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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 2 Planning the Project.

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Presentation on theme: "McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 2 Planning the Project."— Presentation transcript:

1 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 2 Planning the Project

2 2-2 Information Needs Data Collection Instrumentation Data Processing Report Generation Sampling Design Forward Links Backward Links Steps in the Survey Process

3 2-3 Developing the Project Outline 1.List information needs by priority 2.Indicate the value of the information 3.Identify internal resource requirements 4.Specify sample size and design 5.Provide a mock-up of instrumentation 6.Note the scope of the response task 7.Describe the data collection method 8.Outline the data processing method 9.Describe the type of reports required 10.Summarize final costs and the timetable

4 2-4 Circularity in Project Planning Data Processing Data Collection Sampling Design Instrument Design

5 2-5 Information Value and Priority The cost of selecting a "bad" alternative or failing to select the best alternative would be high There's much uncertainty about which alternative to choose, based on existing information Research information is likely to reduce a substantial amount of existing uncertainty

6 2-6 Two Basic Objectives Get everything that is needed Get only what is applicable

7 2-7 Three Levels Of Priority High Critical or essential information Medium Substantial value for decisions Low Background and support only

8 2-8 Data collection costsHighMediumLowLow Data collection time requiredMediumLowMediumHigh Sample size for a given budgetSmallMediumLargeLarge Data quantity per respondentHighMediumLowLow Reaches high proportion of publicYesYesNoYes Reaches widely dispersed sampleNoMaybeYesYes Reaches special locationsYesMaybeNoNo Interaction with respondentsYesYesNoNo Degree of interviewer biasHighMediumNoneNone Severity of non-response biasLowLowHighHigh Presentation of visual stimuliYesNoYesMaybe Field worker training requiredYesYesNoNo Comparison of Data Collection Methods PersonalPhoneOnlin

9 2-9 When Interviews Are Required Interaction with respondents required Some opinions discourage response Adequate mailing lists aren't available Must be done at specific location or time Instrument can't be self-administered Much data needed from each respondent

10 2-10 When Interviews Are Permitted Respondents are closely congregated They won't be embarrassed or threatened

11 2-11 When Personal Interviews Are Required Must be collected at a special location Respondents must have visual contact Interviewer must have visual contact Interviews are long or demands rapport Phone directories are inadequate frames

12 2-12 When Personal Interviews Are Permitted Appearance won't cause selection bias Personal encounter won't cause threat Companions aren't likely to interfere Respondents are closely congregated There is adequate time for data collection

13 2-13 Large Sample Sizes and Small Response Tasks Precise estimates of numeric values required Main interest in Individual items, not patterns Volume of info from each respondent low Self-administered survey requires a simple response task Fixed level of funding Amount of data from each respondent Size of the responding sample Large Small

14 2-14 Small Sample Sizes and Large Response Tasks Only approximate estimates are needed Main interest is in patterns among many variables Amount of data needed from each respondent is high Interviewing permits a large response task Fixed level of funding Amount of data from each respondent Size of the responding sample Large Small

15 2-15 Sampling Design Alternatives Random Sampling Every sample unit has an equal chance of selection Convenience Sampling Some sample units have a greater chance of selection than others

16 2-16 Sampling Design Alternatives Stratified Sampling Subsample strata of specific proportions are selected Unstratified Sampling Strata represented in the same proportions as in the population

17 2-17 Sampling Design Alternatives Clustered Sampling Geographic areas are selected and units sampled from each Unclustered Sampling Sample units are selected regardless of geographic location

18 2-18 Outlining the Questionnaire 1.Identify the topics to be measured based on the information needs 2.Order the topics in a sequence that will be meaningful to respondents 3.Tentatively select question and scale types for each topic to be measured 4.Draft sample questions and compose typical scales for each topic area 5.Organize the items into sections in a logical sequence 6.Compose a rough questionnaire draft outline to serve as a model

19 2-19 Spreadsheet Programs Frequency and Percentage Distributions Some Descriptive Statistics Scatterplots and Regression Tables, Charts and Graphs

20 2-20 Statistical Analysis Programs Complete Data Description Confidence Intervals for Estimates Measures of Relationships Among Variables Statistical Significance of Relationships May Do Tabular Reports May Do Charts, Graphs and Data Plots

21 2-21 Project Cost Elasticity Sample SizeSmallLarge $$ Survey Initiation Report Generation Data Processing Instrument Composition Sampling Procedure Data Collection Total Project Cost 70% of Total Project Cost 30% of Total Project Cost

22 2-22 Mail Survey Project Schedule Chart Information needs Sample selection Questionnaire composition Mailing piece production Mailing and field interval Early analysis programming Data transfer and editing Data analysis, report writing Final report to client Follow up analysis, reports Days From Start

23 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. End of Chapter 2


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