4A ChallengeFind the answer that best matches the stem pair in the analogy. SEDATIVE :: DROWSINESSA. epidemic : contagiousnessB. vaccine : virusC. laxative : drugD. anesthetic : numbnessE. therapy : psychosisAnswer: D
5A ChallengeRearrange the following letters to make a word and choose the category in which it fits."FADLOFDI"A. cityB. fruitC. flowerD. vegetableAnswer: C “Daffodil” is a flower
6A ChallengeWhich one of the sets of letters below can be arranged into a five letter English word.A. a t r u nB. p o d e bC. t e c a rD. m o h a tE. e t l r nAnswer: C “cater”
7What factors may determine how well you answered the previous questions?
8Psychology What is Intelligence? What are some modern views on intelligence?What is the history of intelligence testing?What is an IQ?What are some modern day facts about intelligence?
9Defining Intelligence Global capacity to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively with the environmentIntelligence- at the CoreGeneral Mental Abilities (g-factor)-ReasoningProblem solvingKnowledgeMemorySuccessful adaptation to one’s surroundings
10Howard Gardner American Psychologist and Educator Modern view on intelligenceGardner argues that there is both a biological and cultural basis for the multiple intelligences.7 total intelligencesTheory of Multiple Intelligences“Intelligent behavior does not arise from a single unitary quality of the mind, but rather that different kinds of intelligence are generated from separate metaphorical pools of mental energy.”
12How is Intelligence Measured? IQ testing:The good, the bad, the…… outdated?
13Alfred Binet 1899 Child Psychologist/Educator France 1900’s French law states mandatory for all students between 6 and 14 to attend school dailyEven the mentally disabled"What should be the test given to children thought to possibly have learning disabilities, that might place them in a special classroom?"
14Testing IntelligenceStanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, Fifth Edition (SB5):Widely used individual intelligence test, derived directly from Alfred Binet’s first intelligence test; for ages 2-90!SB5 MeasureFluid ReasoningKnowledgeQuantitative ReasoningVisual-Spatial ProcessingWorking Memory
15SB5- Fluid ReasoningWhat comes next in the series above?
16SB5- KnowledgeWhy is yeast added to bread dough? What does cryptic mean? What is silly or impossible about this picture?
17SB5- Quantitative Reasoning If a shirt is being sold for 30% of it’s original price and the price tag is $60, what is the cost of the shirt?
18SB5- Visual-Spatial Processing StandardResponsesWhich two circles contains configuration of blocksidentical to the one in the circle at left?
19SB5- Working MemoryMemorize the following list of numbers:
22Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Intelligence index; mental age divided by chronological age, then multiplied by 100Average IQ in the USA is 100Chronological Age: Person’s age in yearsMental Age: Average intellectual performanceMA/CA X 100 = IQ
23More IQ Terms Deviation IQ: Scores based on a person’s relative standing in his or her age group; how far above or below average a person’s score is, relative to other scoresIQ scores are not very dependable until a child reaches age 6Terminal Decline: Abrupt decline in measured IQ about 5 years before death
24David Wechsler American Psychologist 1939 New York Wechsler Adult/Children Intelligence Scales (WAIS) (WICS)
25Wechsler Scales Performance Intelligence: Verbal Intelligence: Nonverbal intelligence;measured by solving puzzles, completing pictures, and assembling objectsVerbal Intelligence:Language intelligence;measured by answering questions involving vocabulary, information, arithmetic, and other language-oriented tasks“Intelligence is the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment (Wechsler, 1944, p. 3).”
27Wechsler TestsWechsler Adult Intelligence Test-Third Edition (WAIS-III): Adult intelligence test that rates verbal and performance intelligence and abilitiesWechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III): Downscaled version of the WAIS-III; for children aged 6 years to 16 years 11 months, 30 daysSB5 is better suited for children and adolescentsWISC-IV to be published in 2003
28Good Intelligence Tests Cognition, Language, and IntelligenceGood Intelligence TestsCharacteristics -StandardizationObjectivity – no biasCulture-Fair Test: Test designed to minimize importance of skills and knowledge that may be more common in some cultures than in othersNorms based on large sample of general populationReliability – same results time after timeTest-Retest: Give test to a large group, then give exactly the same test to same group laterSplit-Half: Making sure scores on one-half of a test match the scores on the other halfValidity – measures what it is supposed to measurePredictive validity
29Fig. 11. 10 The following sample items are from a culture-fair test. 1 Fig The following sample items are from a culture-fair test Which pattern is different from the remaining four? Which of the five figures on the right would properly continue the three on the left_that is, fill in the blank? Which of the figures on the right should go in the square on the left to make it look right? At left, the dot is outside the square and inside the circle. In which of the figures on the right could you put a dot outside the square and inside the circle? ( (Courtesy of R.B. Cattell).Answers: 1-3, 2-5, 3-2, 4-3
30Intelligence Battle of the Sexes Psychology Today From Test Taker to Test Maker
32Fig.11.4 The stability or reliability of IQ scores increases rapidly in early childhood. Scores are very consistent from early adulthood to later middle age. (Source: Schuerger & Witt, 1989.)Fig.11.4 The stability or reliability of IQ scores increases rapidly in early childhood. Scores are very consistent from early adulthood to later middle age. (Source: Schuerger & Witt, 1989.)
33Normal Distribution - The distribution of scores (commonly called IQ scores) on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale follows an approximately normal curve, an average distribution of values. The test is regularly adjusted so that the median score is 100—that is, so that half of the scores fall above 100, and half fall below.
34Relative mean intelligence scores Cognition, Language, and IntelligenceIntelligence scores of individuals born in different years but tested at the same age19401950Relative mean intelligence scores19701980199010519601930110115120100Year data collected
35Genetic InfluencesSimilarity ofintelligencescores(correlation)IdenticaltwinsrearedtogetherapartFraternalSiblingsUnrelatedindividualsThe most genetically similar people have the most similar scores
36Importance of IQ Scores Cognition, Language, and IntelligenceImportance of IQ ScoresModern societyPersons with higher IQ scores do better in educational achievement, and obtain higher paying employmentAverage truck driver – IQ under 100Average doctor or lawyer – IQ is 125 or moreHigh correlation between educational and occupational success
37Race-Ethnic Differences Cognition, Language, and IntelligenceRace-Ethnic DifferencesIntelligence and achievement since 1930sAfrican American scores average 15 points below whitesHispanic/Latino Americans average scores fall between those of whites and African AmericansAsian Americans average 5 points higher than scores of whites
38Race-Ethnic Differences Cognition, Language, and IntelligenceRace-Ethnic DifferencesLarge increases in IQ since 1930s due toLives of African Americans have improved (more opportunities in education and life)Less children born benefit from family sizeChanges in health and nutritionBell curve– U.S. becoming meritocracySociety headed toward genetic decline
39Extremes in Intelligence Cognition, Language, and IntelligenceExtremes in IntelligenceMental retardation – IQ of 70 or belowWide range of conditions resulting from genetics, trauma, and maternal infectionsMildly retarded – IQ of 50 to 70Moderately retarded – IQ of 35 to 49Severely retarded – IQ of 20 to 34Profoundly retarded – IQ under 20Gifted – high IQ and high creativityHigh achievers and highly successful in life
40Organic Causes of Mental Retardation Related to physical disordersBirth Injuries: Lack of oxygen during deliveryFetal Damage: Congenital problem; prenatal damage from disease, infection, or drug use by the motherMetabolic Disorders: Disorder in metabolism; affects energy use and production in the bodyGenetic Abnormalities: Abnormality in the genes, such as missing genes, extra genes, or defective genes
41Types of Organic Causes Phenylketonuria (PKU):Genetic disease in which the child lacks an important enzyme. Allows phenylpyruvic acid to accumulate in the bodyIf untreated, severe retardation may occur by age 3Routine medical tests at birth can detect PKUTreat with phenylalanine-free diet (found, for example, in Aspartame, known as Nutrasweet)
42More Organic Causes of Mental Retardation Microcephaly:Head and brain are abnormally small; brain is forced to develop in a limited spaceHydrocephaly:Buildup of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricles (brain cavities); pressure can enlarge the head and damage the brainCretinism:Stunted growth and retardation caused by insufficient supply of thyroid hormoneMay also be caused by lack of iodineEasily detected in infancy
43Down Syndrome Down Syndrome: Genetic disorder caused by presence of extra chromosome (usually on the 21st pair; trisomy 21); results in mental retardation and shorter life spanDoes not run in the familyOlder a woman is, greater the risk to produce a Down’s childOlder fathers also contribute (about 25% of the time)No cure, but is detectable before birth
44Fragile X Syndrome Fragile X Syndrome: Genetic form of retardation caused by defect in X chromosomeRuns in familiesSex-linked; mainly affects boysMost suffer from hyperactivity and attention disordersBecome more severely retarded as adults
45Semester 1 Review Guides Those taking the Final– MandatoryThose not taking the Final– OptionalWednesday- Review GuidesThursday- Review GuidesFriday- Final ReviewFestivus!!