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Presentation on theme: "WORLD WAR II BATTLE OF BRITAIN INVASION OF RUSSIA PEARL HARBOR."— Presentation transcript:


2 Battle of Britain “Where Napoleon failed, I shall succeed. I shall land on the shores of Britain.” - Hitler Lasted from August 1940 – May 1941 – The British were now being led by Winston Churchill – Hitler’s plan was to destroy the British Royal Air Force (RAF) to make it possible to invade Britain – Needs to destroy the RAF before ships can safely land troops on British soil In WWII, planes sink ships – Would be mostly an air battle


4 Operation Sea Lion – Soften up Britain for invasion – The Luftwaffe attacks British ports and shipping 70% of RAF destroyed Operation Eagle – The Luftwaffe attacks RAF airfields and factories British inflict heavy losses on the Germans Have something the Germans don’t: radar – Bomb London in September British repay by bombing Berlin – Lend-Lease Act Britain can no longer pay for the military equipment it needs due to the war

5 The U.S. “leases” Britain the military aid it needs and under the program, the weapons would be returned at the end of the war London Blitz – More than 70 attacks against the city, ends in May 1941 – At one point London is bombed for 57 consecutive nights The goal is to terrorize the British people and cause them to lose their will to fight 1300 Londoners killed in one week – Thousands of civilians are killed and large parts of London and other cities are destroyed


7 Hitler calls off the operation, even though Britain was weakening – Too many losses: Luftwaffe lost 1400 planes to RAF’s 800 – The RAF shot down German planes faster than German factories could build them Britain survives: “Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few.” - Churchill

8 Invasion of the Soviet Union In preparing for his next attack, Hitler decided to gain new allies – He succeeded in getting Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria – When Yugoslavia resisted, Germany invaded and captured it eight days later Operation Barbarossa – German invasion of the Soviet Union – June 22 nd, 1941 – Hitler hates communism and views the Russian people as just a step above Jews Has no respect for the Russian army

9 Orders the execution of Russians wearing the Communist insignia – Attacks with 3 million soldiers and at first the German blitzkrieg is highly effective German troops and tanks race across the Soviet countryside The Soviet army has lots of soldiers, but they are poorly trained and equipped – Within six weeks one German army group is 220 miles from Moscow Expect to win before winter arrives By winter the Germans are deep into Soviet territory, but have not captured Moscow or Leningrad

10 – As winter sets in, German progress slows and then stops Were unprepared for the Russian winter The Soviets rebuild their armies and get ready to fight back The Germans commit horrible atrocities against the Russian people: murder, torture, cities starved or completely wiped out – The Russians knew this would be a fight to the death and they fought with a sense of desperation


12 Pearl Harbor – Dec. 7, 1941 Why the Japanese attack – Island nation – need resources and raw materials, so they have an expanding empire – Feel provoked by the U.S. The U.S. has placed embargoes on resources, such as oil, and has frozen Japanese bank accounts Other defensive measures due to the Japanese invasion of China Why Pearl Harbor – Need a quick win – Center for the U.S. Pacific Fleet – Destroy fleet, take colonies, and sue for peace

13 The attack – Was a two prong attack Planes bombed airfields and ships at Pearl Harbor in three different waves – Lasted just under two hours 200 aircraft destroyed all 8 battleships were either damaged or sunk in the harbor – Casualties 2,403 dead and 1,100 wounded 1,177 men die aboard the U.S.S. Arizona – At the same time the Japanese attack U.S. colonies of Wake Island and the Philippines

14 The Philippines fall and General Douglas MacArthur leaves with a promise to returne Bataan Death March – 70,000 prisoners march towards a distant prisoner camp – Thousands die due to lack of food, water, and violence from their Japanese captors – Many more will die at the prisoner camp – They also attack Hong Kong, Thailand, Burma, Malaya, Guam, and French Indochina Why fails – Didn’t eliminate the fuel tanks or other ships (didn’t launch the third wave)

15 – All aircraft carriers not in port – they were sent out to sea a week before Aircraft carriers are crucial to battles at sea since they are able to launch planes – U.S. reaction U.S. Congress declares war on Japan on Dec. 8 Three days later Germany and Italy declare war on the U.S. The U.S. and the Soviet Union are now part of the Allied Powers Revenge – Doolittle’s raiders bomb Japanese cities – Bring war home to the Japanese


17 War in the Pacific The Japanese start off with an advantage as the U.S. works to overcome the damage from Pearl Harbor Battle of Coral Sea – May 1942 – Japanese and Americans meet in battle off the coast of Australia as the Japanese were getting ready to invade British-controlled New Guinea – Both sides lose an aircraft carrier, which hurt the Americans more – Japan claims a victory, although it was the first time that the Japanese advance was stopped

18 Battle of Midway Island – Turning Point * – June 1942 – Japanese want to capture this American military base Japan wants to lure the Americans into battle and finish what they started at Pearl Harbor by destroying their fleet – The U.S. had broken the secret Japanese code and knew of the attack – U.S. ready and waiting They destroy four aircraft carriers in five minutes, only lose one of their own – The Americans now have the advantage

19 Island-hopping = take islands that are not as well defended and cut off supply lines to Japanese strongholds – Bypass strongholds and capture weaker targets, which are then used as bases for the next attack – Will “hop” from one island to another as they advance towards Japan Battle of Guadalcanal – summer 1942 – Japanese are building an airstrip there – Brutal series of battles that lasts for six months – Thousands of Japanese die or kill themselves to avoid capture women and children jump off cliffs, soldiers carry out old samurai traditions, suicide charges

20 Tarawa – It takes the Americans three days to capture the 8 square mile island – 17 out of 5,000 Japanese survive – 3,000 American casualties From 1942 to 1944 the Allies capture the Solomon, Gilbert, Marshall, Caroline, and Mariana islands MacArthur returns to the Philippines in fall of 1944 – Battle of Leyte – largest naval battle ever fought First major use of a new Japanese weapon, the kamikaze attack

21 Kamikazes = Japanese pilots who load their planes with explosives and deliberately crash into Allied ships, sacrificing their own lives Battle ends in victory for the U.S. – America recaptures the Philippines Iwo Jima – Feb. 1945 – Want to capture the island to make the regular bombing raids on Japan easier for U.S. pilots – The Japanese decide to make the Americans think twice about invading Japan Takes 25 days to capture the five mile island Approximately 7,000 Americans dead and 20,000 wounded

22 – Out of 21,000 Japanese, only 216 surrender Fought to the death – Raising the flag Okinawa – Many casualties, war of attrition 82 days of combat Kamikazes sank or damaged 245 ships U.S. casualties = 75,000, with 12,000 dead Approx. 120,000 Japanese killed, along with 150,000 Okinawan civilians Now at Japan’s doorstep




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