Presentation on theme: "Title VI, Title IX Coordinator Jimmy Carter P O Box 10 Maynardville, Tn. 37807"— Presentation transcript:
Title VI, Title IX Coordinator Jimmy Carter P O Box 10 Maynardville, Tn
Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 No person in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color, or national origin, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.
Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.
Programs and Activities Covered by Title VI and Title IX School Athletic programs Special Education programs School Transfers Discipline Student Assignment Field Trips Student Organizations Classroom Instruction Ability Grouping Seat Assignment Water Breaks Hall Passes Any other daily activities associated with public education
Who is Required to Comply with Title VI and Title IX? Students Teachers or other faculty Parents Coaches School Administrators Counselors Cafeteria employees Contract workers Bus Drivers Any person who behaves in violation of Title VI or Title IX so that a protected class is unable to enjoy the programs and/or activities of the LEA could violate the statutes on behalf of the school system.
Title VI As long as the differences and diversities of mankind exist, democracy must allow for compromise, for accommodation, and for the recognition of differences. - Eugene McCarthy
Title VI: Does not apply only to minorities. Title VI covers all discrimination based on a persons race, color, or national origin, whatever it may be.
Types of Violations Under Title VI Disparate Impact: occurs when a policy or action by the LEA that is facially neutral has the impact of discrimination. Meaning that the policy or practice results in the different treatment of students based on their race, color or national origin.
Disparate Impact Is there a facially neutral practice that has a disproportionate adverse effect on minorities? Is there a significant, legitimate & non- pretextual justification for the practice? Is there an alternative, comparable method with less disproportionate adverse effects?
Disparate Impact Example Most common: testing criteria for admissions or placement ACT minimum score of 16 (and other criteria) to enter teaching program. 80% of white students meet criteria, 30% of Black students meet criteria. Disparate Impact?
Disparate Impact Example Facially neutral with disproportionate impact on blacks. Court found no significant, legitimate reason for the requirement. The requirement had no rational relationship to predicting a persons success in the teaching program. Criteria must have been validated as essential to participation in a program or activity. Example: SAT/ACT standardized tests.
Disparate Impact Proof of intentional discrimination is not required under disparate impact claims. Only that there is a discriminatory RESULT. Good faith is not a defense.
Types of Violations Under Title VI Disparate Treatment: occurs when an individual is intentionally treated differently than other similarly situated individuals on the basis of race, color or national origin.
Disparate Treatment LEA/agent treat someone differently that interfered or limited students ability to participate in or benefit from a program or activity? Treatment occur in course of LEA/agents authorized or assigned duties? Different treatment based on race, color or national origin? Were there legitimate, non-discriminatory, non-pretextual reasons for the different treatment?
Important to Remember: Intentional discrimination based on race, color or national origin is obviously a violation of Title VI; BUT The existence of a hostile environment based on race, color or national origin created, encouraged, accepted, tolerated or left uncorrected by an LEA is also a violation of Title VI.
What is a Hostile Environment? Exists where there is harassing conduct that is sufficiently severe, pervasive or persistent so as to interfere with or limit the ability of an individual to participate in or benefit from activities or programs. Harassing behavior can come from anyone.
Hostile Environment Key to hostile environment is severe, pervasive or persistent conduct. Factors such as the context, nature, scope, frequency, duration and location of incidents are taken into consideration. TOCR/OCR will ask: Would a similarly situated, reasonable person find the environment hostile?
Hostile Environment Is there a racially hostile environment? Did the LEA have notice (actual or constructive) of the hostile environment? Did the LEA adequately respond to redress the hostile environment?
Hostile Environment Complainant does not have to be the victim or target of the harassment. Acts can be directed at anyone as long as it is based on race, color or national origin. The harassment does not have to create a tangible injury.
Title IX If particular attention and care is not paid to the ladies, we are determined to foment a rebellion, and will not hold ourselves bound by any laws in which we have no voice or representation. -Abigail Adams
Title IX: Covers sexual harassment, pregnancy discrimination; any discrimination with a basis in the differences between genders.
Types of Violations under Title IX Sexual harassment Unequal educational opportunities Unequal athletic opportunities Pregnancy discrimination Nonconformity with gender stereotypes
What is Sexual Harassment? Any unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal, nonverbal, or physical conduct of a sexual nature that denies or limits a students ability to participate in or receive benefits, services or opportunities in an LEAs programs or activities.
Two Types of Sexual Harassment Quid Pro Quo Hostile Environment
Quid Pro Quo Sexual Harassment: Occurs if a teacher or other employee conditions educational decisions or opportunities on the students submission to unwelcome sexual conduct.
Quid Pro Quo Harassment Examples: Ms. Jones, a teacher at All American High tells her student, John that if he wants an A in her class he has to sleep with her. Quid pro quo harassment?
Hostile Environment Sexual Harassment: Conduct of a sexual nature that is severe and pervasive but does not condition a decision or benefit on submission to sexual conduct. This type of harassment comes from other students or third parties who do not have authority over students.
Hostile Environment Sexual Harassment Factors to consider: Degree to which the conduct affected another students education Type, frequency, and duration of conduct Relationship between the harasser and student Number of people involved in harassment Age of students involved Size of school, location of incident, context of harassment Occurrence of other incidents
Notice Under Title VI & Title IX LEAs have a responsibility to provide a nondiscriminatory educational environment and must ACT to redress hostile environments regardless of who is committing the violation or how the LEA finds out. Notice can be actual or constructive.
Actual Notice Examples: A student files a complaint with the districts Title VI/Title IX Coordinator A parent calls their childs teacher to report a harassing incident at school A school secretary witnesses a student verbally attack another student A teacher reports a harassing incident to the principal School faculty/staff witness derogatory flyers, posters around campus
Constructive Notice: An LEA has constructive notice if in the course of exercising reasonable care it should have known about the hostile environment.
Constructive Notice Examples: Example: there are a rash of assaults on students taking place at school, one a week. All of the students assaulted are minorities. Example: there are several incidents of sexual harassment occurring during recess under a teachers supervision.
More on Constructive Notice: If the harasser is an agent or employee of the LEA, acting in the scope of his official duties the LEA is deemed to have constructive notice. This is especially true if the harasser has authority over the students. If there are no policies prohibiting racial and/or sexual harassment or procedures for reporting them, then the LEA has constructive notice.
More About Notice: All LEA employees who have the authority to address student discipline, who have the duty to report student misconduct, or who are perceived by students to have such authority or responsibility can violate Title VI and/or Title IX on behalf of the school if they do not act to stop harassment/discrimination.
Important to Remember: Teachers and administrators are not mind readers and cannot be present at all times but what is important is the RESPONSE once you become aware of harassment/discrimination or intimidation/bullying. TOCR/OCR evaluates to determine if the LEAs response was APPROPRIATE.
Responding to Harassment: The appropriateness of a response is determined by examining the reasonableness, timeliness and effectiveness of the response. The response must be reasonably calculated to prevent recurrence. Response should be consistent with existing disciplinary, grievance and anti- harassment policies.
Responding to Harassment: Must respond promptly, thoroughly and impartially. Response can include separating victim from accused, providing training to all students/teachers involved, restricting contact between parties involved, contacting other appropriate authorities, preventing recurrences or retaliation.
Responding to Harassment: Title VI & Title IX requires LEAs to have a person designated to coordinate efforts to comply with and address Title VI and Title IX issues.
Retaliation Any overt or covert act of reprisal, interference, restraint, penalty, discrimination, intimidation, or harassment against an individual who has exercised his/her rights under Title VI or IX. Retaliation is prohibited by the regulations that implement both Title VI and Title IX. Finding retaliation does not require proof of the underlying charge and always constitutes intentional discrimination.
Retaliation Did the LEA subject the complainant to an adverse action following the filing of the complaint? Does the LEA have a legitimate non- discriminatory reason for such action that is unrelated to the filing of the complaint? Can the complainant demonstrate that such reason is pre-textual?
Preventing Retaliation Do not take any adverse action against complainant after receiving notice of a complaint of discrimination. Even if the LEA has a legitimate reason for the action, try and wait out the process. If the LEA simply must act based on the situation, be sure to have documentation to support your legitimate reason for the action. Document, document, document!
Retaliation Example: Amy reports sexually harassing behavior by classmate Michael to her teacher. The teacher reports to the principal and both agree it is best to separate the students. They move Amy to another homeroom. Retaliation?
Tennessee Statutory Law Where justice is denied, where poverty is enforced, where ignorance prevails, and where one class is made to feel that society is an organized conspiracy to oppress, rob and degrade them, neither persons nor property will be safe. - Frederick Douglass
Tennessee State Law Tennessee Code Annotated § through § covers harassment, intimidation or bullying in elementary and secondary education.
Tennessee State Law § Harassment, intimidation or bullying; legislative findings The general assembly hereby finds and declares that: (1) A safe and civil environment is necessary for students to learn and achieve high academic standards; (2) Harassment, intimidation or bullying, like other disruptive or violent behavior, is conduct that disrupts a student's ability to learn and a school's ability to educate its students in a safe environment; and (3) Students learn by example. School administrators, faculty, staff and volunteers who demonstrate appropriate behavior, treating others with civility and respect and refusing to tolerate harassment, intimidation or bullying, encourage others to do so as well.
Tennessee State Law § Harassment, intimidation or bullying; definition As used in § § , "harassment, intimidation or bullying" means any act that substantially interferes with a student's educational benefits, opportunities or performance, that takes place on school grounds, at any school-sponsored activity, on school-provided transportation, or at any official school bus stop, and that has the effect of:§ § (1) Physically harming a student or damaging a student's property; (2) Knowingly placing a student in reasonable fear of physical harm to the student or damage to the student's property; or (3) Creating a hostile educational environment.
Tennessee State Law § Harassment, intimidation or bullying; school district policies (a) Each school district shall adopt a policy prohibiting harassment, intimidation or bullying. School districts are encouraged to develop the policy after consultation with parents and guardians, school employees, volunteers, students, administrators and community representatives.
Tennessee State Law § Harassment, intimidation or bullying; retaliation and reporting (a) A school employee, student or volunteer may not engage in reprisal or retaliation against a victim of, witness to, or person with reliable information about an act of harassment, intimidation or bullying. (b) A school employee, student or volunteer who witnesses or has reliable information that a student has been subjected to an act of harassment, intimidation or bullying is encouraged to report the act to the appropriate school official designated by the school district's policy. (c) A school employee who promptly reports an act of harassment, intimidation or bullying to the appropriate school official in compliance with the procedures set forth in the school district's policy is immune from a cause of action for damages arising from any failure to remedy the reported act.
Tennessee State Law § provides protection against personal lawsuits to employees of LEAs who report bullying, harassment, intimidation as required by the schools policy if the school does not respond appropriately.
Areas of Special Concern The ultimate measure of a man is not where he stands in the moments of comfort or convenience, but where he stands in times of challenge and controversy. -Martin Luther King, Jr.
Pregnancy Discrimination Pregnancy discrimination: covers pregnancy and childbirth and falls under Title IX. Broad protection, also is unlawful to discriminate on the basis of an individuals parental, familial or marital status. Schools cannot bar a pregnant student from ANY school activities. Can offer special programs but they must be comparable to regular classes and only on a voluntary basis.
Pregnancy Discrimination A student returning to school from childbirth must be readmitted in same academic setting. Cannot require medical documentation unless it is required of all students returning to school from a medical leave of absence.
Sexual Orientation Discrimination Sexual Orientation discrimination/bullying: applies to lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans- gendered students (LGBT). Tricky: sex discrimination and sexual harassment are covered by federal law, state law, and district policy but, not harassment/discrimination based on sexual orientation.
Sexual Orientation Discrimination HOWEVER, this does not mean that because sexual orientation is not currently protected that there is no protection for LGBT students. OCRs guidance notes that there has been at least one Title IX lawsuit, in which a student was awarded a judgment because the LEA failed to protect him from peer harassment in violation of the Equal Protection Clause. Also found violations of Title IX for harassment based on failure to conform to gender stereotypes.
Sexual Orientation Discrimination This is a volatile area in the law ripe for litigation; you do not want to be the test case for the 6 th Circuit. Advice: treat sexual orientation harassment just like any other harassment. It would fall under your board policy as intimidation/hostile educational environment.
Sexual Orientation Discrimination LGBT/GSA: LEAs that receive federal funds and have limited open forums (allow noncurriculum related student groups) must allow these groups (limited exceptions)- Equal Access Act Efforts to change the rules after the request for LGBT/GSA are not looked upon favorably by courts and only work if ALL noncurriculum groups are eliminated. This is very risky.
Bullying & Civil Rights Implications Bully: to treat abusively; to affect by means of force or coercion. Not your standard taking of lunch money anymore. Bullying, intimidation, harassment based on race, color, national origin or gender implicates not only federal civil rights laws but also state law and district/school policy.
Cyber Bullying Cyber bullying: sending or posting cruel sometimes threatening messages on the internet. Can be done by: -Sending mean, vulgar, or threatening messages; -Posting sensitive, private information about another person; -Pretending to be someone else in order to make that person look bad; -Intentionally excluding someone from an online group
Cyber Bullying Why is cyber bullying such a problem? Cyber bullying can occur any time of the day or night; Cyber bullying messages and images can be distributed quickly to a very wide audience; Children and youth can be anonymous when cyber bullying, which makes it difficult (and sometimes impossible) to trace them.
Cyber Bullying On campus: violations of your internet or acceptable use policy can and should be investigated and disciplinary action should be taken for violations. Off campus: schools must be very careful not to infringe on a students First Amendment rights to freedom of speech. However, if an off campus cyber bullying incident is affecting student activity while on campus then you have the ability and the obligation to become involved.
Cyber Bulling recommends adding to your internet/ acceptable use policy provisions that allow for disciplinary action against a student for actions taken off campus that adversely affect the safety or well being of students while at school. LEA might also address cyber bullying in discrimination/harassment/bullying policy.
Cyber Bullying What can you do? Notify parents of victims and parents of cyber bullies of known or suspected cyber bullying. Notify the police if the known or suspected cyber bullying involves a threat. Closely monitor the behavior of the affected students at school for possible bullying. Talk with all students about the harms caused by cyber bullying. Remember cyber bullying that occurs off-campus can travel like wildfire among your students and can affect how they behave and relate to each other at school. Investigate to see if the victim(s) of cyber bullying could use some support from a school counselor or school-based mental health professional.
Cyber Bullying Myspace has an anti-bullying policy and a team dedicated especially to this issue. They have reporting procedures. MySpace contact info: Great tips at the U.S. Dept. of Heath and Human Services website:
Title IX & Athletics Schools are required to provide comparable facilities. Schools are not required to spend EQUAL amounts of money but not providing necessary funds is a violation. Big disparities are red flags. Schools can maintain separate teams where the team is based upon competitive skill or contact sports. If LEAs allow co-ed teams, must ensure no discrimination/harassment involved. Title IX simply requires equal athletic opportunity for members of both sexes.
Title IX & Athletics Factors to Consider for Equal Opportunities: Equipment & supplies Scheduling of games & practice times Travel & per diem allowances Availability of coaching & academic tutoring Locker rooms, practice/competitive facilities Medical/training facilities & services Housing/dining facilities & services Publicity
Title IX & Athletics All American High has a world class football program. The team has access to a weight room, physical therapist and rides on a bus equipped with the latest amenities. The girls athletics teams cannot use the weight room or the physical therapist and must provide their own transportation to and from games. Title IX violation?
Title IX & Athletics Big issue: Booster Clubs. Regardless of where funds come from there should be comparable funds/facilities etc…to all athletes. LEAs either have to bring other teams up to standard or tell the booster club no.
Guidance on Investigating a Claim Respond promptly to allegations of sexual harassment Promptly notify the students parents and, when appropriate law enforcement authorities Interview the student Remain objective, but interested Interview witnesses named by the student
Guidance on Investigating a Claim Interview the accused Interview witnesses identified by the accused Examine documentary evidence, if any Re-interview the student, if necessary Make a determination, prepare an investigation report, and take corrective action when warranted Follow up
Special Consideration for Interviews of Young Children Cardinal rule: We do not question children. We question one child at a time.
Tips for Avoiding Complaints or Litigation Pay attention to students; watch for signs of alienation. Get parents involved as soon as possible. Take proactive steps to educate about differences and teach acceptance of differences.
Tips for Avoiding Complaints or Litigation Most importantly, make sure faculty/staff can recognize harassment, discrimination, bullying and intimidation. Make sure all students, parents and faculty/staff are aware of the policy and reporting procedures. Place in handbooks, post on internet, send it home and have it signed & returned. If you have an issue call your board attorney BEFORE acting.
Union County Grievance Procedure Level One (Informal Procedure) Discussion with building level administrator Level Two Step 1 (Formal Procedure) Written complaint and meeting with the coordinator Step 2 Director of schools investigation
Union County Grievance Procedure Step 3 Appeal Directors decision to the Board of Education Step 4 Appeal Board decision to the Office of Civil Rights (OCR)
Grievance Procedures Forms are in the front office of each school or contact my office The LEA policies may be found in the Union County Board Policy Manual Notice are placed in all student handbooks The Non-discrimination statement is posted at every school and on LEA website