Presentation on theme: "» For 150 years, there was very little English interference in the colonies » Most colonies had their own government set up by English settlers ˃Usually."— Presentation transcript:
» For 150 years, there was very little English interference in the colonies » Most colonies had their own government set up by English settlers ˃Usually three branches of government (executive, legislative, judicial) » The English and the colonists were for the most part thriving under these circumstances
» North American Theater of the Seven Years War » Primarily a conflict between the British and the French » The conflict on our continent pitted the British and their Native American allies against the French and their Native American Allies » The British victory gained much new land for the British on the continent.
» Land gains were good for the economies of Britain and the Colonies » Britain had a large war debt that needed repaid » If the colonies were benefitting from the results of the war, should they not chip in to help pay the debt? » Should they not chip in to help pay the cost of defending the colonies as well?
» Sugar Act – 1764 ˃Tax on imported goods to the colonies ˃Tax on TRADE ˃English thought it was reasonable ˃Colonists felt singled out » Stamp Act – 1765 ˃Tax on printed materials in the colonies ˃DIRECT tax on colonists ˃Met with even more resistance » Townshend Acts – beginning in 1767 ˃Various additional acts meant to levy additional taxes on colonists ˃Extreme resistance and boycotting of British goods ˃Led to the Boston Massacre - 1770 +5 dead, 6 injured +Anti-British propaganda and sentiment spread throughout the colonies
» Tea Act – 1773 ˃Effectively gave a monopoly to the East India Co. on tea shipments into the colonies ˃Colonial merchants suffered ˃Led to the Boston Tea Party - 1773 » Parliament responded in 1774 with the Coercive Acts, or Intolerable Acts, which, among other provisions, ended local self-government in Massachusetts » Colonists responded by convening the First Continental Congress » Escalation between the two sides eventually led to the Revolutionary War
» Second Continental Congress convened due to the need for some association between the States in order to defeat England » Because of what had happened with England, colonists feared creating a strong central government » Result – Articles of Confederation ˃Created a national legislature (Congress) where each state had one vote ˃No executive or judicial branches ˃Congress had power to: +Declare war +Borrow money +Make treaties with foreign nations +Work out trade agreements between States ˃All other powers belonged to the individual States, INCLUDING THE POWER TO TAX
» War for Independence had brought a lot of debt » Under the Articles, Congress could not tax, making it difficult to find money to pay off the debt » Additionally, the Articles provided no way of enforcing decisions that Congress made » The American Economy began to suffer, making people realize that a revision of the Articles » 1787 – Constitutional Convention
» Virginia Plan ˃Two house legislature ˃Representation based upon population in each state ˃Favored by states with LARGER populations » New Jersey Plan ˃One house legislature ˃Representation equal for all states regardless of population ˃Favored by states with SMALLER populations » Connecticut Plan ˃“The Great Compromise” ˃Two house legislature ˃House of Representatives based upon population ˃Senate representation equal for all states regardless of population - 2 senators for each state ˃Legislation must pass through both houses to become law
Govt. Under Articles of Confederation Govt. Under Constitution » Loose alliance of independent states » 1 house legislature » No executive or judicial branches » No ability for federal govt. to tax » States coin money separately » No inter-state trade regulation » Most power held by STATES » National govt. representing all citizens » 2 house legislature » Executive and judicial branches included » Congress has ability to tax the people » Only federal govt. can coin money » Federal govt. regulates inter-state trade » Power is SHARED
» Anti-Federalists – What is the most important omission from this Constitution? ˃Rebuttal? » Federalists - Why is it better to more strongly tie together the states under this Constitution? ˃Rebuttal? » Anti-Federalists – What is your biggest fear about allowing a stronger national government? ˃Rebuttal? » Federalists – Why is the new plan for Congress better than the old plan under the Articles? ˃Rebuttal?
Anti-FederalistsFederalists » Too much power transferred from states to national government » States should be free to pass legislation specific to their situations » No Bill of Rights » “Necessary and proper” clause could allow congress to take more power » Executive branch is too powerful, we don’t want too much power in the hands of one person » Power is needed in a national government to protect all of the states » National government prevents states from creating factions » Guaranteeing certain rights could exclude certain other rights » Congress is representative of the people and will follow their will » Checks and balances prevent abuse of power
» Preamble ˃Clearly sets the purpose of the new government » Article 1 ˃Sets up the structure, powers, and processes of the Legislative Branch (Congress) ˃Bicameral legislature ˃Power to declare war, ratify treaties, coin money, etc… ˃“Necessary and Proper” clause ˃Also denies certain powers » Article 2 ˃Sets up the structure, powers, and processes of the Executive Branch (President) ˃President executes the laws, does not make them ˃Many limits placed on Presidential power to prevent abuse ˃No precedent for this position » Article 3 ˃Sets up the structure, powers, and processes of the Judicial Branch (Court system) ˃Supreme Court interprets laws and actions based upon the Constitutionality
» Article 4 ˃Sets up standards of relationships between States ˃States must honor acts and records of other States ˃More strongly unites the States under one nation » Article 5 ˃Sets up method for amending the Constitution ˃Allows the Constitution to be a “living document” better able to adapt to the future » Article 6 ˃Sets up the supremacy of federal law over State laws ˃Labels the Constitution as the supreme law of the land above all others » Article 7 ˃Requires 9 of 13 States to ratify in order to replace the Articles of Confederation