3 HomeWelcome to UJ-Mechatronics, the website of the Mechatronics Engineering Department of the University of Jordan. Our mission is to equip our students with a solid understanding of the principles of mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, control systems and information technology to a level that allows them to employ the latest developments in those fields for the advancement of engineering systems in general, and mechatronic systems in particular. To that end, we have prepared a multidisciplinary program of study, established eight multidisciplinary engineering labs, and attracted an internationally-recognized academic staff to work with our students on designing and building engineering systems with improved efficiency, reliability, cost and environmental footprint.Whether you are a current student, an alumni, or a prospective student, I hope that you find the information in this site useful.Mohammad I. Kilani, Department Head
4 Elective Department Courses Automation (0908561) Study PlanGraduation Course Requirements (PDF-264KB)Tree-Structured Plan (PDF-81KB)Semester Plan (PDF-1MB)Course Description (PDF-660KB)Elective Department CoursesAutomation ( )Autotronics ( ) Drive Systems ( ) Hydraulic and Pneumatic Control ( ) Industrial Process Control ( ) Intelligent Control ( ) Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) ( ) Robotic Systems ( ) Selected Topics in Mechatronics ( ) Transducers ( ) System Integration ( )Department CoursesMandatory Department CoursesControl Systems ( )Engineering Measurements and Instrumentation ( )Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems for Mechatronics ( )Measurements and Control Lab ( )Mechatronics Systems Design ( )Modelling and Simulation ( )Modern Control Systems( ) Power Electronics for Mechatronics ( )
5 Course Posts and Announcements StaffAcademic StaffLutfi Al-Sharif, 06/ extMohammad Al-Janaideh, extMohammad Kilani, extOsamaRatib Issa, ext 22814,Za’er Abo-Hammour, extEngineering StaffHesham Mohammad, ext 23028,Nadeen Habash, ext 23028,Nazmi Abu-Ashour, ext 23029,Nisreen Al-Amayreh, ext 23028,Osama Abdel A’al, ext 23028,Rasha Noufal, extSafaa Al-Wreadat, ext ,Labs and FacilitiesAutomation LabHydraulics and Pneumatics LabMeasurements and Control LabMechatronics System Design LabTransducers LabForms and InstructionsAlternative Course FormClosed Section Registration FormCourse Drop FormCourse Grade Revision FormGraduation Project Forms and InstructionsStudent Release FormPosts and AnnouncementsDepartment Posts and AnnouncementsStaff Posts and AnnouncementsCourse Posts and Announcements
6 Introduction to Measurements Measurement techniques have been of immense importance ever since the start of human civilization, when measurements were first needed to regulate the transfer of goods in barter trade to ensure that exchanges were fair. The industrial revolution during the nineteenth century brought about a rapid development of new instruments and measurement techniques to satisfy the needs of industrialized production techniques.
7 Applications of Measurement Systems Regulating tradeMonitoring to allow human beings to take some action accordinglyUse as part of automatic feedback control systems
10 Sensing PrinciplesThe interaction of physical parameters with each other—most notably electricity with stress, temperature and thermal gradients, magnetic fields, and incident light—yields a multitude of sensing techniques which may be applied in measurementsTransductivePiezoelectricThermoelectricPhotoelectricetc.ConstitutiveResistiveCapacitiveInductiveEtc.PressureTemperatureLightCurrentVoltageOther.TransducerPressureTemperatureLightR, C. L, etcSensor
11 Standardization of Units Establishment of standards for the measurement of physical quantities proceeded in several countries at broadly parallel times, and in consequence, several sets of units emerged for measuring the same physical variable.An internationally agreed set of standard units (SI units or Syst`emes Internationales d’Unit´es) has been defined, and strong efforts are being made to encourage the adoption of this system throughout the world.
15 Elements of a Measurement Systems In simple cases, the system can consist of only a single unit that gives an output reading or signal according to the magnitude of the unknown.However, in more complex measurement situations, a measuring system consists of several separate elements. These components might be contained within one or more boxes, and the boxes holding individual measurement elements might be either close together or physically separate.
16 Elements of a Measurement Systems In simple cases, the system can consist of only a single unit that gives an output reading or signal according to the magnitude of the unknown.However, in more complex measurement situations, a measuring system consists of several separate elements. These components might be contained within one or more boxes, and the boxes holding individual measurement elements might be either close together or physically separate.
17 Variable Conversion Element Presentation / Recording Unit Elements of a Measurement Systems [Morris, Measurement & Instrumentation Principles]SensorVariable Conversion ElementSignal ProcessorMeasured VariableSignal TransmissionPresentation / Recording UnitOutputUse of Measurement at Remote Location
18 Elements of a Measurement Systems [Figliola, Theory and Design of Mechanical Measurements]
19 Elements of a Measurement Systems: Sensor A sensor gives an output that is a function of the measurand (the input applied to it).For most but not all sensors, this function is at least approximately linear.Some examples of primary sensors are a liquid mercury in the liquid-in-glass thermometer, a thermocouple and a strain gauge.
20 Are these linear sensors? Examples SensorsStrain gaugeInput: StrainOutput: Electric resistanceLiquid MercuryInput: TemperatureOutput: Mercury volumeThermocoupleInput: TemperatureOutput: VoltageAre these linear sensors?
22 Elements of a Measurement Systems: Variable Coversion Element Needed where the output variable of a primary sensor is in an inconvenient form and has to be converted to a more convenient form.The displacement-measuring strain gauge has an output in the form of a varying resistance. The resistance change cannot be easily measured and so it is converted to a change in voltage by a bridge circuit, which is a typical example of a variable conversion element.In some cases, the primary sensor and variable conversion element are combined, and the combination is known as a transducer.
23 Elements of a Measurement Systems: Signal Processing Element Improve the quality of the output of a measurement system.A very common type is the electronic amplifier, used when the primary transducer has a low output. For example, thermocouples have a typical output of only a few millivolts.Other signal processing element are those that filter out induced noise and remove mean levels etc. In some devices, signal processing is incorporated into a transducer, which is then known as a transmitter.
24 Elements of a Measurement Systems: Signal Transmission Needed when the observation or application point of the output of a measurement system is some distance away from the site of the primary transducer.It has traditionally consisted of single or multi-cored cable, which is often screened to minimize signal corruption by induced electrical noise.Fibre-optic cables are being used in ever increasing numbers in modern installations because of their low transmission loss and imperviousness to the effects of electrical and magnetic fields.
25 Elements of a Measurement Systems: Signal Presentation or Recording Unit The final optional element in a measurement system.It may be omitted altogether when the measurement is used as part of an automatic control system.It takes the form either of a signal presentation unit or of a signal-recording unit.
26 Elements of a Measurement Systems SensorVariable Conversion ElementSignal ProcessorPresentation / Recording UnitMeasured Variable
27 Elements of a Measurement Systems SensorVariable Conversion ElementSignal ProcessorPresentation / Recording UnitMeasured VariableSignal TransmissionTransducer
28 Elements of a Measurement Systems SensorVariable Conversion ElementSignal ProcessorPresentation / Recording UnitMeasured VariableSignal TransmissionTransducerTransmitter
29 Case Study 1 Resistive Temperature Detector (RTDs) Resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), are sensors used to measure temperature by correlating the resistance of the RTD element with temperature.Most RTD elements consist of a length of fine coiled wire wrapped around a ceramic or glass core. The RTD element is made from a pure material whose resistance at various temperatures has been documented; The change in resistance is used to determine temperature.
30 Case Study 1 Resistive Temperature Detector (RTDs) Although most metals can in theory be used in RTDs, only a few have been practically applied.RTD elements are normally constructed of platinum, copper, or nickel. These metals are suited for RTD applications because of their linear resistance-temperature characteristics, their high resistive temperature coefficient, and their ability to withstand repeated temperature cycles.
31 Case Study 1 Resistive Temperature Detector (RTDs) The coefficient of resistance is the change in resistance per degree change in temperature, usually expressed as a percentage per degree of temperature. The material used must be capable of being drawn into fine wire so that the element can be easily constructed.
32 Case Study 1 Resistive Temperature Detector (RTDs) With proper circuitry (e.g., Wheatstone bridge), the change in resistance can be converted into a change in voltage.The combination then becomes a temperature transducer
33 Case Study 1 Resistive Temperature Detector (RTDs) RuR3R2R1VoViThe simplest bridge configuration uses two wires. It is used when high accuracy is not required, as the resistance of the connecting wires is added to that of the sensor, leading to errors of measurement.This configuration allows use of 100 meters of cable.When the bridge is balanced, Vo = 0
34 When the bridge is balanced, Vo = 0 HomeworkRuR3R2R1VoViSuggest an alternative configuration to eliminate the effect of lead resistance. Be prepared to present your suggestion on class this Thursday.Make a team with four students per team.When the bridge is balanced, Vo = 0
35 Choosing appropriate measuring instruments Accuracy, resolution, sensitivity and dynamic performance.Environmental conditions that the instrument will be subjected to. Measurement systems and instruments should be chosen that are as insensitive as possible to the operating environment.The extent to which the measured system will be disturbed during the measuring process is another important factor in instrument choice. For example, significant pressure loss can be caused to the measured system in some techniques of flow measurement.