2 There are two aspects of networking which must be considered when installing either an NCL or LMS product:1. Ethernet Networking (IP)2. Radio Networking (RF)This presentation will focus on the RF side of the NCL and LMS products.
3 RF TerminologyWavelength is the distance between identical points in the adjacent cycles of a waveform. In wireless systems, this length is usually specified in meters, centimeters, or millimeters
4 At 2.4 GHz the wavelength is 12.5cm The size of the wavelength varies depending on the frequency of the signal. Generally speaking, the higher the frequency the smaller the wavelength.The WaveRider family of products operate in the GHz range (NCL and LMS2000) as well as the MHz range (LMS3000).At 2.4 GHz the wavelength is 12.5cmAt 905 MHz the wavelength is 33cm
5 These values are calculated using the following formula: Wavelength = 3 x 102f (frequency in MHz)This calculation is important to remember, especially when installing antennas. Ideally, the antenna should be installed no closer than 10 wavelengths to the nearest reflective surface.
6 Frequency Kilohertz (kHz) Megahertz (MHz) Gigahertz (GHz) Frequency is the number of complete cycles per second in alternating current direction. The standard unit of frequency is the hertz, abbreviated Hz. If a current completes one cycle per second, then the frequency is 1 Hz.Kilohertz (kHz)Megahertz (MHz)Gigahertz (GHz)Terahertz (THz)Audio 20 Hz to 20 KHzFM radio band 88 MHz to 108 MHzNorth American cellular 824 MHz to 896 MHzNational Paging 929 MHz MHzNorth American PCS 1850 MHz to 1990 MHz
7 Frequency Spectrum Basic resource for wireless communications practical radio communication between 3 KHz and 300 GHznew systems designed tend to go higher in frequency providing larger bandwidth
8 Spectrum Mobile bands Upper part of band for base Tx lower part of band for base Rx
9 Tx Power Tx is short for “Transmit” All radios have a certain level or Tx power that the radio generates at the RF interface. This power is calculated as the amount of energy given across a defined bandwidth and is usually measured in one of two units:dBm – a relative power level referencing 1 milliwattW – a linear power level referencing Watts
10 dBm = 10 x log[Power in Watts / 0.001W] W = x 10[Power in dBm / 10 dBm]The NCL and LMS radios have Tx power of +18dBm, which translates into .064 W or 64 mW.
11 Rx Sensitivity Rx is short for “Receive” All radios also have a certain ‘point of no return’, where if they receive a signal less than the stated Rx Sensitivity, the radio will not be able to ‘see’ the data.This is also stated in dBm or W.The NCL and LMS radios have a receive sensitivity of –82 dBm. At this level, a Bit Error Rate (BER) of 10-5 (99.999%) is seen.The actual level received at the radio will vary depending on many factors.
12 Radiated Power dBi: relative to an isotropic radiator In a wireless system, antennas are used to convert electrical waves into electromagnetic waves. The amount of energy the antenna can ‘boost’ the sent and received signal by is referred to as the antennas Gain.Antenna gain is measured in:dBi: relative to an isotropic radiatordBd: relative to a dipole radiator0 dBd = 2.15 dBi
13 There are certain guidelines set by the FCC that must be met in terms of the amount of energy radiated out of an antenna. This ‘energy’ is measured in one of two ways:Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP)measured in dBm = power at antenna input [dBm] + relative antenna gain [dBi]Effective Radiated Power (ERP)measured in dBm = power at antenna input [dBm] + relative antenna gain [dBd]
14 Energy LossesIn all wireless communication systems there are several factors that contribute to the loss of signal strength. Cabling, connectors, lightning arrestors can all impact the performance of your system if not installed properly.In a ‘low power’ system (such as the NCL and LMS products) every dB you can save is important!! Remember the “3 dB Rule”.For every 3 dB gain/loss you will either double your power (gain) or lose half your power (loss).
15 -3 dB = 1/2 power-6 dB = 1/4 power+3 dB = 2x power+6 dB = 4x powerSources of loss in a wireless system: free space, cables, connectors, jumpers, obstructions
16 FCC Guidelines The ISM Bands are defined as follows: 902 to 928 MHz FCC Part 15, Class BUnlicensed operation from to MHzP2P - EIRP : +36 dBm (4 Watts): 3:1 i.e. +24 dBm into 24 dBiP2MP - EIRP : +36 dBm (4 Watts): 3:1 at subscriber (considered P2P)
17 FCC - InstallerSystem must be installed by a “Professional Installer” as defined in FCC Document Part 15;Complete understanding of FCC emissions regulations for unlicensed operation in the 2.4 GHz ISM Band.Installer must have a full understanding of the impact of various types of antennae, amplifiers and other active and passive components on the compliance of the equipment under FCC regulations.
18 FCC - InstallationAn external Power Amp cannot be used in conjunction with WR radio components, in order to comply with FCC regulatory emissions requirements. Use of an external PA device with a WaveRider system is deemed illegal and may result in significant penalty to the manufacturer, seller, and customer.Unique connectors provide means of compliance.Standard connectors require professional installation to ensure compliance.
19 WaveRider High Speed Wireless Systems The NCL and LMS systems are designed to support terrestrial fixed links in an outdoor environment. Typical distances achieved while staying within FCC guidelines are:Point to Multipoint: up to 8kmPoint to Point: up to 15kmThese distances may vary depending on the installation, antennae chosen, cabling, etc.
21 Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Also known as Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA), DSSS is one of two approaches to spread spectrum modulation for digital signal transmission over the air.The stream of information to be transmitted is divided into small pieces, each of which is allocated to a frequency channel across the spectrum.When transmitted, the data is combined with a higher data-rate bit sequence (also known as a chipping code) that divides the data according to a spreading ratio.
22 The transmitter and the receiver must be synchronized with the same spreading code. The chipping code helps the signal resist interference and also enables the original data to be recovered if data bits are damaged during transmission.22 MHz wide
24 Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum Also known as Frequency Hopping Code Division Multiple Access (FH-CDMA), FHSS radios transmit "hops" between available frequencies according to a specified algorithm which can be either random or preplanned.The transmitter operates in synchronization with a receiver, which remains tuned to the same center frequency as the transmitter.
25 FHSS – an example Hopset Each channel 1MHz wide f5 f4 f3 f2 f1 1 2 3 4 6789101112TIME
26 Signal PropagationAs the signal leaves the antenna it propagates, or disperses, into space. The antenna selection will determine how much propagation will occur.At 2.4 GHz it is extremely important to ensure a that a path (or tunnel) between the two antennas is clear of any obstructions. Should the propagating signal encounter any obstructions in the path, signal degradation will occur.Trees, buildings, hydro poles, and towers are common examples of path obstructions.
27 FSL(dB) = 32.45 + 20Log10F(MHz) + 20Log10D(km) The greatest amount of loss in your wireless system will be from Free Space Propagation. The Free Space Loss is predictable and given by the formula:FSL(dB) = Log10F(MHz) + 20Log10D(km)The Free Space Loss at 1km using a 2.4 GHz system is:FSL(dB) = Log10(2400) + 20Log10(1)== dB
28 Line of SightAttaining good Line of Sight (LOS) between the sending and receiving antenna is essential in both Point to Point and Point to Multipoint installations.Generally there are two types of LOS that are used discussed during installations:Optical LOS - is related to the ability to see one site from the otherRadio LOS – related to the ability of the receiver to ‘see’ the transmitted signal
29 To quantify Radio Line of Sight, the Fresnel Zone theory is applied To quantify Radio Line of Sight, the Fresnel Zone theory is applied. Think of the Fresnel Zone as a football shaped tunnel between the two sites which provides a path for the RF signals.At WaveRider acceptable Radio Line of Sight means that at least 60% of the first Fresnel Zone plus 3 meters is clear of any obstructions.
31 The First Fresnel Zone d1 d2 Site A Site B Radius of n th Fresnel Zone given by:Site A21dnr+=ld2d1Fresnel Zone diameter depends upon Wavelength, and Distances from the sites along axisFor minimum Diffraction Loss, clearance of at least 0.6F1+ 3m is requiredSite B
32 When obstructions intrude on the first Fresnel Zone many issues can arise which will affect the performance of the system. The main issues are:1. Reflectionincident wave propagates away from smooth scattering planemultipath fading is when secondary waves arrive out-of-phase with the incident wave causing signal degradation
33 2. Refractionincident wave propagates through scattering plane but at an anglefrequencies less than 10 GHz are not affected by heavy rains, snow, “pea-soup” fogat 2.4 GHz, attenuation is 0.01 dB/Km for 150mm/hr of rain3. Diffractionincident wave passes around obstruction into shadow regions
34 The Path ProfilePath Profile characteristics may change over time, due to vegetation, building construction, etc.Path Profile characteristics may change over time, due to vegetation, building construction, etc.
36 Antenna - How it WorksThe antenna converts radio frequency electrical energy fed to it (via the transmission line) to an electromagnetic wave propagated into space.The physical size of the radiating element is proportional to the wavelength. The higher the frequency, the smaller the antenna size.Assuming that the operating frequency in both cases is the same, the antenna will perform identically in Transmit or Receive mode
37 The type of system you are installing will help determine the type of antenna used. Generally speaking, there are two ‘types’ of antennae:Directional- this type of antenna has a narrow beamwidth; with the power being more directional, greater distances are usually achieved but area coverage is sacrificed- Yagi, Panel, Sector and Parabolic antennae- an EUM, NCL Station/Master will use this type of antenna in both Point to Point and Point to Multipoint
38 Omni-Directional- this type of antenna has a wide beamwidth and radiates 3600; with the power being more spread out, shorter distances are achieved but greater coverage attained- Omni antenna- a CCU or an NCL Master will use this type of antenna
39 Yagi better suited for shorter links lower dBi gain; usually between 7 and 15 dBi
47 Antenna Radiation Patterns Common parametersmain lobe (boresight)half-power beamwidth (HPBW)front-back ratio (F/B)pattern nullsTypically measured in two planes:Vector electric field referred to E-fieldVector magnetic field referred to H-field
48 PolarizationAn antennas polarization is relative to the E-field of antenna.If the E-field is horizontal, than the antenna is Horizontally Polarized.If the E-field is vertical, than the antenna is Vertically Polarized.No matter what polarity you choose, all antennas in the same RF network must be polarized identically regardless of the antenna type.
49 Polarization may deliberately be used to: Increase isolation from unwanted signal sources (Cross Polarization Discrimination (x-pol) typically 25 dB)Reduce interferenceHelp define a specific coverage areaHorizontalVertical
50 Antenna ImpedanceA proper Impedance Match is essential for maximum power transfer. The antenna must also function as a matching load for the Transmitter ( 50 ohms).Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR), is an indicator of how well an antenna matches the transmission line that feeds it.It is the ratio of the forward voltage to the reflected voltage. The better the match, the Lower the VSWR. A value of 1.5:1 over the frequency band of interest is a practical maximum limit.
51 Return Loss is related to VSWR, and is a measure of the signal power reflected by the antenna relative to the forward power delivered to the antenna.The higher the value (usually expressed in dB), the better. A figure of 13.9dB is equivalent to a VSWR of 1.5:1. A Return Loss of 20dB is considered quite good, and is equivalent to a VSWR of 1.2:1.
54 Environmental Effects Ice and wind loading, Salt sprayRadomes used to improve performance in icy, windy conditions (more common with larger solid parabolic dishes). Wind loading can be reduced substantially by using a radome.Wind loading can produce vibration, which in turn can produce azimuth errors. For longer paths, this can be critical.Installation - pay close attention to proper sealing of all connector junctions.
62 The Transmission LineThe type of cable selected depends mostly on the length of that cable required. Generally, the longer the cable run the better the cable must be in terms of attenuation.Attenuation refers to the degradation of the signal as it travels through the cable. This is usually stated as a loss in dB per 100 feet.Andrew Corporation HeliaxTimes MicrowaveLMR types
64 Transmission Line Selection Physical Characteristics:Bend radiusDiameter - transition considerations (interface ‘jumper cable’ use)Environmental considerationsPlenum installation (fire retardant)Special weather-resistant typesUV resistance very important in tropics
65 Line Loss or Attenuation paramount – refer to your Link Budget Calculations to determine how much loss is acceptable and still have a viable link.Foam dielectric, Air Dielectric, Pressurized types of Coaxial Cable. Waveguide use also possible but typically not cost-effective
66 ConnectorsYour connector selection will be determined based on the following:connector gender at antennatype of cable being useduse of lightning protectiongender of jumpers being used
67 Antennas – usually Female Lightning Arrestors – usually Female For the most part the cabling manufacturers also manufacture the connectors that go on the cables. ‘Knock off’ connectors are available, but don’t always fit the cable the way the manufacturers connectors do.Generally the only decision that needs to be made is what gender of connector to install…Male or FemaleAntennas – usually FemaleLightning Arrestors – usually Female
69 The Lightning Arrestor To avoid the potential for damage during a lightning strike, the use of lightning is highly recommended.For maximum protection, ground must be connected close to point of entry into building - within 2ft.Typically structural steel OK for ground connectionDo not use Gas Lines or Water pipes.Check Electrical Code for grounding restrictions.Typical Lightning Arrestor
70 Network Feasibility Assessment Through WaveRiders Professional Services Group (PSG), a Network Feasibility Assessment can be done to establish the viability of a proposed wireless network with either the NCL or LMS products.System and Program PlanningImplementation ManagementApplication engineeringNetwork engineeringBackhaul Design
71 - Electrical Inspection Certified electrician, equipment groundingPrimary Power SourcesSite Lease / CostsAntennaFloor space
72 Link Budget Calculations To establish the viability of a link prior to installing any equipment, a Link Budget Calculation needs to be made. Performing this calculation will give you an idea as to how much room for path loss you have, and give you an idea as to link quality.Using the WaveRider Link Path Analysis Tool (LPA Tool), the Fade Margin and other link criteria can be mathematically calculated to determine link quality.
73 Fade MarginDefined as the difference between the Receive Signal Level RSL, and the Rx Threshold or other chosen reference Level.For path lengths of 16km or less, a minimum 10dB Fade Margin is recommendedIe. If you have an RSL of –60dB and a Rx Threshold of –72dB, than your fade Margin would be 12dB
74 Path Loss (dB)Field Factor (dB)Antenna Gain(dBi)Cable Losses(dB)ConnectorLossesABReceived Signal Level(dBm) = Tx Output (dBm) - PathLoss(dB) - Field Factor (dB) + Total Antenna Gains (dB) - TotalCable Losses (dB) - Total Connector Losses (dB)Tx Output (dBm)