Inclusion Inclusion means teaching students with disabilities in the same environment as their peers without disabilities. (Hallahan, D., Kauffamsn, J. & Pullen, P.) Kids Together, INC suggests that inclusion is more than just a placement in a classroom. It helps students feel included in participating in day to day activities as part of a community, which is a necessary life skill.
IDEA advances the legal notion of providing services and education in the least restrictive environment, which includes inclusion. Section 504 reinforces the IDEA statement of inclusion with FAPE (Free and Appropriate Public Education). If the least restrictive environment for a student with disabilities is the general classroom, then, by law, this should be their placement. (Taylor, K.)
Inclusion begins with the teacher. A teacher must possess certain characteristics in order to be fully supportive and effective in an inclusive classroom. Characteristics: They are informed They avoid stereotypes and biases They have a positive attitude They are collaborative with others (Mumford, v. & Chandler, J.)
Posted Rules Labeled Classroom Areas Well-Organized Quiet Areas Defined Transitions Predictable Routines Sensory Trigger Awareness One-to-One Teacher Time Choice Multiple Modes of Communication (Deris, A. &Carlo, C.)
Inclusion involves the general education teacher and the special education working together to teach students in the least restrictive environment. “The difference between effective and ineffective inclusion may lie in the teacher’s beliefs about who has primary responsibility for students with special education needs.” ( Jordan, A., Schwartz, E. & McGhie-Richmond, D.)
Advocate for Resources Tailor Teaching Methods Teamwork within School Good Rapport with Parents and Students Build a Climate of Acceptance Co-Teaching (Lindsay, S., Proulx, M., Scott, H. & Thomson, N.)
Co-teaching is a strategy in which a general teacher and special education teacher work together to teach all students the curriculum. There are six methods of co-teaching One Teach/ One Observe One Drift/One Teach Parallel Teaching Station Teaching Alternative Teaching Team Teaching (Friend, M., Cook, L., Hurley-Chambertain, D. & Shamberger, C.)
“One Teach/ One Observe student support, plausibly the least inclusive form of instruction, emerged as the most prevalent type of support provided in inclusive classrooms.” (Kilanawski-Press, L., Foote, C. & Rinaldo, V.) How to Improve Inclusionary Practices? Boost Disability Awareness Include Disability Games/Sports Highlight Accomplishments Ensure Leadership Oppurtunities Present Role Models Provide Same units for All (James, A., Kellman, M. & Leberman, L.)
Students with and without disabilities can learn important lessons about shared responsibilities, creative problem solving and cooperation by working together. (Carter, E., Swedeen, B. & Moss, C.) According to Almon, S. & Feng, J., research shows that co- teaching was more effective than solo-teaching because it closes the achievement gap for students with IEP’s as compared to their peers.
In order for co-teaching to be successful teachers need: Administrative Support Shared Planning Time Teacher Training Personal Compatibility Flexibility Compromise (Van Hover, S., Hicks, D. & Sayeski, K.)
General and Exceptional Educators skills for successful co-teaching Classroom Management Collaborative Lesson Planning Communication Data-Collection Interpersonal Skills Differentiation Self-Advocacy (Brinkmann, J. & Twiford, T.)
“General and special educators offer unique skill sets and perspectives in the development of collaborative plans for embedding social opportunities for students with disabilities.” (Hart, J. & Whalon, K.)
General Educators offer expertise in curriculum content, classroom routines, procedures and instructional activities. Special Educators examine contexts of school and classroom settings, then determine appropriate social and behavioral supports aligning with IEP goals and objectives. (Hart, J. & Whalon, K.)
Almon, S. & feng, J. (2012). Co-teaching vs. solo-teaching: Effect on fouth graders’ math achievement. Mid-South Educational Research Association Annual Conference, 33pps. Brinkman, J. & Twiford, T. (2012). Voices from the field: Skill sets needed for effective collaboration and co-teaching. International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, 7(3), 3-16. Carter, E., Swedeen, B. & Moss, C. (2012). Engaging you with and without significant disabilities in inclusive service learning. Teaching Exceptional Children, 44(5), 46-54. Deris, A. & Carlo, C. (2013). Support for learning. Autism and Inclusion, 28(2), 52-56.
Hart, J. & Whalon, K. (2011). Creating social opportunities' for students with autism spectrum disorder in inclusive settings. Interventions in School and Clinic, 46(5), 273- 279. Hallahan, D., Kauffman, J. & Pullen, P. (2012). Exceptional learners: An introduction to special education. Pearson Education, Inc: New Jersey. Friend, M., Cook, L., Hurley-Chambertain, D. & Shamberger, C. (2010). Co-teaching: An illustration of the complexity in special education. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 20(1), 9-27. James, A., Kellman, M. & Lieberman, L. (2011). Perspectives on inclusion from students with disabilities and responsive strategies for teachers. JOPERD: The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 28(1),33-54.
Jordan, A., Schwartz, E. & McGhie-Richmond, D. (2009). Preparing teacher’s for inclusive classrooms. Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies, 25(4), 535-542. Kilanawski-Press, L., Foote, C. & Rinaldo, V. (2010). Inclusion classrooms and teachers: A survey of current practices. International Journal of Special Education, 25(3), 43-56. Lindsay, S., Proulx, M., Scott, H. & Thomson, N. (2014). Exploring teachers’ strategies for including children with autism spectrum disorder in mainstream classrooms. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 18(2), 101-122. Mumford, V. & Chandler, J. (2009). Strategies for supporting inclusive education for students with disabilities. Strategies: A Journal for Physical and Sport Educators, 22(5), 10-15.
Kids Together, INC. (2009). What is inclusion? http://www.kidstogether.org/inclusion Accessed 2 May 2014. http://www.kidstogether.org/inclusion Taylor, K. (2011). Inclusion and the law: Two laws-IDEA and section 504-Support inclusion in schools. Education Digest, 76(9), 48-51. Van Hover, S., Hicks, D. & Sayeski, K. (2012). A case study of co- teaching in an inclusive secondary high-stakes world history classroom. Theory and Research in Social Education, 40(3), 260-291.