POLITICAL AFFAIRS -British harassment in the west 1. Weapons to Indians 2. Impressment -French Revolution in 1789 Fight for democracy in France -British and French at war France want US help -U.S. neutrality Proclamation of Neutrality Not taking sides France is angry Because of their alliance with the U.S. after the American Revolution, the French expected help in their revolution. However, the American reaction split along party lines, with the Federalists against and the Democratic-Republicans for. Washington, however, declared neutrality.
POLITICAL AFFAIRS -Jay’s Treaty meant to avoid war with the British -trade treaty with Britain -highly unpopular b/c of the Revolution Only agreed to leave forts in the West; still attacking American ships and impressing sailors -Pinckney’s Treaty -trade treaty with Spain -access to the Mississippi R. Agreed to control natives in FL while U.S. agreed to control those in GA -Treaty of Greenville -Battle of Fallen Timbers -Ohio Valley area given up by natives The Treaty of Greenville granted the Ohio Valley area, also known as the Northwest Territory, to the United States. This was given up by the natives after the Battle of Fallen Timbers.
Reaction to Jay’s Treaty: According to this political cartoon, what do you think MOST Americans thought about the deal between the U.S. and Britain following Jay’s Treaty? Why?
WASHINGTON’S WARNING -served two terms but refused another Would not be another “King George” -political fighting had already begun Hamilton v. Jefferson -Farewell Warnings -no political parties -no involvement in foreign affairs “As a very important source of strength and security, cherish public credit. One method of preserving it is to use it as sparingly as possible.” ~George Washington~
XYZ AFFAIR -Neutrality strained relations with France and Britain War with them closer, U.S. not strong enough -U.S sends ambassadors to France to patch relations -bribes were demanded by the French Sent out agents X,Y, and Z instead of ambassador Demand money to see him -US was outraged as story emerged U.S. not taken seriously “See you on the seas” “Cinque-tetes, or the Paris Monster,” is the title of this political cartoon satirizing the XYZ Affair. On the right, the five members of the French Directory, or the ruling executive body, are depicted as a five-headed monster demanding money. The three American representatives, Gerry, Pinckney, and Marshall, are on the left, exclaiming, “Cease bawling, monster! We will not give you six-pence!”
The XYZ Affair - Maiden America ravaged by the French
XYZ AFFAIR -Political Parties oppose each other -Federalists align with British -Dem-Republicans align with French -nearly leads to war Two year undeclared war with France -Convention of 1800 avoids war Adams makes peace with French Federalists angry with Adams “Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute!” After the XYZ Affair, Congress created a navy department and authorized American ships to seize French vessels. 1200 men marched to Washington to volunteer for war, and Congress authorized the creation of an army of 50,000 troops. While war was never officially declared, for the next two years an undeclared naval war raged between France and the U.S.
ALIEN & SEDITION ACTS -Federalists passed laws to limit criticism of gov’t by those sensitive to the French (Dem- Republicans) and restrict citizenship rights -would have limited freedom of speech and allowed deportation of unpopular aliens Could not speak out against the government Quieted all opposition Anti-French feeling flourished, and many Federalists believed that French agents were everywhere, plotting to overthrow the government. New arrivals from foreign countries were held in particular suspicion, especially because immigrants were active in the Dem.-Rep. party. Some of the most vocal critics of Adams were foreign- born and immigrants. To counter what they saw as a growing threat against government, the Federalists passed the Alien and Sedition Acts.
Washington’s death was instrumental in improving conditions with France. Napoleon Bonaparte, now first consul of France, hoped to lure American friendship away from the British and back to the French. Napoleon ordered ten days of mourning to be observed in the French armies for the American leader. Soon, Napoleon would offer even greater concessions to the Americans.
WESTERN EXPANSION -Indian Conflicts Settlers moving West and pushing natives off their land - unfair treaties American settlers not upholding promises made to natives - Tecumseh’s League Group of natives led by Tecumseh Ready to attack American settlers, aided by British “White people…have driven us from the great salt water, forced us over the mountains, and would shortly push us into the lakes. But we are determined to go no farther. The only way to stop this evil is for all red men to unite.” ~Tecumseh~
WESTERN EXPANSION - Battle of Tippecanoe (1811- Madison’s Term) Tecumseh’s men set up here -William Henry Harrison Governor of Indiana who attacked Tecumseh’s League at Tippecanoe before they could attack him Shatters Native American morale In November 1811, while Tecumseh was absent, his brother and aid led the Shawnee in an attack on Harrison and his troops near Tippecanoe. Harrison struck back and burned the Shawnee capital to the ground. Harrison’s victory, known as the Battle of Tippecanoe, made him a national hero.
FOREIGN AFFAIRS -US neutrality between Britain and France??? Needed trade with both sides Jay’s Treaty expired War among European nations -British began impressment of sailors Making American sailors fight for the British Navy British attack U.S. ship Impressment of American sailors into the Royal British Navy
FOREIGN AFFAIRS -Jefferson gets Embargo Act passed to cut off trade; hurts U.S. business more than Europe Angry about attacking American ships; will not trade with anyone Ruins Jefferson’s presidency Congress repealed in 1809 -War Hawks emerge Want to begin war with British Henry Clay/John C. Calhoun Possibility of gaining lands Revenge for helping Indians “Mr. President, if you know what is good for your future welfare you will take off the embargo that is now such a check upon American commerce…” ~New England merchant, 1808 “It has paralyzed industry…Our fertile lands are reduced to sterility. It will drive our seamen into foreign employ, and our fisherman to foreign sandbanks…It has dried up our revenue.” ~Philip Key, Congressmen
WAR OF 1812 -James Madison became President in 1808 -British continue harassment of U.S. trade and settlers Impressment, aiding natives -US declares war on Britain “Mr. Madison’s War” Small army and navy -U.S. fails to invade Canada British keep Canada By the spring of 1812, President Madison decided to go to war against Britain. Madison believed that Britain was trying to strangle American trade and cripple the American economy. Congress approved the war declaration in early June.
WAR OF 1812 -British burn parts of Washington, 1814 Turn to Baltimore harbor Francis Scott Key writes anthem at Ft. McHenry By 1814, the superior British were raiding and burning towns all along the Atlantic coast. The redcoats brushed aside some hastily-assembled soldiers and entered Washington, D.C. In retaliation for the U.S. victory at the Battle of York, the capital of Upper Canada, in which U.S. forces burned the governor’s mansion and the legislative assembly buildings, the British burned the Capitol, the White House, and other public buildings. On August 24, Madison and other federal officials had to flee from their own capital.
Francis Scott Key writes the Star Spangled Banner after the all- night bombardment at Fort McHenry
WAR OF 1812 -Hartford Convention debates New England’s part in war— Federalists opposing the war Want constitutional amendments to increase New England’s power—states rights -Treaty of Ghent, 1814 (nothing changed hands) Officially ends the War of 1812 America recognized as a strong nation U.S. and Britain sign the Treaty of Ghent, officially ending the War of 1812
Foreign Affairs -end of the war of 1812 -Era of Good Feelings U.S. is prosperous and growing; national pride -northern border with Canada established 49 th parallel British give up territory to U.S. near Oregon -Florida becomes part of the US, 1819 -Adams-Onis Treaty also sets SW border with Spanish Mexico Spain breaks Pinckney Treaty
Frontier violence with Native Americans as Spain breaks Pinckney Treaty
Monroe Doctrine -James Monroe became President in 1816 -U.S. is still a fragile nation in the world arena -attempts to claim part of the world as our own “neighborhood” Wants to protect western hemisphere from Europe -Monroe Doctrine states that Europeans should not interfere with this hemisphere Any attack seen as attack on the U.S. “The American continents,… are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers...” ~James Monroe