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Chapter 3 Native Texans. Section 1 Ancient Texans First peoples migrated from Siberia along the land bridge crossing the Bering Strait – How do we know.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Native Texans. Section 1 Ancient Texans First peoples migrated from Siberia along the land bridge crossing the Bering Strait – How do we know."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3 Native Texans

2 Section 1 Ancient Texans First peoples migrated from Siberia along the land bridge crossing the Bering Strait – How do we know who the people are or how they got here? – Archaeologists- study evidence of past civilizations – Artifacts - bones, baskets, shells, tools

3 Hunting for food Stone Age- 10,000+ years ago Hunting large animals – mastodon, mammoth, bison Followed herds of animals Atlatl Flint tipped spears Archaic Age years ago – Hunted smaller game, warmer temps, tools of stone and bone. – Hunted and gathered – not so nomadic but still roamed

4 Hunters to Farmers Central American Indians first to grow food 100 AD Texans adopted this method – How does farming change a culture? Increase in population due to the availability of food Nomadic living in the past Villages can grow Complex societies/governments/religious activities

5 Cultures Emerge Cultures- groups of people expressing and conducting themselves Southeastern Gulf Pueblo Plains

6 Section 2 Southeastern and Gulf Cultures All early people believed that spirits caused major earth catastrophes as well as the changes in seasons Humans and animals could communicate Harmonious with the Earth Some peaceful by nature some warring

7 SE farmers and gathers Caddos 24 groups make up their confederacy In Texas groups were matrilineal Government – Headed by 2 leaders – War and peace leader and religious leader – Men and women held positions in govt. – Most productive agriculturally and most numerous – Farmers and great fishermen – Lived in permanent villages- dome shaped – Warring nation

8 Coahuiltecans South Texas Plain- nomadic but stayed in the South Texas Plain Bows and arrows Hunted javelina, deer, bison, worms lizards and plants when times were tough! Dried plants to use as flour Women took care of camp- men hunted Shamans-people believed to have power to summon spirits… Many died from European diseases

9 Where they lived…

10 Karankawas Gulf Coast Built camps and gathered foods and hunted deer, bears and buffalo Moved to the ocean in the winter Dugout canoes -prized possession Made pottery and baskets and they were waterproofed with tar Mid 1800’s most were dead or displaced by settlers

11 The Wichita Prairies and oak timberlands- Dallas/Ft. Worth, Waco and Wichita Falls home Village dwellers resembled Caddo Women held positions of leadership Got along well with FRENCH, but fought all other settlers Forced to give up lands

12 Section 3 Pueblo and Plains Cultures Jumanos - plains Hunting buffalo and trading throughout Texas Middleman between Eastern Indians and Western Indians Traded corn, squash for animal skins and meat and pigments and turquoise Striped face tattoos, unique hair cut

13 Territories

14 Jumanos Some lived close to Rio Grande from El Paso to Big Bend Farmers- used irrigation Raised corn, squash beans Cacti and mesquite beans when times were lean Homes were large and made of adobe Fought Apache to keep territory, but Apache won When Spanish explored Texas they had mostly disappeared

15 Tiguas Live in present day El Paso Matrilineal- home and land belong to wife’s people Today it is traced thru the males family

16 Plains Cultures Plains Indian's life's changed with the introduction of horses Spaniards introduced horses around 1500 Became outstanding hunters and warriors Buffalo played a major part in their lives

17 Tonkawas 1600’s arrival- lived by Austin and some in coastal plains Buffalo was main choice of food, but few roamed in their area. Apaches and Comanches competed for buffalo Lost many to warring with other nations and white man

18 Apache Ancestors from far north Mescaleros and Lipans lived in Texas Lipans were warring a nation fighting the Spanish and Comanches Eventually moved to west Texas to be with Mescaleros

19 Comanches Lived in prairies, plateaus and plains of west Texas Comancheria - their territory- stretched from Mexico, TX, Kansas, OK, Colorado and NM Divided into groups in which older men lead them and all groups must agree before a decision is made- like a democracy

20 Comanche Life Hunting and war Bear, elk, antelope, buffalo Hunters would surround buffalo on horseback forcing them to move in a circle then used bow and arrows to kill Ate meat and dried it for later – pemmican Fought to control comancheria and took over Apache land and took en emies horses- highly prized

21 Kiowa Ally-friend- of the Comanche Teepee- homes of tanned hide easy to move - Plains Indians could move in 30 minu tes if they had to. Valued their homes, horse and buffalo Buffalo provided everything to the Plains Indians- food, clothing, needles, water bottles (bladders), horns for making spoons and other utensils, glue Like all other Indian groups they were forced to move to the reservation. Like all other Indian groups they also had advanced societies and languages and kept histories by painting on buffalo hides


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