Presentation on theme: "Uv spectroscopy. 2 UV Spectroscopy I.Introduction B.The Spectroscopic Process 1.In UV spectroscopy, the sample is irradiated with the broad spectrum of."— Presentation transcript:
2 UV Spectroscopy I.Introduction B.The Spectroscopic Process 1.In UV spectroscopy, the sample is irradiated with the broad spectrum of the UV radiation 2.If a particular electronic transition matches the energy of a certain band of UV, it will be absorbed 3.The remaining UV light passes through the sample and is observed 4.From this residual radiation a spectrum is obtained with gaps at these discrete energies – this is called an absorption spectrum
The absorption of UV or visible radiation corresponds to the excitation of outer electrons. There are three types of electronic transition which can be considered; 1. Transitions involving σ,π and n electrons 2. Transitions involving charge-transfer electrons 3. Transitions involving d and f electrons
4 Observed electronic transitions Here is a graphical representation Energy n Atomic orbital Molecular orbitals Occupied levels Unoccupied levels
5 Observed electronic transitions From the molecular orbital diagram, there are several possible electronic transitions that can occur, each of a different relative energy: Energy n n alkanes carbonyls unsaturated cmpds. O, N, S, halogens carbonyls
Transitions involving σ,π and n electrons
Transitions σ σ * Transitions – An electron in a bonding σ orbital is excited to the corresponding antibonding orbital. The energy required is large. – For example, methane (which has only C-H bonds, and can only undergo σ σ * transitions) shows an absorbance maximum at 125 nm. – Absorption maxima due to σ σ * transitions are not seen in typical UV-Vis. spectra ( nm)
n -> σ * Transitions – Saturated compounds containing atoms with lone pairs (non-bonding electrons) are capable of n -> σ * transitions. – These transitions usually need less energy than σ σ * transitions. – They can be initiated by light whose wavelength is in the range nm. – The number of organic functional groups with n -> σ * peaks in the UV region is small.
n ->π* and π -> π* Transitions Most absorption spectroscopy of organic compounds is based on transitions of n or π electrons to the π * excited state. This is because the absorption peaks for these transitions fall in an experimentally convenient region of the spectrum ( nm). These transitions need an unsaturated group in the molecule to provide the π electrons.