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1. MANIFEST DESTINY Belief that it is the right of the U.S. govt to expand to her natural boundaries Political roots-spread democracy-keep U.S. safe from.

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Presentation on theme: "1. MANIFEST DESTINY Belief that it is the right of the U.S. govt to expand to her natural boundaries Political roots-spread democracy-keep U.S. safe from."— Presentation transcript:

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2 MANIFEST DESTINY Belief that it is the right of the U.S. govt to expand to her natural boundaries Political roots-spread democracy-keep U.S. safe from other countries Economic roots-resources-trade Social roots-place to put undesirables Significance-westward expansion & expansion of U.S. boundaries 2

3 CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH Gold discovered in 1848 by John Marshall 1849 thousands came to California-49er’s Significance-California statehood 3

4 INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Slater brought factories to America Appeared first in New England because of water power and poor soil Cotton from south Significance-economic livelihood of north 4

5 TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS AFFECT OUR LIVES Work, transportation, daily life easier because work more efficient Interchangeable parts-Eli Whitney-mass production used unskilled labor so goods are less expensive Urbanization-cities grow as people leave farms to go work in factories Significance-growth of cities/cheaper goods because easier & cheaper to produce 5

6 2 ND GREAT AWAKENING Inspired reform movements and abolition of slavery Significance-reform movements that changed society 6

7 EDUCATIONAL REFORMS Led by Horace Mann Wanted free public education supported by taxes, mandatory attendance Believed that there would be less poverty if more people were educated Significance-nationwide public education 7

8 TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT Wanted to ban sale & consumption of alcohol Because alcohol caused crime, insanity, poverty & the breakup of families Led to 18 th Amendment Significance-Prohibition 8

9 PRISON AND MENTALLY ILL REFORMS Led by Dorothea Dix Wanted to improve conditions Significance-better life 9

10 CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE Proposed by Henry David Thoreau Means don’t obey unjust laws, but accept the consequences Example-Boston Tea Party Significance-influenced Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr. 10

11 WOMEN’S MOVEMENT Led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott Wanted equal rights for men and women Wrote Declaration of Sentiments at the Seneca Falls Convention Written by Elizabeth Cady Stanton based on the Declaration of Independence Significance-Amendment 19-women’s suffrage 11

12 IMPORTANCE OF FINE ARTS Hudson River School started by Thomas Cole-painted the majesty of nature John James Audubon painted & studies birds Fine arts are art, music, literature Significance-explains our society/expresses our feelings 12

13 CAUSES OF CIVIL WAR States’ rights-right of state to secede from Union, slavery was states’ rights issue Sectionalism-one section more important than whole N-industry-Factory System S-agriculture-cotton- Plantation W-expansion of slavery Slavery-mostly disappeared in North, South’s economy needs as source of labor Cotton gin invented by Eli Whitney, more cotton, land and slaves Abolition-immediate end to slavery Significance-leads to end of slavery/national govt most important 13

14 MISSOURI COMPROMISE, 1820 Dealt with slavery in the Louisiana Territory Kept balance of free & slave states even in Congress Maine-free Missouri-slave Proposed by Henry Clay Significance-used compromise to settle issue/put off civil war 14

15 COMPROMISE OF 1850 Dealt with slavery in the Mexican Cession Proposed by Henry Clay California-free state Strict Fugitive Slave Act so slaves had to get to Canada to be free Significance-used compromise to settle issue/ put off civil war 15

16 KANSAS-NEBRASKA ACT Proposed by Stephen A. Douglas Wanted to build Transcontinental Railroad Popular sovereignty-people of area decide-power of people Led to Bleeding Kansas Significance-use compromise to settle issue/put off civil war 16

17 DRED SCOTT DECISION Decision handed down by Chief Justice Roger B. Taney Slaves were property not citizens Congress could not interfere with ownership of property Significance-Supreme Court said the Constitution protected slavery 17

18 Civil War US/North/Union/Yankees vs Confederate States of America/South/Confederacy/Rebels President-N-Abraham Lincoln S-Jefferson Davis Commander-N-US Grant S-Robert E. Lee Significance-settled issue that national govt stronger than states & that states cannot secede 18

19 MAJOR BATTLES OF CIVIL WAR Fort Sumter, South Carolina-1 st battle Antietam, Maryland-bloodiest one day battle, Lincoln issued Emancipation Proclamation that freed slaves in rebelling states Gettysburg, Pennsylvania-turning pt of was-Lee would not invade Vicksburg, Mississippi-Union victory complete blockade Appomatox Court House, Virginia-Lee surrendered to Grant Significance-national govt stronger that states/states cannot secede 19

20 LINCOLN’S INAUGURAL ADDRESSES 1 st wanted to preserve Union and would fight 2 nd war was now about emancipation of slaves and described how to put Union back together Significance-stated aim of North/Lincoln’s leadership to keep Union together & leniency in rebuilding South 20

21 ANACONDA PLAN Union strategy during Civil War Developed by Winfield Scott 1-surround and blockade South 2-cut Confederacy in half 3-capture Richmond, Virginia-Confederate capital Border states-slave states that did not secede, Lincoln did whatever necessary to retain their loyalty Significance-Northern strategy that would win the war 21

22 EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION Proposed by Lincoln Freed slaves in rebelling states Kept border states our of war Changed war to fight to save Union AND abolish slavery Significance-civil war now about both preserving Union and abolishing slavery 22

23 GETTYSBURG ADDRESS Written by Lincoln Based on ideals in Declaration of Independence- “of, by and for the people War is about preserving the Union, democracy Significance-civil war about preserving democracy in Union 23

24 CONGRESSIONAL LEADERS John C. Calhoun-supported states’ rights, Nullification Crisis in response to the Tariff of Abominations Daniel Webster-Senator who believed Union made of people, not states, did not support states’ rights Significance-led major disagreements between North and South 24

25 IRISH IMMIGRANTS Labor source for northern factories Came to America because of potato famine Significance-labor source for factories 25

26 LEADING ABOLITIONISTS Harriett Tubman-escaped slavery-organized & lead Underground Railroad Frederick Douglass-escaped slavery-published “North Star” Significance-helped slaves escape slavery/national attention to issue 26

27 POLITICAL LEADERS DURING CIVIL WAR Abraham Lincoln-president of Union during Civil War, wrote Gettysburg Address & Emancipation Proclamation-war was about preserving the Union and abolishing slavery, he was North’s greatest asset Jefferson Davis-president of Confederacy Significance-Lincoln’s leadership kept Union together 27

28 MILITARY LEADERS DURING THE CIVIL WAR US Grant-commander of Northern army, accepted surrender of South, President during Reconstruction RE Lee-commander of Southern army, surrendered to Lee Stonewall Jackson-Confederate general who held his ground at Bull Run Significance-led armies during Civil War 28

29 JOHN WILKES BOOTH War ended on April 5, 1865 Lincoln and wife attended play at Ford’s Theater Booth, southern sympathizer assassinated Lincoln because Lincoln was tyrant Significance-helped change course of Reconstruction- punishment 29

30 RECONSTRUCTION PLANS Reconstruction-rebuild 10% Plan developed by Lincoln, supported by Andrew Johnson-10% of voters in state had to swear allegiance to U.S., state reenters Union, no punishment involved Reconstruction Act of 1867-reconstruction controlled by Radical Republicans in Congress, military rule in southern states-rebuild and punish Significance-southern states forced to ratify 13 th, 14 th and 15 th amendments 30

31 BLACK CODES Used to prevent slave rebellion Restricted their movement and made it illegal to teach slaves to read and write Freedmen’s Bureau organized after Civil War to help Freedmen and whites in South-education, medical care, land Jim Crow Laws-used to enforce segregation Significance-helped freedmen adapt to society unprepared for them 31

32 CONGRESSIONAL MEDAL OF HONOR RECEIPENTS William Carney-1 st African American to be awarded the medal Philip Bazaar-1 st Hispanic to be awarded the medal Significance-minority groups rights recognized 32

33 HIRAM RHODES REVELS 1 st African American elected to Congress after Civil War Significance-African Americans rights after Civil War 33

34 HOMESTEAD ACT Encouraged economic growth and expansion of the west Occupy 160 acres and make improvements-build house and plant crops-for 5 yrs you own land Attracted 1.4 million homesteaders Significance-growth of U.S./land ownership-no money 34

35 MORRILL ACT State got 30,000 acres times the number of Congressmen Proceeds used for agriculture and mechanical universities-A&M school Significance-encouraged higher education 35

36 DAWES ACT Break up Indian tribes and assimilate them into white society 160 acres to Indian family, remainder of land to whites Tribal ownership of land disappeared Significance-opened west to settlement/deprived Native Americans of land 36


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