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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 12 Reporting the Information.

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Presentation on theme: "McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 12 Reporting the Information."— Presentation transcript:

1 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 12 Reporting the Information

2 12-2 Written Report Elements Introduction Executive Summary Response Summary Questionnaire Project Overview Body Content Narrative Description of Results Tabular Listings of Numeric Data Graphic Portrayal of Relationships Conclusion Summary of Main Findings Recommendations to Client Technical Appendix

3 12-3 Report Introduction: Executive Summary Limit it to one or two pages Use bullets or very brief paragraphs Use headings to identify sections Strive to excite interest in findings

4 12-4 Report Introduction: Project Overview Highlight main information needs Outline sampling and data collection Briefly describe response outcomes

5 12-5 Report Introduction: Response Summary Use a blank questionnaire Strip out superfluous content Insert percentages or averages

6 12-6 Narrative Body Text: Organization Divide body content into sections Use headings to identify sections Describe the purpose of each section List most important information first Text references should precede tables

7 12-7 Narrative Body Text: Narrative Style Use short, simple, direct sentences Too little is better than too much It’s better to be terse than rambling Avoid technical jargon or buzz-words Use nouns and limit use of pronouns Strive to write as you would speak

8 12-8 Composing Report Tables Number or letter them consecutively Do not use Roman numerals The title should say what’s in the body Label all rows, columns, and sections clearly Use conventional, standard formats Use space and position to show relationships List similar data in rows, columns, or sections

9 12-9 Composing Report Tables Leave ample “white space”—avoid crowding Indicate statistical significance with footnotes Use vertical, not horizontal pages if possible Make each one as self-explanatory as you can Be sure they’re clean, simple, and uncluttered Test them on someone to see if they’re clear Include them after text reference, not before

10 12-10 Creating Charts and Graphs Number or letter all types of figures consecutively Create and use a standard format for similar figures Titles should indicate what bars or lines represent Use major and minor grid lines to show values Use tic labels on the major grid lines to show values Add value labels if quantities aren’t shown by locations Indicate significance with superscripts and footnotes

11 12-11 Creating Charts and Graphs Size figures to fit on vertical, not horizontal pages Make each figure as self-explanatory as possible Make figures clean, simple with ample white space Include depth, shadow, or color only if it won’t detract Have someone examine them to be sure they’re clear Include figures after the text reference if possible

12 12-12 Bar, Line and Area Charts Plain Split Line & Area Stacked

13 12-13 Column and Pie Charts Plain Pie Column Split Stacked

14 12-14 Car Train Bus Taxi Other 230 170 103 30 11 42.3% 31.2% 18.9% 5.5% 2.0% Vehicle Freq. Pct. 19% 6% 2% 31% 42% Other Taxi Bus Train Car 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% CarTrainBusTaxiOther 42% 31% 19% 6% 2% 50%0%10%20%30%40% Other Taxi Bus Train Car 2% 6% 19% 31% 42% Categorical Data Description

15 12-15 0%25%50% 75% 100% Item 5 Item 4 Item 3 Item 2 Item 1 Point 4Point 3Point 2Point 1 Graphing Scale Distributions Segments show proportion of respondents at each scale point. Point 5

16 12-16 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Scale Point Mean 12345 12345 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Mode Scale Point 4.7 4.4 4.3 3.5 3.3 2.7 2.5 1.9 1.4 1.2 Plotting Five-Point Scale Averages

17 12-17 Center-Oriented Comparative Scale Plot Mean Ratings Weight Color Texture Shape Size The SameInferiorSuperior -2.6 -1.3 0.8 1.4 2.2

18 12-18 Fixed Sum Scale Pie Chart

19 12-19 0%25%50% Percent of Each Sex Cash Check Credit Card Bank Debit Men Women Breakdown Split Bar Chart

20 12-20 Plotting Numeric Distributions Coefficient Value 1.0Minimum 25.0Maximum 7265.0Sum 24.0Range 13.2Mean 13.0Median 4.8Std. Dev. 23.1Variance 551.0Count 0 10 20 30 40 50 510152025 Days Per Month Symptoms Were Reported Distribution of Response Median Number of Respondents

21 12-21 SexCoffeeColaSodaTeaTotal Men34%55%7%4%100% Women58%24%7%11%100% 0%25%50%75%100% Men Women Coffee Cola Soda Tea Row Percentage Cross-Tab Report Format Beverage Preferences by Men and by Women

22 12-22 SexCoffeeTeaColaSoda Men37%27%70%50% Women63%73%30%50% Both100%100%100%100% Column Percentage Cross- Tab Report Format Proportions of Men and Women Who Prefer Each Beverage 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% CoffeeTeaColaSoda Women Men

23 12-23 Std. Err.SymbolItemProb. Value Mean Diff..0000.0480.48D Correlation.000R0.95 Determination.0000.3720.90R 2 Slope.0000.0260.79B Intercept.0000.0971.58A VariableNumberStd. Err.Std. Dev.Mean Pre-Test1000.1441.443.45 Post-Test1000.1191.194.30 Combined2000.0981.393.88 Regression of Post-Test on Pre-Test Ratings

24 12-24 Seven-Point Scale Ratings 0 10 20 30 40 1234567 Number of Respondents Pre-Test, Post-Test Data Distribution Plots Post-Test Pre-Test

25 12-25 Variable X 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 1 2 3 4 567 Variable Y y = 0.789x + 1. 795 Pre-Test and Post-Test Regression Scatterplot r = 0.903 P <.001

26 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. End of Chapter 12


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