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Obj: What assumptions were behind the religious movements of the era & did they & the subsequent reform movements actually make people more equal?

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Presentation on theme: "Obj: What assumptions were behind the religious movements of the era & did they & the subsequent reform movements actually make people more equal?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Obj: What assumptions were behind the religious movements of the era & did they & the subsequent reform movements actually make people more equal?

2 TOCQUEVILLE – RELIGION A POLITICAL INSTITUTION MEANING THE WAY RELIGIOUS IMPULSES REINFORCED DEMOCRACY & LIBERTY POLITICS MADE AVAILABLE TO ALL SO MUST RELIGION – QUIT PREACHING TO THE RICH BEGUN IN CT BUT MOVED WEST CAMP MEETINGS – 2 ND COMING NEAR & TIME TO REPENT; WERE EMOTIONAL OUTLETS CANE RIDGE, KY 1801

3 FATHER OF MODERN REVIVALISM CHARLES G. FINNEY DIFFERS FROM 1 ST G.A. BECAUSE REVIVALS NO LONGER WORK OF GOD BUT HUMANS EMOTIONAL RELEASE THROUGH PERSONAL TESTIMONY, FREE AGENCY = FREE WILL ACTIVE MIDDLE CLASS ALREADY HAS BOUGHT INTO IMPROVING SOCIETY MOST EFFECTIVE IN SMALL TO MIDSIZED TOWNS STRONG & ACTIVE CHURCHES DEVELOP

4 ACKNOWLEDGE SIN & SURRENDER TO GOD SALVATION AVAILABLE TO ALL INDIVIDUALS COULD OVER- COME DESIRE TO SIN SERMONS NOT DOCTRINAL OR THEOLOGICAL BUT ABOUT DAILY LIVING MAKE RELIGION PERTINENT TO INDIVIDUALS LIFE INDIVIDUALISM IN RELIGION JUST AS IN POLITICS

5 UNITARIANS – JC LESS THAN FULLY DIVINE GROWS W/ OWN CHURCHES 19 TH C. & IN N.E. MANY PROMINENT FAMILIES LEFT CONGREGATION- ALIST CHURCHES FEW CONVERTS OUTSIDE OF NE BUT ATTRACTED WEALTHY & THEREFORE INFLUENTIAL MORAL GOODNESS TOOK TIME & BEHAVIOR SHOULD BE MODELED ON CHRISTS LIFE NOT SOME EMOTIONAL OUTBURST; CRITICAL OF REVIVALS AGREE THAT HUMAN BEHAVIOR COULD BE CHANGED J. SMITH PALMYRA, NY – HOW CAN THEY ALL BE RIGHT? APPEAL LAY PARTLY IN PUTTING U.S. AT CENTER OF CHRISTIAN HISTORY ORIGINAL AMERICAN RELIGION MET W/ HOSTILITY WHEREVER THEY WENT & EVENTUALLY SETTLE UTAH TERRITORY B. YOUNG TAKES OVER AFTER DEATH OF JOSEPH SMITH MORMONS

6 PART OF THE UTOPIAN SOCIETY MOVEMENT ANN LEE FOUNDER IN ENGLAND & THRIVED IN BURNED OVER DISTRICT – WESTERN AREAS TOO GENDER EQUALITY MARRIAGE SUBORDINATE TO CELIBACY UTOPIANS SOUGHT NEW PATH TO SPIRITUAL FULFILL MENT. ATTACKED ESTABLISHED INSTITUTIONS ROBERT OWEN – NEW HARMONY, INDIANA - FAILURE

7 EMERSON, THOREAU & WHITMAN THE MOST WELL KNOWN MARGARET FULLER – 1 ST FEMALE INTELLECTUAL I AM LARGER, BETTER THAN I THOUGHT. I DID NOT KNOW I HELD SO MUCH GOODNESS W. WHITMAN – SEES HIMSELF AS PERSONIFICATION OF AMERICAN PEOPLE U.S. COULD PRODUCE AS GREAT LITERATURE & ART AS EUROPE COMMENTARY ON SOCIETY, POLITICS, ACTIVISTS

8 RELIGION BECOMES UNIFYING FORCE FOR MANY DUE TO INSTABILITY OF WORK & CONTINUAL MIGRATION OF FAMILIES % AGRIGULTURAL JOBS 1850 LESS THAN 65% - INEQUALITY OF WEALTH, MOST LIVE DAY TO DAY BUT W/ FEW RAGS TO RICHES STORIES, J.J. ASTOR, SUSTAIN POPULAR BELIEF THAT COMMON MAN CAN MAKE IT RICH TOO. REALITY WAS QUITE DIFFERENT POVERTY SEEN AS THE POORS FAULT BECAUSE IN THE AGE OF JACKSON SUCCESS WITHIN EVERYONES GRASP SO IF YOURE NOT MAKING IT, ITS YOUR OWN FAULT IMMIGRATION OVERTAXES SYSTEM, UNPREPARED FOR INFLUX FREE BLACKS IN NORTH FACED DISCRIMINATION – WORST BEING FORCED INTO LOWEST PAYING JOBS 1 RESPONSE WAS FORM OWN CHURCHES – AME & RICHARD ALLEN 1816


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