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Instrumentation and Measurements Dr. Mohammad Kilani Class 1 Introduction.

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Presentation on theme: "Instrumentation and Measurements Dr. Mohammad Kilani Class 1 Introduction."— Presentation transcript:

1 Instrumentation and Measurements Dr. Mohammad Kilani Class 1 Introduction

2 Department’s Website www.uj-mechatronics.net

3 Home Welcome to UJ-Mechatronics, the website of the Mechatronics Engineering Department of the University of Jordan. Our mission is to equip our students with a solid understanding of the principles of mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, control systems and information technology to a level that allows them to employ the latest developments in those fields for the advancement of engineering systems in general, and mechatronic systems in particular. To that end, we have prepared a multidisciplinary program of study, established eight multidisciplinary engineering labs, and attracted an internationally-recognized academic staff to work with our students on designing and building engineering systems with improved efficiency, reliability, cost and environmental footprint. Whether you are a current student, an alumni, or a prospective student, I hope that you find the information in this site useful. Mohammad I. Kilani, Department Head

4 Department Courses Mandatory Department Courses Control Systems (0908441) Engineering Measurements and Instrumentation (0908341) Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems for Mechatronics (0908537) Measurements and Control Lab (0908448) Mechatronics Systems Design (0908531) Modelling and Simulation (0908312) Modern Control Systems(0908442) Power Electronics for Mechatronics (0908461) Elective Department Courses Automation (0908561) Autotronics (0908481) Drive Systems (0908582) Hydraulic and Pneumatic Control (0908543) Industrial Process Control (0908545) Intelligent Control (0908541) Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) (0908575) Robotic Systems (0908563) Selected Topics in Mechatronics (0908589) Transducers (0908443) System Integration (0908571) Study Plan Graduation Course RequirementsGraduation Course Requirements (PDF-264KB) Tree-Structured Plan Tree-Structured Plan (PDF-81KB) Semester PlanSemester Plan (PDF-1MB) Course DescriptionCourse Description (PDF-660KB)

5 Staff Academic Staff Lutfi Al-Sharif, 06/5355000 ext 23027, l.sharif@ju.edu.jo, Mohammad Al-Janaideh, ext 23007, aljanaideh@gmail.com Mohammad Kilani, ext 23025, mkilani77@yahoo.com Osama Al-Habahbeh, ext, o.habahbeh@ju.edu.jo Ratib Issa, ext 22814, ratebissa@yahoo.com Za’er Abo-Hammour, ext 23026, zaer@ju.edu.jo Engineering Staff Hesham Mohammad, ext 23028, hishamhatem@hotmail.com Nadeen Habash, ext 23028, n.habash@ju.edu.jo Nazmi Abu-Ashour, ext 23029, n.abuashour@ju.edu.jo Nisreen Al-Amayreh, ext 23028, n.alamayreh@yahoo.com Osama Abdel A’al, ext 23028, osama.fuad.pce@gmail.com Rasha Noufal, ext 23028,r.noufal@ju.edu.jo Safaa Al-Wreadat, ext, s.alwreadat@ju.edu.jo Labs and Facilities Automation Lab Hydraulics and Pneumatics Lab Measurements and Control Lab Mechatronics System Design Lab Transducers Lab Forms and Instructions Alternative Course Form Closed Section Registration Form Course Drop Form Course Grade Revision Form Graduation Project Forms and Instructions Student Release Form Posts and Announcements Department Posts and Announcements Staff Posts and Announcements Course Posts and Announcements

6 Introduction to Measurements Measurement techniques have been of immense importance ever since the start of human civilization, when measurements were first needed to regulate the transfer of goods in barter trade to ensure that exchanges were fair. The industrial revolution during the nineteenth century brought about a rapid development of new instruments and measurement techniques to satisfy the needs of industrialized production techniques.

7 Applications of Measurement Systems 1.Regulating trade 2.Monitoring to allow human beings to take some action accordingly 3.Use as part of automatic feedback control systems

8 The Five Senses 1.See 2.Hear 3.Touch 4.Taste 5.Smell

9 Limitations of Unassisted Measurements

10 Sensing Principles The interaction of physical parameters with each other—most notably electricity with stress, temperature and thermal gradients, magnetic fields, and incident light—yields a multitude of sensing techniques which may be applied in measurements  Transductive  Piezoelectric  Thermoelectric  Photoelectric  etc.  Constitutive  Resistive  Capacitive  Inductive  Etc. Pressure Temperature Light Current Voltage Other. Transducer Pressure Temperature Light R, C. L, etc Sensor

11 Standardization of Units  Establishment of standards for the measurement of physical quantities proceeded in several countries at broadly parallel times, and in consequence, several sets of units emerged for measuring the same physical variable.  An internationally agreed set of standard units (SI units or Syst`emes Internationales d’Unit´es) has been defined, and strong efforts are being made to encourage the adoption of this system throughout the world.

12 Standard Units

13 Fundamental Units and Supplementary Fundamental Units

14 Derived Units

15 Elements of a Measurement Systems In simple cases, the system can consist of only a single unit that gives an output reading or signal according to the magnitude of the unknown. However, in more complex measurement situations, a measuring system consists of several separate elements. These components might be contained within one or more boxes, and the boxes holding individual measurement elements might be either close together or physically separate.

16 Elements of a Measurement Systems In simple cases, the system can consist of only a single unit that gives an output reading or signal according to the magnitude of the unknown. However, in more complex measurement situations, a measuring system consists of several separate elements. These components might be contained within one or more boxes, and the boxes holding individual measurement elements might be either close together or physically separate.

17 Elements of a Measurement Systems [Morris, Measurement & Instrumentation Principles] Measured Variable Sensor Variable Conversion Element Signal Processor Use of Measurement at Remote Location Signal Transmission Presentation / Recording Unit Output

18 Elements of a Measurement Systems [Figliola, Theory and Design of Mechanical Measurements]

19 Elements of a Measurement Systems: Sensor  A sensor gives an output that is a function of the measurand (the input applied to it).  For most but not all sensors, this function is at least approximately linear.  Some examples of primary sensors are a liquid mercury in the liquid-in-glass thermometer, a thermocouple and a strain gauge.

20 Examples Sensors Liquid Mercury Input: Temperature Output: Mercury volume Are these linear sensors? Thermocouple Input: Temperature Output: Voltage Strain gauge Input: Strain Output: Electric resistance

21 Examples Sensors Liquid Mercury Thermometer Measured Variable: Temperature Sensor: Liquid Mercury Variable Conversion Element: Stem Signal Presentation Element: Display Scale

22 Elements of a Measurement Systems: Variable Coversion Element  Needed where the output variable of a primary sensor is in an inconvenient form and has to be converted to a more convenient form.  The displacement-measuring strain gauge has an output in the form of a varying resistance. The resistance change cannot be easily measured and so it is converted to a change in voltage by a bridge circuit, which is a typical example of a variable conversion element.  In some cases, the primary sensor and variable conversion element are combined, and the combination is known as a transducer.

23 Elements of a Measurement Systems: Signal Processing Element Improve the quality of the output of a measurement system. A very common type is the electronic amplifier, used when the primary transducer has a low output. For example, thermocouples have a typical output of only a few millivolts. Other signal processing element are those that filter out induced noise and remove mean levels etc. In some devices, signal processing is incorporated into a transducer, which is then known as a transmitter.

24 Elements of a Measurement Systems: Signal Transmission Needed when the observation or application point of the output of a measurement system is some distance away from the site of the primary transducer. It has traditionally consisted of single or multi-cored cable, which is often screened to minimize signal corruption by induced electrical noise. Fibre-optic cables are being used in ever increasing numbers in modern installations because of their low transmission loss and imperviousness to the effects of electrical and magnetic fields.

25 Elements of a Measurement Systems: Signal Presentation or Recording Unit  The final optional element in a measurement system.  It may be omitted altogether when the measurement is used as part of an automatic control system.  It takes the form either of a signal presentation unit or of a signal-recording unit.

26 Elements of a Measurement Systems Measured Variable Sensor Variable Conversion Element Signal Processor Presentation / Recording Unit

27 Elements of a Measurement Systems Sensor Variable Conversion Element Signal Processor Signal Transmission Presentation / Recording Unit Transducer Measured Variable

28 Elements of a Measurement Systems Sensor Variable Conversion Element Signal Processor Signal Transmission Presentation / Recording Unit Transducer Measured Variable Transmitter

29 Case Study 1 Resistive Temperature Detector (RTDs)  Resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), are sensors used to measure temperature by correlating the resistance of the RTD element with temperature.  Most RTD elements consist of a length of fine coiled wire wrapped around a ceramic or glass core. The RTD element is made from a pure material whose resistance at various temperatures has been documented; The change in resistance is used to determine temperature.

30 Case Study 1 Resistive Temperature Detector (RTDs)  Although most metals can in theory be used in RTDs, only a few have been practically applied.  RTD elements are normally constructed of platinum, copper, or nickel. These metals are suited for RTD applications because of their linear resistance-temperature characteristics, their high resistive temperature coefficient, and their ability to withstand repeated temperature cycles.

31 Case Study 1 Resistive Temperature Detector (RTDs)  The coefficient of resistance is the change in resistance per degree change in temperature, usually expressed as a percentage per degree of temperature. The material used must be capable of being drawn into fine wire so that the element can be easily constructed.

32 Case Study 1 Resistive Temperature Detector (RTDs)  With proper circuitry (e.g., Wheatstone bridge), the change in resistance can be converted into a change in voltage.  The combination then becomes a temperature transducer

33 Case Study 1 Resistive Temperature Detector (RTDs)  The simplest bridge configuration uses two wires. It is used when high accuracy is not required, as the resistance of the connecting wires is added to that of the sensor, leading to errors of measurement.  This configuration allows use of 100 meters of cable. RuRu R3R3 R2R2 R1R1 VoVo ViVi When the bridge is balanced, Vo = 0

34 Homework  Suggest an alternative configuration to eliminate the effect of lead resistance. Be prepared to present your suggestion on class this Thursday.  Make a team with four students per team. RuRu R3R3 R2R2 R1R1 VoVo ViVi When the bridge is balanced, Vo = 0

35 Choosing appropriate measuring instruments  Accuracy, resolution, sensitivity and dynamic performance.  Environmental conditions that the instrument will be subjected to. Measurement systems and instruments should be chosen that are as insensitive as possible to the operating environment.  The extent to which the measured system will be disturbed during the measuring process is another important factor in instrument choice. For example, significant pressure loss can be caused to the measured system in some techniques of flow measurement.


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