Czechoslovakia, etc.)November 1989 – The Berlin Wall fellFree elections were held throughout Eastern Europe which brought non-Communist governments to power
35Changes, continuedGorbachev resigned on December 15, 1991, and turned over responsibility to Boris Yeltsin who became the new president of Russia (the Soviet Union had ceased to exist when a number of Soviet republics voted for independence).Yeltsin resigned at the end of 1999 and was replaced by Vladimir Putin who was elected president in The economy greatly improved due to his reforms.
36CHANGES TO GERMANY AND CHINA Germany was reunitedHelmut Kohl (West German leader) helped negotiate the reunificationChina introduced free enterprise gradually without abandoning their monopoly of political powerDeng Xiaoping took over after Mao’s deathHis goal was to modernize China