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Psychology This Week Monday ◦ Human intelligence  The basics  Memento Memory Quiz Tuesday ◦ IQ testing  Finish of semester materials Wednesday ◦ Review.

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Presentation on theme: "Psychology This Week Monday ◦ Human intelligence  The basics  Memento Memory Quiz Tuesday ◦ IQ testing  Finish of semester materials Wednesday ◦ Review."— Presentation transcript:

1 Psychology This Week Monday ◦ Human intelligence  The basics  Memento Memory Quiz Tuesday ◦ IQ testing  Finish of semester materials Wednesday ◦ Review guide Thursday ◦ Review

2 Psychology Today Intelligence ◦ What is it? ◦ What’s is the History of IQ testing ◦ Who’s who? Memento ◦ Memory/IQ challenge  (Memento Test)

3 Human Intelligence The IQ and You

4 A Challenge Find the answer that best matches the stem pair in the analogy. SEDATIVE :: DROWSINESS ◦ A. epidemic : contagiousness ◦ B. vaccine : virus ◦ C. laxative : drug ◦ D. anesthetic : numbness ◦ E. therapy : psychosis Answer: D

5 A Challenge Rearrange the following letters to make a word and choose the category in which it fits. "FADLOFDI" ◦ A. city ◦ B. fruit ◦ C. flower ◦ D. vegetable Answer: C “Daffodil” is a flower

6 A Challenge Which one of the sets of letters below can be arranged into a five letter English word. ◦ A. a t r u n ◦ B. p o d e b ◦ C. t e c a r ◦ D. m o h a t ◦ E. e t l r n Answer: C “cater”

7 What factors may determine how well you answered the previous questions?

8 Psychology What is Intelligence? What are some modern views on intelligence? What is the history of intelligence testing? What is an IQ? What are some modern day facts about intelligence?

9 Defining Intelligence Intelligence- ◦ Global capacity to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively with the environment Intelligence- at the Core General Mental Abilities (g-factor) -Reasoning -Problem solving -Knowledge -Memory -Successful adaptation to one’s surroundings

10 Howard Gardner American Psychologist and Educator Modern view on intelligence Gardner argues that there is both a biological and cultural basis for the multiple intelligences. 7 total intelligences Theory of Multiple Intelligences “Intelligent behavior does not arise from a single unitary quality of the mind, but rather that different kinds of intelligence are generated from separate metaphorical pools of mental energy.”

11 More recent view on intelligence

12 How is Intelligence Measured? IQ testing: The good, the bad, the…… outdated?

13 Alfred Binet 1899 Child Psychologist/Educator France 1900’s French law states mandatory for all students between 6 and 14 to attend school daily ◦ Even the mentally disabled "What should be the test given to children thought to possibly have learning disabilities, that might place them in a special classroom?"

14 Testing Intelligence Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, Fifth Edition (SB5): ◦ Widely used individual intelligence test, derived directly from Alfred Binet’s first intelligence test; for ages 2-90! SB5 Measure -Fluid Reasoning -Knowledge -Quantitative Reasoning -Visual-Spatial Processing -Working Memory

15 SB5- Fluid Reasoning What comes next in the series above?

16 SB5- Knowledge Why is yeast added to bread dough? What does cryptic mean? What is silly or impossible about this picture?

17 SB5- Quantitative Reasoning If a shirt is being sold for 30% of it’s original price and the price tag is $60, what is the cost of the shirt?

18 SB5- Visual-Spatial Processing StandardResponses Which two circles contains configuration of blocks identical to the one in the circle at left?

19 SB5- Working Memory Memorize the following list of numbers:

20 Write down the numbers in order.

21 Now, try again…

22 Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Intelligence Quotient (IQ): ◦ Intelligence index; mental age divided by chronological age, then multiplied by 100  Average IQ in the USA is 100  Chronological Age: Person’s age in years  Mental Age: Average intellectual performance MA/CA X 100 = IQ

23 More IQ Terms Deviation IQ: ◦ Scores based on a person’s relative standing in his or her age group; how far above or below average a person’s score is, relative to other scores  IQ scores are not very dependable until a child reaches age 6  Terminal Decline: Abrupt decline in measured IQ about 5 years before death

24 David Wechsler American Psychologist 1939 New York Wechsler Adult/Children Intelligence Scales (WAIS) (WICS)

25 Wechsler Scales Wechsler Scales Performance Intelligence: ◦ Nonverbal intelligence;  measured by solving puzzles, completing pictures, and assembling objects Verbal Intelligence: ◦ Language intelligence;  measured by answering questions involving vocabulary, information, arithmetic, and other language-oriented tasks “Intelligence is the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment (Wechsler, 1944, p. 3).”

26

27 Wechsler Tests Wechsler Adult Intelligence Test-Third Edition (WAIS-III): Adult intelligence test that rates verbal and performance intelligence and abilities ◦ Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III): Downscaled version of the WAIS-III; for children aged 6 years to 16 years 11 months, 30 days ◦ SB5 is better suited for children and adolescents ◦ WISC-IV to be published in 2003

28 Good Intelligence Tests Characteristics - ◦ Standardization ◦ Objectivity – no bias  Culture-Fair Test: Test designed to minimize importance of skills and knowledge that may be more common in some cultures than in others  Norms based on large sample of general population ◦ Reliability – same results time after time  Test-Retest: Give test to a large group, then give exactly the same test to same group later  Split-Half: Making sure scores on one-half of a test match the scores on the other half ◦ Validity – measures what it is supposed to measure  Predictive validity Cognition, Language, and Intelligence

29 Fig The following sample items are from a culture-fair test. 1. Which pattern is different from the remaining four? 2. Which of the five figures on the right would properly continue the three on the left_that is, fill in the blank? 3. Which of the figures on the right should go in the square on the left to make it look right? 4. At left, the dot is outside the square and inside the circle. In which of the figures on the right could you put a dot outside the square and inside the circle? ( (Courtesy of R.B. Cattell). Answers: 1-3, 2-5, 3-2, 4-3

30 Psychology Today Intelligence  Battle of the Sexes  From Test Taker to Test Maker

31 INTELLIGENCE FACTS & STATS

32 FIG.11.4 THE STABILITY OR RELIABILITY OF IQ SCORES INCREASES RAPIDLY IN EARLY CHILDHOOD. SCORES ARE VERY CONSISTENT FROM EARLY ADULTHOOD TO LATER MIDDLE AGE. (SOURCE: SCHUERGER & WITT, 1989.) Fig.11.4 The stability or reliability of IQ scores increases rapidly in early childhood. Scores are very consistent from early adulthood to later middle age. (Source: Schuerger & Witt, 1989.)

33 Normal Distribution - The distribution of scores (commonly called IQ scores) on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale follows an approximately normal curve, an average distribution of values. The test is regularly adjusted so that the median score is 100—that is, so that half of the scores fall above 100, and half fall below.

34 Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Relative mean intelligence scores Year data collected Intelligence scores of individuals born in different years but tested at the same age

35 Genetic Influences The most genetically similar people have the most similar scores Similarity of intelligence scores (correlation) Identical twins reared together Identical twins reared apart Fraternal twins reared together Siblings reared together Unrelated individuals reared together

36 Importance of IQ Scores Modern society ◦ Persons with higher IQ scores do better in educational achievement, and obtain higher paying employment  Average truck driver – IQ under 100  Average doctor or lawyer – IQ is 125 or more  High correlation between educational and occupational success Cognition, Language, and Intelligence

37 Race-Ethnic Differences Intelligence and achievement since 1930s ◦ African American scores average 15 points below whites ◦ Hispanic/Latino Americans average scores fall between those of whites and African Americans ◦ Asian Americans average 5 points higher than scores of whites Cognition, Language, and Intelligence

38 Race-Ethnic Differences Large increases in IQ since 1930s due to ◦ Lives of African Americans have improved (more opportunities in education and life) ◦ Less children born benefit from family size ◦ Changes in health and nutrition Bell curve – U.S. becoming meritocracy ◦ Society headed toward genetic decline Cognition, Language, and Intelligence

39 Extremes in Intelligence Mental retardation – IQ of 70 or below ◦ Wide range of conditions resulting from genetics, trauma, and maternal infections  Mildly retarded – IQ of 50 to 70  Moderately retarded – IQ of 35 to 49  Severely retarded – IQ of 20 to 34  Profoundly retarded – IQ under 20 Gifted – high IQ and high creativity ◦ High achievers and highly successful in life Cognition, Language, and Intelligence

40 Organic Causes of Mental Retardation Related to physical disorders Birth Injuries: Lack of oxygen during delivery Fetal Damage: Congenital problem; prenatal damage from disease, infection, or drug use by the mother Metabolic Disorders: Disorder in metabolism; affects energy use and production in the body Genetic Abnormalities: Abnormality in the genes, such as missing genes, extra genes, or defective genes

41 Types of Organic Causes Phenylketonuria (PKU): ◦ Genetic disease in which the child lacks an important enzyme. Allows phenylpyruvic acid to accumulate in the body  If untreated, severe retardation may occur by age 3  Routine medical tests at birth can detect PKU  Treat with phenylalanine-free diet (found, for example, in Aspartame, known as Nutrasweet)

42 More Organic Causes of Mental Retardation Microcephaly: ◦ Head and brain are abnormally small; brain is forced to develop in a limited space Hydrocephaly: ◦ Buildup of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricles (brain cavities); pressure can enlarge the head and damage the brain Cretinism: ◦ Stunted growth and retardation caused by insufficient supply of thyroid hormone  May also be caused by lack of iodine  Easily detected in infancy

43 Down Syndrome Down Syndrome: ◦ Genetic disorder caused by presence of extra chromosome (usually on the 21st pair; trisomy 21); results in mental retardation and shorter life span  Does not run in the family  Older a woman is, greater the risk to produce a Down’s child  Older fathers also contribute (about 25% of the time)  No cure, but is detectable before birth

44 Fragile X Syndrome Fragile X Syndrome: ◦ Genetic form of retardation caused by defect in X chromosome  Runs in families  Sex-linked; mainly affects boys  Most suffer from hyperactivity and attention disorders  Become more severely retarded as adults

45 Semester 1 Review Guides Those taking the Final– Mandatory Those not taking the Final– Optional Wednesday- Review Guides Thursday- Review Guides Friday- Final Review Festivus!!


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