Rationale By engaging in an instructional task, teachers will have the opportunity to consider the potential of the task and engagement in the task for helping learners develop the facility for expressing a relationship between quantities in different representational forms, and for making connections between those forms.
The Structures and Routines of a Lesson The Explore Phase/Private Work Time Generate Solutions The Explore Phase/Small Group Problem Solving 1.Generate and Compare Solutions 2.Assess and Advance Student Learning MONITOR: Teacher selects examples for the Share, Discuss, and Analyze Phase based on: Different solution paths to the same task Different representations Errors Misconceptions SHARE: Students explain their methods, repeat others’ ideas, put ideas into their own words, add on to ideas and ask for clarification. REPEAT THE CYCLE FOR EACH SOLUTION PATH COMPARE: Students discuss similarities and difference between solution paths. FOCUS: Discuss the meaning of mathematical ideas in each representation REFLECT: By engaging students in a quick write or a discussion of the process. Set Up of the Task Share, Discuss, and Analyze Phase of the Lesson 1. Share and Model 2. Compare Solutions 3. Focus the Discussion on Key Mathematical Ideas 4. Engage in a Quick Write
Linking to Research/Literature Connections between Representations Pictures Written Symbols Manipulative Models Real-world Situations Oral Language Adapted from Lesh, Post, & Behr, 1987
Five Different Representations of a Function Language TableContext GraphEquation Van De Walle, 2004, p. 440
The CCSS for Mathematical Content CCSS Conceptual Category – Number and Quantity The Real Number System (N-RN) Extend the properties of exponents to rational exponents. N-RN.A.1 Explain how the definition of the meaning of rational exponents follows from extending the properties of integer exponents to those values, allowing for a notation for radicals in terms of rational exponents. For example, we define 5 1/3 to be the cube root of 5 because we want (5 1/3 ) 3 = 5 (1/3)3 to hold, so (5 1/3 ) 3 must equal 5. N-RN.A.2 Rewrite expressions involving radicals and rational exponents using the properties of exponents. Common Core State Standards, 2010, p. 60, NGA Center/CCSSO
The CCSS for Mathematical Content CCSS Conceptual Category – Algebra Seeing Structure in Expressions (A–SSE) Write expressions in equivalent forms to solve problems. A-SSE.B.3 Choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity represented by the expression. ★ A-SSE.B.3c Use the properties of exponents to transform expressions for exponential functions. For example the expression 1.15 t can be rewritten as (1.15 1/12 ) 12t 1.012 12t to reveal the approximate equivalent monthly interest rate if the annual rate is 15%. A-SSE.B.4 Derive the formula for the sum of a finite geometric series (when the common ratio is not 1), and use the formula to solve problems. For example, calculate mortgage payments. ★ ★ Mathematical Modeling is a Standard for Mathematical Practice (MP4) and a Conceptual Category, and specific modeling standards appear throughout the high school standards indicated with a star ( ★ ). Where an entire domain is marked with a star, each standard in that domain is a modeling standard. Common Core State Standards, 2010, p. 64, NGA Center/CCSSO
The CCSS for Mathematical Content CCSS Conceptual Category – Algebra Arithmetic with Polynomials and Rational Expressions (A–APR) Understand the relationship between zeros and factors of polynomials. A-APR.B.2 Know and apply the Remainder Theorem: For a polynomial p(x) and a number a, the remainder on division by x – a is p(a), so p(a) = 0 if and only if (x – a) is a factor of p(x). A-APR.B.3 Identify zeros of polynomials when suitable factorizations are available, and use the zeros to construct a rough graph of the function defined by the polynomial. Common Core State Standards, 2010, p. 64, NGA Center/CCSSO
The CCSS for Mathematical Content CCSS Conceptual Category – Functions Building Functions (F–BF) Build a function that models a relationship between two quantities. F-BF.A.1 Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities. ★ F-BF.A.1a Determine an explicit expression, a recursive process, or steps for calculation from a context. F-BF.A.1b Combine standard function types using arithmetic operations. For example, build a function that models the temperature of a cooling body by adding a constant function to a decaying exponential, and relate these functions to the model. F-BF.A.2 Write arithmetic and geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula, use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms. ★ ★ Mathematical Modeling is a Standard for Mathematical Practice (MP4) and a Conceptual Category, and specific modeling standards appear throughout the high school standards indicated with a star ( ★ ). Where an entire domain is marked with a star, each standard in that domain is a modeling standard. Common Core State Standards, 2010, p. 70, NGA Center/CCSSO