Presentation on theme: "Allargamento Conditions for membership"— Presentation transcript:
1 Allargamento Conditions for membership The EU operates comprehensive approval procedures that ensure new members are admitted only when they can demonstrate they will be able to play their part fully as members, namely by:- complying with all the EU's standards and rules- having the consent of the EU institutions and EU member stateshaving the consent of their citizens – as expressed through approval in their national parliament or by referendum.Fonte: sito European Commission, Enlargement
2 Allargamento Chi può aderire? Membership criteria – Who can join?The Treaty on the European Union states that any European country may apply for membership if it respects the democratic values of the EU and is committed to promoting them.The first step is for the country to meet the key criteria for accession. These were defined at the European Council in Copenhagen in 1993 and are hence referred to as 'Copenhagen criteria'.
3 Allargamento I criteri di Copenhagen Countries wishing to join need to have:- stable institutions guaranteeing democracy, the rule of law, human rights and respect for and protection of minorities;- a functioning market economy and the capacity to cope with competition and market forces in the EU;- the ability to take on and implement effectively the obligations of membership, including adherence to the aims of political, economic and monetary union.The EU reserves the right to decide when candidate countries can join. It also needs to be able to integrate new members.
4 What is negotiated?The conditions and timing of the candidate's adoption, implementation and enforcement of all current EU rules (the "acquis").These rules are divided into 35 different policy fields (chapters), such as transport, energy, environment, etc., each of which is negotiated separately.
5 35 capitoli di acquis They are not negotiable: candidates essentially agree on how and when to adopt and implement them.the EU obtains guarantees on the date and effectiveness of each candidate's measures to do this.Other issues discussed:financial arrangements (such as how much the new member is likely to pay into and receive from the EU budget (in the form of transfers)transitional arrangements – sometimes certain rules are phased in gradually, to give the new member or existing members time to adapt.
6 Steps towards joiningThe process of joining the EU (accession) broadly consists of 3 stages:1. When a country is ready it becomes an official candidate for membership – but this does not necessarily mean that formal negotiations have been opened.2. The candidate moves on to formal membership negotiations, a process that involves the adoption of established EU law, preparations to be in a position to properly apply and enforce it and implementation of judicial, administrative, economic and other reforms necessary for the country to meet the conditions for joining, known as accession criteria.When the negotiations and accompanying reforms have been completed to the satisfaction of both sides, the country can join the EU.
7 Membership negotiations – in detailMembership negotiations cannot start until all EU governments agree, in the form of a unanimous decision by the EU Council, on a framework or mandate for negotiations with the candidate country.Negotiations take place between ministers and ambassadors of the EU governments and the candidate country in what is called an intergovernmental conference.
8 Membership negotiations – in detailNegotiations under each chapter are based on the following elements:Screening – the Commission carries out a detailed examination, together with the candidate country, of each policy field (chapter), to determine how well the country is prepared. The findings by chapter are presented by the Commission to the Member States in the form of a screening report. The conclusion of this report is a recommendation of the Commission to either open negotiations directly or to require that certain conditions – opening benchmarks - should first be met.
9 Membership negotiations – in detailNegotiating positions – before negotiations can start, the candidate country must submit its position and the EU must adopt a common position. For most chapters the EU will set closing benchmarks in this position which need to be met by the Candidate Country before negotiations in the policy field concerned can be closed. For chapter 23 and 24, the Commission is proposing that in the future these chapters would be opened on the basis of action plans, with interim benchmarks to be met based on their implementation before closing benchmarks are set.
10 Membership negotiations – in detailThe pace of the negotiations then depends on the speed of reform and alignment with EU laws in each country.The duration of negotiations can vary – starting at the same time as another country is no guarantee of finishing at the same time.
11 Concluding the negotiations 1. Closing the chaptersNo negotiations on any individual chapter are closed until every EU government is satisfied with the candidate's progress in that policy field, as analysed by the Commission.And the whole negotiation process is only concluded definitively once every chapter has been closed.
12 Concluding the negotiations 2. Accession treatyThis is the document that cements the country's membership of the EU. It contains the detailed terms and conditions of membership, all transitional arrangements and deadlines, as well as details of financial arrangements and any safeguard clauses.
13 Accession treaty It is not final and binding until it: wins the support of the EU Council, the Commission, and the European Parliamentis signed by the candidate country and representatives of all existing EU countriesis ratified by the candidate country and every individual EU country, according to their constitutional rules (parliamentary vote, referendum, etc.).
14 Acceding country3. Once the treaty is signed, however, the candidate becomes an acceding country. This means it is expected to become a full EU member on the date laid down in the treaty, providing the treaty has been ratified.In the interim, it benefits from special arrangements, such as being able to comment on draft EU proposals, communications, recommendations or initiatives, and “active observer status” on EU bodies and agencies (it is entitled to speak, but not vote).
15 Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance The Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) is the means by which the EU supports reforms in the 'enlargement countries' with financial and technical help. The IPA funds build up the capacities of the countries throughout the accession process, resulting in progressive, positive developments in the region.
16 Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance IPA funding will amount to some €11.5bn over 2007‑13.The beneficiary countries are: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Iceland, Kosovo*, Montenegro, Serbia, and Turkey.(Pre-accession funds for Malta:€38 million is allocated to finance various projects for the years 2000 – 2004).
17 Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance PurposeEU pre‑accession funds make political and economic reform easier in the beneficiary countries and prepare them for the rights and obligations that come with EU membership. With the EU's help, citizens in the enlargement region can enjoy better opportunities and overall conditions. Their countries can develop the same standards we enjoy as citizens of the EU. The pre‑accession funds also help the EU reach its own objectives regarding a sustainable economic recovery, energy supply, transport, the environment and climate change, etc. This is a sound investment in the future.
18 Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance PurposeThe allocation of EU pre‑accession funds helps translate the political priorities of the enlargement strategy into concrete actions. Through IPA, the EU reinforces its guidance to the aspiring countries on the priorities necessary for aligning with EU standards and legislation.
19 L’acquis Chapter 1: Free movement of goods Chapter 2: Freedom of movement for workersChapter 3: Right of establishment and freedom to provide servicesChapter 4: Free movement of capitalChapter 5: Public procurementChapter 6: Company lawChapter 7: Intellectual property lawChapter 8: Competition policyChapter 9: Financial servicesChapter 10: Information society and media
20 L’acquis Chapter 11: Agriculture and rural development Chapter 12: Food safety, veterinary andphytosanitary policyChapter 13: FisheriesChapter 14: Transport policyChapter 15: EnergyChapter 16: TaxationChapter 17: Economic and monetary policyChapter 18: StatisticsChapter 19: Social policy and employmentChapter 20: Enterprise and industrial policy
21 L’acquis Chapter 21: Trans-European networks Chapter 22: Regional policy and coordination ofstructural instrumentsChapter 23: Judiciary and fundamental rightsChapter 24: Justice, freedom and securityChapter 25: Science and researchChapter 26: Education and cultureChapter 27: EnvironmentChapter 28: Consumer and health protectionChapter 29: Customs unionChapter 30: External relations
22 L’acquis Chapter 31: Foreign, security and defence policy Chapter 32: Financial controlChapter 33: Financial and budgetary provisionsChapter 34 - InstitutionsChapter 35 - Other issues
23 Funding and technical assistance TAIEX (Technical Assistance and Information Exchange) is an EU instrument that helps partner countries become acquainted with, apply and enforce EU law, and monitor their progress in doing so.It funds short-term peer-to-peer technical assistance, advice and training, provided mainly in 3 ways:workshops attended by officials from beneficiaries' administrationsexpert missions that provide in-depth advice to beneficiaries' administrationsstudy visits to EU countries' administrations.
24 Funding and technical assistance TAIEX assistance is open to:civil servants working in public administrations (national, regional, etc.) and associations of local authoritiesjudiciary and law enforcement authoritiesparliaments/legislative bodies and their staffprofessional/commercial associations, workers & employers' groupstranslators and revisers of legislative texts.TAIEX assistance is not available to private citizens or individual companies.
25 Funding and technical assistance TwinningTwinning is an instrument for the cooperation between Public Administrations of EU Member States (MS) and of beneficiary countries. Beneficiaries include candidate countries and potential candidates to EU membership, as well as countries covered by the European Neighbourhood Policy.More specifically, in the IPA region, Twinning aims to provide support for the transposition, implementation and enforcement of the EU legislation (the acquis).It also strives to share good practices developed within the EU with beneficiary public administrations and to foster long-term relationships between administrations of existing and future EU countries.
26 Support for civil society Civil Society Facility (CSF)In , the Civil Society Facility has a budget of €40m, to support civil society organisations on 3 fronts:national and local civic initiatives and capacity-buildingjoint activities between civil society organisations in different (potential) candidate countries and EU countries to develop networks and promote knowledge transfer, in 3 priority areas.People-2-People programme – supports visits to EU institutions and knowledge sharing between the EU and civil society bodies in current and future EU countries.