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Lecture 3: The American republic and Constitution.

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2 Lecture 3: The American republic and Constitution

3 Origins of Republicanism in the US Republicanism = Idea that the people (through their representatives) can rule themselves

4 I. Models from Antiquity The rise of Greek city-states (800-500 BC) -Athens--small, turbulent, and “democratic” The Roman Republic -creation of the “Senate”--indirectly representative govt. -large, powerful, lasted 100s of years -as American ideal--politics, art, architecture, legend

5 Washington in a toga

6 II. Experience of Self-rule A history of administering their own affairs for almost 150 years Virginia House of Burgesses

7 Creation of a Republican national govt An “experiment” in republican govt--many expected to fail Americans’ sense of state identity, and fear of centralization First try: The Articles of Confederation (drafted in 1777)

8 Article I. The Stile of this Confederacy shall be "The United States of America." Article II. Each state retains its sovereignty, freedom, and independence...

9 Features/Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation No U.S. judiciary to settle disputes between states No real executive power to carry out or enforce federal (national) laws 9 of 13 states needed to approve legislation No power to collect taxes directly No power to raise an army directly

10 Shays Rebellion 1786

11 Another attempt at a federal (national) govt 1787 States agree to send reps to Philadelphia to amend Articles Debates and compromises: -Virginia Plan vs New Jersey Plan -Senate and House apportioned differently -Slavery and direct taxation/representation - “the 3/5 compromise” -Federalists vs Anti-federalists -Bill of Rights added

12 signing the Constitution

13 Madison and the Principles of the Constitution 1: Republicanism--not quite democracy “democracy is the most vile form of government... democracies have ever been spectacles of turbulence and contention: have ever been found incompatible with personal security or the rights of property” 2: Federalist Papers 10 & 51 “ambition to counteract ambition” in checks and balances “cross-cutting cleavages” of a large republic

14 Review of U.S. Constitution (1789) Preamble -“People” not “States” Article 1 (Article, Section, Clause) Congress -Sec 2--House of Representatives Pg 3 3/5 rule

15 Article I, cont’d -Sec 3--Senate Pg 1 --representing state, elected by state legislature -Sec 8--Powers of Congress raise taxes, raise army, regulate commerce among states, necessary and proper -Sec 9--Restraints on Congress banning slave trade, suspend habeas corpus, create nobility

16 Article 2--Presidency and electoral college Article 3--Federal Judiciary Article 4--Full faith and credit, fugitive slave Article 5--amendment formulas Article 6, Pg 2--”Supremacy Clause” Article 7--Ratification Review of U.S. Constitution

17 Bill of Rights Amend 1--religion and speech Amend 2--guns Amend 4--search and seizure Amend 5--double jeopardy, self-incrim, due process Amend 6, 7--trial procedure--jury trial, counsel Amend 8--Cruel and unusual, excessive bail Amend 9,10--non-specified rights remain with the states and people

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