Presentation on theme: "Unit 2 Sections 3-4. Review Example Instructional Sequence for Phonics, Word Analysis, and Spelling Phoneme-Grapheme Correspondences, Syllable Patterns,"— Presentation transcript:
Review Example Instructional Sequence for Phonics, Word Analysis, and Spelling Phoneme-Grapheme Correspondences, Syllable Patterns, and Morphemes in English Orthography Expected by End of Grade Level ReadingSpelling A few transparent consonant blends: qu, st, sm, sn, -st, -ft, lpK1 Consonant digraphs sh, ch, wh, th, ng11 Consonant trigraphs, with and without digraphs (splint; square)22 Concept of closed syllable needing consonant guards to keep the vowel short1–3 Concept of open syllable with no guards, allowing vowel to be long1–3 Two or more spellings for certain sounds: /s/ = c, s /z/ = s, z /k/ = k, c, -ck after a short vowel /j/ = j, g 11 Principle of hard and soft c and g (carry, cent; girl, gentle)1–22–3 Identify base word and inflectional suffix on single-syllable base words with no spelling change (help, helps, helped, helping) 11 VCe long vowel pattern in single syllable words (wage, theme, fine, doze, cute/rude) 12
Review the Developmental Sequence Grade OneStage One (Weeks 1-5)Stage Two (Weeks 6-10)Stage Three (Weeks 11-15) Reading Objectives for Phonics and Word Recognition (RF.1.3a,b,c,g,h) With reference to sound-spelling cards containing a keyword and major spellings for each sound, learn sound-spelling associations by means of a see/hear/say/and write sequence: /m/, /ă/, /t/, /h/, /p/, /n/, /k/ spelled c, /d/, /s/, /ĭ/, /b/. (RF.1.3a,b,c) Blend and read simple words containing the taught sound-spellings, in isolation and in connected text. (RF.1.3a,b,c) Using a tracing, oral-spelling, and visual imagery routine, learn approximately three to five common irregular new words per week. (Note: many of the most common words in English do follow regular patterns of phonics and are no longer “irregular” once the patterns have been taught.) (RF.1.3h) Learn sound-spelling associations by means of a see/hear/say/and write sequence: /r/, /f/, /g/, /ŏ/, /ks/ spelled x, /ar/, /k/ spelled -ck, /ŭ/, /z/, /l/, /ĕ/ spelled e and ea, /y/, /w/, /hw/ spelled wh, /er/ spelled ir, ur, or er. (RF.1.3a,b,c) Blend and read simple words containing the taught sound-spellings, in isolation and in connected text. (RF.1.3a,b,c) Read regular plural nouns formed with “s” and pronounced /s/ or /z/ (e.g., cats, dogs) and explain the meaning of the plural. (RF.1.3g) Learn sound-spelling associations by means of a see/hear/say/and write sequence: /sh/ spelled sh, /th/, /ch/, /k/ spelled k, /ā/ spelled a and a_e, /j/ spelled j and -dge, /j/ spelled ge, gi, /ī/ spelled i, i_e, /s/ spelled ce, ci, /ō/ spelled o, o_e, /z/ spelled s, /v/, /ū/ spelled u, u_e, /ē/ spelled e, e_e, /ē/ spelled ee, ea, /kw/ spelled qu, long vowels + r, /ē/ spelled y, _ie_, /ā/ spelled ai, ay, /ī/ spelled igh, /ī/ spelled y, ie, /ng/ spelled -ng (RF.1.3a,b,c) Apply associations to blending and reading simple words in isolation and in connected text. (RF.1.3a,b,c) Read plural nouns with -s and -es and verbs with -ing. (RF.1.3g) Typical Activities for Phonics and Word Recognition (Note: Introduce about two new sounds per week.) As each new sound-symbol card is introduced, teach a simple story or rhyme about the sound (e.g., “This is Leo the Lion; he loves to lick lollipops…). With learned associations, play “I’m thinking of…”(e.g., the letter that represents /h/; a sound that letter c can represent; a vowel that begins the word apple…). (RF.1.3a,b,c) Blend fifteen to thirty words per day with sound-symbol associations that have been taught; then read in phrases, sentences, and books. Underline or color code the sight words that don’t follow the learned patterns. (RF.1.3a,b,c,g) (Note: Introduce about two to three new sounds per week.) Conduct daily quick drills with learned sound-symbol associations: You say the sound, students say the letter(s); you say the letter(s), students say the sound; you say the sound, students write the letter(s). Automaticity is the goal. (RF.1.3a,b,c) Blend fifteen to thirty words per day with sound-symbol associations that have been taught; then read in phrases, sentences, and books. Include nouns with the non-syllabic plural -s. (RF.1.3a,b,c,g) To teach the VCe pattern for long vowels, use letter tiles to show how “magic e” changes words: mad-made, hop-hope, pet- Pete, cut- cute, hid-hide. (RF.1.3a,b,c) Ask students to underline target letter combinations before blending whole words with a new letter pattern: close, cent, nice; dodge; high. (RF.1.3a,b,c)
RF.1.3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. a. Know the spelling-sound correspondences for common consonant digraphs. b. Decode regularly spelled one-syllable words. c. Know final -e and common vowel team conventions for representing long vowel sounds. d. Use knowledge that every syllable must have a vowel sound to determine the number of syllables in a printed word. e. Decode two-syllable words following basic patterns by breaking the words into syllables. f. Read words with inflectional endings. g. Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words. Grade 1 Phonics and Word Recognition Standards
Syllable Instruction Students begin to read multisyllable words and may need practice orally breaking words into syllables. Remember: Syllable types are all about the vowels! A syllable has one vowel sound that causes the mouth to open. All vowels are voiced.
/ed//t//d/ mendedpickedfilled Student Activity 4.15: The Three Sounds of -ed Stage Six The inflectional suffix -ed has meaning. It is added to verbs, and can be pronounced three ways: /d/, /t/, and /ed/. walked fitted printedbilled loved wiped
Understanding High-Frequency Words Some high-frequency words can be decoded and others cannot. High-frequency words such as and, be, can, in, that, for, and this can all be sounded out. High-frequency words that do not follow a decodable pattern are irregular. Words such as of, does, have, and from cannot be sounded out based on patterns or a rule. We need a routine for learning irregular words. Accuracy, fluency, and automaticity are the goal. We want students to learn these words by heart so they do not spend time stumbling over these words.
Student Activity 4.16: Irregular Word Routine Stages One Through Six The irregular word routine should include these six steps: 1.Trace the word written on a page three times with their fingers, saying the word and naming the letters as they trace. 2.Trace the word written on a page three times with their pencils, saying the word and naming the letters as they trace. 3.Stand up and skywrite the word three times, saying the word and naming the letters as they trace. 4.Fold their papers in half vertically. 5.Write the word from a model three times on the left side of the paper, saying the word and naming the letters each time they write it. 6.Write the word from memory three times on the right side of the paper, saying the word and naming the letters each time they write it.
A Definition for Reading Fluency In the CCSS, reading fluency is defined as “reading with sufficient speed and accuracy to support understanding.” Fluency results from accurate, automatic decoding, and comprehension of the words’ meanings (SVR).
Why Is Fluency so Important? Increased fluency leads to: More reading. More vocabulary. Stronger comprehension. Lack of fluency leads to: Less reading. Smaller vocabulary. Limited comprehension. decoding fluency comprehension
Student Activity: Fluency Detective Work Stage Four Directions: Revisit a text that students have read once for some “detective work.” Ask students to read a sentence or page to find words that tell why something happened, who did something, how something was done, and so on. When students have found those words in their books, choral read that section with appropriate phrasing.
Student Activity: Daily One-Minute Speed Drills Stage Six Directions: Put six to eight irregular words on a 5x8 grid in random order. Challenge students to read them accurately at a rate of 40–60 words per minute. 1.Touch and name the words in the first row. (Teacher only) 2.Touch the words in the first row as students say them. 3.Start again at the top. Touch words as quickly as possible, working across and down the chart. 4.Time students for one minute and see how many times they can read the chart.
Summary Learning the code in first grade is extremely important because early decoding reliably predicts reading comprehension in subsequent grades. Failure to teach the code in the most straightforward manner (e.g., through good, explicit phonics instruction coupled with reasonably constrained texts) would leave many children without the key to unlock the printed message. Children without this key cannot independently enter the world of quality literature; some may learn to dislike reading entirely. (Beck & Juel, 1995)