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T-shaped professionals depth & breadth

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1 T-shaped professionals depth & breadth
Ready for Life-Long-Learning Ready for Teamwork Ready to Help Build a Smarter Planet BREADTH DEPTH Many cultures Many disciplines Many systems (understanding & communications) Deep in one discipline Deep in one system Deep in one culture T-shaped people are ready for Teamwork – they are excellent communicators, with real world experience, and deep (or specialized) in at least one culture, one discipline and one systems area, but with good team work skills interacting with others who are deep in other cultures, disciplines and systems areas. Also, T-shaped professionals also make excellent entrepreneurs, able to innovate with others to create new technology, business, and societal innovations. T-shaped people are adaptive innovators, and well prepared for life-long learning in case they need to become deep in some new area… they are better prepared than I-shaped people, who lack the breadth. Therefore, IBM and other public and private organizations are looking to hire more of this new kind of skills and experience profile – one that is both broad and deep.. These organizations have been collaborating with universities around the world to establish a new area of study known as service science, management, engineering, and design (SSMED) – to prepare computer scientists, MBAs, industrial engineers, operations research, management of information systems, systems engineers, and students of many other discipline areas – to understand better how to work on multidisciplinary teams and attack the grand challenge problems associated with improving service systems… (analytic thinking & problem solving) 1 1

2 Systems-Disciplines Framework: Depth & Breadth
Systems that focus on flows of things Systems that govern Systems that support people’s activities transportation & supply chain water & waste food & products energy & electricity building & construction healthcare & family retail & hospitality banking & finance ICT & cloud education &work city secure state scale nation laws social sciences behavioral sciences management sciences political sciences learning sciences cognitive sciences system sciences information sciences organization sciences decision sciences run professions transform professions innovate professions e.g., econ & law e.g., marketing e.g., operations e.g., public policy e.g., game theory and strategy e.g., psychology e.g., industrial eng. e.g., computer sci e.g., knowledge mgmt e.g., stats & design e.g., knowledge worker e.g., consultant e.g., entrepreneur stakeholders Customer Provider Authority Competitors resources People Technology Information Organizations change History (Data Analytics) Future (Roadmap) value Run Transform (Copy) Innovate (Invent) Identify Stakeholder Entities (As-Is) Identify Resource Accesses (As-Is) Understand Change Potential (Has-Been & Might-Become) Choice, Action & Value Realization (To-Be & Has-Become) disciplines There are many opportunities for educational institutions to specialize. Better tuned competence of individuals allows graduates to hit the ground running and better fill roles in business and societal institutions…. Better general education will allow more rapid learning of an arbitrary area of specialization, and create a more flexible labor force… All service systems transform something – perhaps the location, availability, and configuration of materials (flow of things), or perhaps people and what they do (people’s activities), or perhaps the rules of the game, constraints and consequences (governance). How to visualize service science? The systems-disciplines matrix… SSMED or service science, for short, provides a transdisciplinary framework for organizing student learning around 13 systems areas and 13 specialized academic discipline areas. We have already discussed the 13 systems areas, and the three groups (flows, human activity, and governing)… the discipline areas are organized into four areas that deal with stakeholders, resources, change, and value creation. If we have time, I have included some back-up slides that describes service science in the next level of detail. However, to understand the transdisciplinary framework, one just needs to appreciate that discipline areas such as marketing, operations, public policy, strategy, psychology, industrial engineering, computer science, organizational science, economics, statistics, and others can be applied to any of the 13 types of systems. Service science provides a transdisciplinary framework to organize problem sets and exercises that help students in any of these disciplines become better T-shaped professionals, and ready for teamwork on multidisciplinary teams working to improve any type of service system. As existing disciplines graduate more students who are T-shaped, and have exposure to service science, the world becomes better prepared to solve grand challenge problems and create smarter systems that deliver modern service. Especially, where students have had the opportunity to work as part of an urban innovation center that links their university with real-world problems in their urban environment – they will have important experiences to help them contribute to solving grand challenge problems. ================================================ SSMED (Service Science, Management, Engineering and Design) Systems change over their life cycle… what is inside become outside and vice versa In the course of the lifecycle… systems are merged and divested (fusion and fission) systems are insourced and outsourced (leased/contracted relations) systems are input and output (owner ship relations) SSMED standard should ensure people know 13 systems and 13 disciplines/professions (the key is knowing them all to the right level to be able to communicate and problem-solve effectively) Multidisciplinary teams – solve problems that require discipline knowledge Interdisciplinary teams – solve harder problems, because they create new knowledge in between disciplines Transdisciplinary teams – solve very hard problems, because the people know discipline and system knowledge Ross Dawson says “Collaboration drives everything” in his talk about the future of universities… https://deimos.apple.com/WebObjects/Core.woa/BrowsePrivately/griffith.edu.au

3 What improves Quality-of-Life? Service System Innovations
* = US Labor % in 2009. 20/10/10 A. Systems that focus on flow of things that humans need (~15%*) 1. Transportation & supply chain 2. Water & waste recycling/Climate & Environment 3. Food & products manufacturing 4. Energy & electricity grid/Clean Tech 5. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT access) B. Systems that focus on human activity and development (~70%*) 6. Buildings & construction (smart spaces) (5%*) 7. Retail & hospitality/Media & entertainment/Tourism & sports (23%*) 8. Banking & finance/Business & consulting (wealthy) (21%*) 9. Healthcare & family life (healthy) (10%*) 10. Education & work life/Professions & entrepreneurship (wise) (9%*) C. Systems that focus on human governance - security and opportunity (~15%*) 11. Cities & security for families and professionals (property tax) 12. States/regions & commercial development opportunities/investments (sales tax) 13. Nations/NGOs & citizens rights/rules/incentives/policies/laws (income tax) 2/7/4 2/1/1 7/6/1 1/1/0 5/17/27 1/0/2 24/24/1 2/20/24 7/10/3 5/2/2 3/3/1 What improves quality of life? Service system innovations. Every day we are customers of 13 types of service systems. If any of them fail, we have a “bad day” (Katrina New Orleans) I have been to two service science related conferences recently, one in Japan on Service Design and one in Portugal on Service Marketing… the papers from the proceedings of the conferences mapped onto all of these types of service systems… The numbers in yellow: 61 papers Service Design (Japan) / 75 papers Service Marketing (Portugal) / 78 Papers Service-Oriented Computing (US) Number in yellow Fist number: Service Design Conference, Japan 2nd International Service Innovation Design Conference (ISIDC 2010), Future University Hakodate, Japan Second number Service Marketing Conference, Portugal, AMA SERVSIG at U Porto, Portugal Numbers in yellow: Number of AMA ServSIG 2010 abstracts that study each type of service system… (http://www.servsig2010.org/) Of 132 total abstracts… 10 studies all types of service systems 19 could not be classified In a moment we will look at definitions of quality of life, but for the moment, consider that everyday we all depend on 13 systems to have a relatively high quality of life, and if any one of these systems goes out or stops providing good service, then our quality of life suffers…. Transportation, Water, Food, Energy, Information, Buildings, Retail, Banking & Financial Services (like credit cards), Healthcare, Education, and Government at the City, State, and National levels…. Volcanic ash, hurricanes, earthquakes, snow storms, floods are some of the types of natural disasters that impact the operation of these service systems – but human made challenges like budget crises, bank failures, terrorism, wars, etc. can also impact the operation of these 13 all important service systems. Moreover, even when these systems are operating normally – we humans may not be satisfied with the quality of service or the quality of jobs in these systems. We want both the quality of service and the quality of jobs in these systems to get better year over year, ideally, but sometimes, like healthcare and education, the cost of maintaining existing quality levels seems to be a challenge as costs continue to rise… why is that “smarter” or sustainable innovation, which continuously reduces waste, and expands the capabilities of these systems is so hard to achieve? Can we truly achieve smarter systems and modern service? A number of organizations are asking these questions – and before looking at how these questions are being formalized into grand challenge questions for society – let’s look at what an IBM report concluded after surveying about 400 economists…. ==================== Quality of life for the average citizen (voter) depends on the quality of service and quality of jobs in 13 basic systems….. Local progress (from the perspective of the average citizen or voter) can be defined for our purposes as (quality of service & jobs) + returns (the provider, which is really the investor perspective, the risk taker in provisioning the service) + security (the authority or government perspective on the cost of maintaining order, and dealing with rules and rule violations) + smarter (or the first derivative – does all this get better over time – parents often talk about wanting to help create a better world for their children - sustainable innovation, means reducing waste, being good stewards of the planet, and expanding our capabilities to do things better and respond to challenges and outlier events better)…. Without putting too fine a point on it, most of the really important grand challenges in business and society relate to improving quality of life. Quality of life is a function of both quality of service from systems and quality of opportunities (or jobs) in systems. We have identified 13 systems that fit into three major categories – systems that focus on basic things people need, systems that focus on people’s activities and development, and systems that focus on governing. IBM’s Institute for Business Value has identified a $4 trillion challenge that can be addressed by using a system of systems approach. Employment data… 2008 A =16.2 B. C =14.9 Total 150,932 (100%) Transportation (Transportation and Warehousing 4,505 (3%)) Water & Waste (Utilities 560 (0.4%)) Food & Manufacturing (Mining 717 (0.5%), Manufacturing 13,431 (8.9%), Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing 2,098 (1.4%)) Energy & Electricity Information (Information 2,997 (2%)) Construction (Construction 7,215 (4.8%)) Retail & Hospitality (Wholesale Trade 5,964 (4.0%), Retail Trade 15,356 (10.2%), Leisure and hospitality 13,459 (8.9%)) Financial & Banking/Business & Consulting (Financial activities 8,146 (5.4%), Professional and business services 17,778 (11.8%), Other services 6,333 (4.2%)) Healthcare (Healthcare and social assistance 15,819 (10.5%) Education (Educational services 3,037 (2%), Self-employed and unpaid family 9,313 (6.2%), Secondary jobs self-employed and unpaid family 1,524 (1.0%)) City Gov State Gov (State and local government 19,735 (13.1%)) Federal Gov (Federal government 2,764 (1.8%)) 0/0/0 1/2/2 0/19/0 Quality of Life = Quality of Service + Quality of Jobs + Quality of Investment-Opportunities “61 Service Design 2010 (Japan) / 75 Service Marketing 2010 (Portugal)/78 Service-Oriented Computing 2010 (US)”

4 STEM = Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics
Our ambition is to reach K-12 students with Service Science & STEM: “The systems we live in, and the systems we are…” Challenge-based Project to Design Improved Service Systems K - Transportation & Supply Chain 1 - Water & Waste Recycling 2 - Food & Products (Nano) 3 - Energy & Electric Grid 4 – Information/ICT & Cloud (Info) 5 - Buildings & Construction 6 – Retail & Hospitality/Media & Entertainment (tourism) 7 – Banking & Finance/Business & Consulting 8 – Healthcare & Family Life/Home (Bio) 9 – Education /Campus & Work Life/Jobs & Entrepreneurship (Cogno) 10 – City (Government) 11 – State/Region (Government) 12 – Nation (Government) Higher Ed – T-shaped depth added, cross-disciplinary project teams Professional Life – Adaptive T-shaped life-long-learning & projects Systems that focus on Flow of things Systems that focus on Human Activities and Development Systems that focus on Governing High school drop out rates in cities can be high… by increasing focus on system of systems in all grade levels, especially STEM discussions of how to study and then propose solutions to local community challenges – there is evidence that exemplar programs increase the diversity and desire of students to go onto college in STEM areas, and then go on to jobs that use these skills to improve systems…. A number of NAE studies as well as NMC study on challenge-based learning provide encouraging information – also IBM has a Smater Learning white paper which confirms some of these findings. See Challenge-Based Learning: Smarter Planet University Jam Final report at: https://www.ibm.com/developerworks/university/smartplanet_jam/ Awards given to top participants, e.g., faculty and students… Prizes as Incentives for Public-Private Partnerships In recent years, there has been a renaissance in “incentive prizes” – which reward contestants for achieving a specific future goal. crowd-sourcing the world.... see WE are smarter than ME, i.e. and a diversified, independent, decentralized community can outperform even the greatest of experts. This challenge is open to entrepreneurs, commuters, transportation experts, researchers, universities, students, scholars, scientists and citizens from all fields around the globe. All ideas will be reviewed discussed and rated by an open global community, to determine the best and most creative ideas to effectively solve the consequences of traffic congestion. The winner will be announced during the 16th World Congress on Intelligent Transportation Systems in Stockholm, Sweden, September , 2009, and will receive a cash a of $50,000 USD, as well as development and implementation support to pursue turning the ideas into real-world solutions. Ideas will be reviewed, discussed and rated by an open global community. The public will determine the best and most creative ideas to effectively solve the consequences of traffic congestion. The winner will be chosen by the community. For the next 60 days the community (which anyone can join) will review and rate all submissions on 5 criteria. On August 1st, the top 9 solutions will be announced. These 9 will then submit more information including a slideshow, a video and founder bios. Based on this information, the participating community members can decide who they each want to back. Each member allocates points they have earned through what is known as a predictive market. The overall winner is the solution that receives the most backing. This challenge truly is: for the people, by the people, and decided by the people. “Imagine smarter systems, explain why better (service systems & STEM language)” STEM = Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics See NAE K-12 engineering report: See Challenge-Based Learning:

5 US National Academy of Engineering Grand Challenges
A. Systems that focus on flow of things humans need 1. Transportation & Supply Chain Restore and enhance urban infrastructure 2. Water & Waste/Climate & Green tech Provide access to clear water 3. Food & Products Manager nitrogen cycle 4. Energy & Electricity Make solar energy economical Provide energy from fusion Develop carbon sequestration methods 5. Information & Communication Technology Enhance virtual reality Secure cyberspace Reverse engineer the brain B. Systems that focus on human activity & development 6. Buildings & Construction (smart spaces) 7. Retail & Hospitality/Media & Entertainment (tourism) 8. Banking & Finance/Business & Consulting 9. Healthcare & Family Life Advance health informatics Engineer better medicines 10. Education & Work Life/Jobs & Entrepreneurship Advance personalized learning Engineer the tools of scientific discovery C. Systems that focus on human governance 11. City & Security Restore and improve urban infrastructure Prevent nuclear terror 12. State/Region & Development 13. Nation & Rights And the NAE’s Engineering Grand Challenge problems include – making solar energy economical – which fits into category 4. Smarter Energy… there are at least two NAE grand challenges that related to 10. Smarter Education systems – Advance personalized learning and Engineer the tools of scientific discovery… one might also want to include enhance virtual reality and reverse engineer the brain – and I included those under 5. Smarter Information systems… the point is that solving any one of these 14 NAE grand challenge problems has the potential to have significant impact on one or more of the 13 systems that we all depend on every day for quality of life… And so now would be a good time to say a little bit more about the component measurements and the challenges of defining quality of life…

6 From Work Done By the Institute for the Future (IFTF.org)
Transdisciplinary = T-Shaped People (Breadth & Depth)

7

8 The T Shaped Professional
Boundary Crossing Competencies Teamwork, communication, perspective, networks, critical thinking, global understanding, project management, etc.. Many Disciplines Understanding & communications Deep in at least one discipline Analytic thinking & problem solving Deep in at least one system Many Systems ME Adaptive innovators The T Shaped Professional Jim Spohrer IBM Labs Phil Gardner, Michigan State University 8

9 What are the benefits of more education? Of higher skills?
Posted below are 21 statistics about college tuition, student loan debt and the quality of college education in the United States.... #1 Since 1978, the cost of college tuition in the United States has gone up by over 900 percent. #2 In 2010, the average college graduate had accumulated approximately $25,000 in student loan debt by graduation day. #3 Approximately two-thirds of all college students graduate with student loans. #4 Americans have accumulated well over $900 billion in student loan debt. That figure is higher than the total amount of credit card debt in the United States. #5 The typical U.S. college student spends less than 30 hours a week on academics. #6 According to very extensive research detailed in a new book entitled "Academically Adrift: Limited Learning on College Campuses", 45 percent of U.S. college students exhibit "no significant gains in learning" after two years in college. #7 Today, college students spend approximately 50% less time studying than U.S. college students did just a few decades ago. #8 35% of U.S. college students spend 5 hours or less studying per week. #9 50% of U.S. college students have never taken a class where they had to write more than 20 pages. #10 32% of U.S. college students have never taken a class where they had to read more than 40 pages in a week. #11 U.S. college students spend 24% of their time sleeping, 51% of their time socializing and 7% of their time studying. #12 Federal statistics reveal that only 36 percent of the full-time students who began college in 2001 received a bachelor's degree within four years. #13 Nearly half of all the graduate science students enrolled at colleges and universities in the United States are foreigners. #14 According to the Economic Policy Institute, the unemployment rate for college graduates younger than 25 years old was 9.3 percent in 2010. #15 One-third of all college graduates end up taking jobs that don't even require college degrees. #16 In the United States today, over 18,000 parking lot attendants have college degrees. #17 In the United States today, 317,000 waiters and waitresses have college degrees. #18 In the United States today, approximately 365,000 cashiers have college degrees. #19 In the United States today, 24.5 percent of all retail salespersons have a college degree. #20 Once they get out into the "real world", 70% of college graduates wish that they had spent more time preparing for the "real world" while they were still in school. #21 Approximately 14 percent of all students that graduate with student loan debt end up defaulting within 3 years of making their first student loan payment. …But it can be costly, American student loan debt is over $900M

10 How are advanced technologies changing the mix of jobs?
Expert Thinking Complex Communication Routine Manual Non-routine Manual Routine Cognitive Technology is used by providers to perform more and more of the routine manual, cognitive, and transactional work Jobs Change: Individual Competencies & Institutional Roles Levy, F, & Murnane, R. J. (2004). The New Division of Labor: How Computers Are Creating the Next Job Market. Princeton University Press.

11 Job Roles: University Research and Education
Systems Engineering/ Analytics/BAO/SSME Model Systems Connect/capture Data Integrate, Analyze Improve, Automate Optimize, Evolve General Methods & Techniques University Research fuels Cross Industry Skills Specialists Consultant Project Manager Sales Architect Synapsense, SensorTronics Infosphere Streams, ILOG, COGNOS WS, Tivoli, Rational, DB2, etc. BAO, Green Sigma Specific Technology Job Roles Water Supply Transportation Energy, Electric Grid Cities, Buildings Healthcare Education/Government SP Service Systems Industry Specific Skills Run Transform Innovate 11

12 Job Roles: IBM Building Smarter Enterprises & A Smarter Planet https://jobs3.netmedia1.com/cp/find.ibm.jobs/location/ IBM Employees ~10% Consultant ~10% Sales ~5% Architect ~5% Project Manager ~45% Specialists ~25% Enterprise Operations Project Mix From to 80-20: B2B – Business to Business B2G – Business to Government ~10% 1. Consultant (trusted advisor to customer) a value proposition to address problems or opportunities and enhance value co-creation relationships ~5% ~10% 3. Architect (systems engineer, IT & enterprise architect) An elegant solution design that satisfies functional and non-functional constraints across the system life-cycle 2. Sales a signed contract that defines work, outcomes, solution, rewards and risks for all parties ~5% 4. Project Manager (often with co-PM from customer side) a detailed project plan that balances time, costs, skills availability, and other resources, as well as adaptive realization of plan At IBM, many of our employees work as part of project teams on innovation that matters to customers. The project teams include industry/system consultants, solution architects, project managers, sales teams, and many many specialists. Specialist (45% of IBM employees) can be technology specialists, industry specialists, academic discipline specialists, technicians, call center agents, software application specialists, data analytics experts, and more – what ever it takes to transform and innovate systems in business, government, education, healthcare, etc. About 60%, well more than half of IBM’s revenue comes from global business and technology service groups or GBS and GTS… this increase in business for IBM global service (IGS) groups is part of a bigger trend… ================== Consultant: Consultants have deep knowledge of customers. They help IBM customers realize business and societal benefits by helping them make faster, smarter decisions; reduce risks; leverage core competencies and increase return on investment (ROI). Consultants serve as effective business advisors; conduct research, data collection and analysis; and prepare, present and deliver recommendations and solutions to clients. Sales: Sales professionals are responsible for the sale and support of IBM solutions, services, products and offerings, including those from IBM Business Partners. These professionals are responsible for the overall business relationship with IBM's clients and sometimes specialize by industry, customer set, channel, brand, solution or offering. Architect: Defines, or architects, solutions to client business problems by applying reason through information technology. Much of the IT Architect's work is focused on the front end of the solution life cycle: listening to clients, understanding their business requirements and forming the structures of an information technology solution — an architecture. Project Manager: Leads and is accountable for the success of the project. Project managers are responsible for a variety of activities, including initializing and planning projects, developing project cost structure, tracking and reporting project deliverables, managing risk, managing contracts and applying project management processes and tools. Specialist: Specialists have deep knowledge of applications, industries, and types of models/data. Specialists develops proofs of concepts and complete systems., They design, develop, build, test and implement systems. Specialists are hands-on professionals who have in-depth understanding of products, offerings and services within their specialty. Members of this profession perform services for a fee, provide technical support for product sales or support IBM's internal infrastructure. ~45% ~25% 5. Specialists (systems engineer, Research, engineer, Industry specialist, application, technician, data, analyst, professional, agent) a compelling working system (leading-edge prototype systems from Research) 6. Enterprise Operations Administrative Services, Other, Marketing & Communications Finance, Supply Chain, Manufacturing, Human Resources, Legal, General Executive Management

13 IBM Up-Skill Cycle = New Venture
= Graduates with Smarter Planet skills = High-Growth Acquisition/ New IBM BU (Growing) = Acquisition = IBMer moving from mature BU to acquisition University-Region1 = IBMer moving into IBMer on Campus role (help create graduates with Smarter-Planet skills, help create Smarter Planet oriented new ventures; Refresh skills = High-Productivity/ Mature IBM BU (Shrinking) IBM University-Region2 The Up-Skill Cycle People flow through the system of entities… As they flow they are upskilled…. Entities: Mature IBM Business Unit: From mature-business unit Acquired-IBM Business Unit: From IBM “acquired company” business unit University: From university role Venture: From venture that spun off from a university Other: None of the above One possible path A long-time IBMer is in an IBM business unit doing, say “finance” The IBMer’s business unit receives the 5% annual budget cut The IBMer moves to a new IBM acquisition to help the new acquisition adopt/learn IBM finance procedures After that the IBMer moves to a university as an IBMer on Campus The IBMer might work in a department/discipline, in the university incubator, or a university start-up, or even be a student at the university Eventually the IBMer signs up to be pat of a new venture that is spinning off from the university The new venture is aligned with IBM via HW, SW, or other IBM offerings/strategy IBM helps scale up the new venture global IBM might decide to acquire the new venture The IBM in the acquired new venture helps the new venture become a high growth business unit of IBM After the new IBM business unit asymptotes on revenue and profit improves, it has become a mature business unit Now the IBMer is back in a mature business unit, and the cycle repeats… Transitions: Self-loop IBMer stays in mature business unit IBMer transitions from mature business unit to a newly acquired IBM acquisition IBMer transitions from mature business unit to a university role IBMer transitions from mature business unit to a new venture that spun off from a university IBMer transitions from mature business unit to an entity not mentioned above (some where else)

14 apply now at www.ibm.com/isv/startup/smartcamp
Identifies entrepreneurs developing businesses aligning with our Smarter Planet vision. SmartCamp finalists raised more than $50m and received significant press in Wall Street Journal, Forbes and Bloomberg in Exclusive Networking and Mentoring event Healthcare SmartCamp kickstart - Miami - May 15, 2012 Apply by April 27th SmarterCities SmartCamp kickstart - New York - May 24, 2012 Apply by May 3rd North America Regional SmartCamp - Boston - June 20 & 21, 2012 Apply by May 25th apply now at 14 North America SmartCamp lead: Eric Apse, University Programs lead: Dawn Tew, 14


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