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Readiness standards comprise 65% of the U. S. History Test 3 (C)

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Presentation on theme: "Readiness standards comprise 65% of the U. S. History Test 3 (C)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Readiness standards comprise 65% of the U. S. History Test 3 (C)

2 Readiness Standard (3) The student understands the political, economic, & social changes in the U. S. from 1877 to The Student is expected to: (C) Analyze social issues affecting women, minorities, children, immigrants, urbanization, the Social Gospel, & philanthropy of industrialists

3 Readiness Standard (3) The student understands the political, economic, & social changes in the U. S. from 1877 to (C) 1 Social issues affecting women

4 The Four Cardinal Virtues for Women Piety Purity Submission Domesticity

5 Readiness Standard (3) The student understands the political, economic, & social changes in the U. S. from 1877 to (C) 2 Social issues affecting minorities

6 Reconstruction Roots of the Problem Resulting state constitutions required by President Andrew Johnson limited suffrage to whites Institution of various “Black Codes” that subjected former slaves to “special regulations and restrictions on their freedom” Collectively, all this appeared to be the old institution of slavery just dressed up in new clothes—a new and creative system to keep Blacks in subjugation.

7 Congress Takes Charge In early 1866, Johnson’s vetoed to two bills passed by Congress precipitating an irreconcilable break: Bill to extend life of Freedmen’s Bureau (established March 1865) Civil rights bill to nullify Black Codes It sought to guarantee “full and equal benefit of all laws and proceedings for the security of person and property as is enjoyed by all white citizens”

8 Johnson’s vetoes shocked moderate Republicans who heretofore had hope to work with the White House. The president thereby alienated those who might have worked with him.

9 Congressional response: 14th and 15th amendments Congress feared Johnson would not enforce civil rights legislation Congress passed 14th and 15th amendments

10 To the left, “Reconstruction— How it Works,” Thomas Nast cartoon in Harper’s Weekly. Using Shakespearian imagery that would have been familiar to mid-19th century American readers, Nast casts Johnson as Iago from Othello. A wounded Black Union veteran represents Othello. On the wall, Johnson’s slogans—“Treason is a crime and must be made odious” and “I am your Moses”—appear. At center left one sees a flurry of presidential pardons issued by Johnson to Confederate offenders; at center right, presidential vetoes abound.

11 Columbia (left, representing the U.S.) pardons Robert E. Lee while right, the Black Freedman is no so easily accommodated

12 The 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments S Thirteenth Amendment—Congressional passage January 1865; ratification December 1865 Prohibited slavery in the U.S. C Fourteenth Amendment—Congressional passage June 1866; ratification July 1868 gave right of citizenship to freedmen V Fifteenth Amendment—Congressional passage February 1869; ratification March 1870 prohibited denial of franchise or the vote because of race, color, or past servitude

13 Segregation in American Education— Plessy v. Ferguson John H. Ferguson ( ), the Orleans Parish criminal court judge who ruled in the original case John Marshall Harlan, the only Supreme Court Justice who ruled in favor of Homer A. Plessy The Supreme Court (7-1) upholds a Louisiana law requiring separate railroad cars for Blacks and whites The ruling gave impetus to a host of Jim Crow laws that began to be introduced in the South

14 Readiness Standard (3) The student understands the political, economic, & social changes in the U. S. from 1877 to (C) 3 Social issues affecting children Child Labor & Poverty vs. Education

15 Readiness Standard (3) The student understands the political, economic, & social changes in the U. S. from 1877 to (C) 4 Social issues affecting immigrants

16 The growth of urban slums accompanied the rapidly expanding urbanization process... and the working class filled this particular feature of growing American cities.

17 Immigration to America Waves of immigration poured into the U.S. in the late- 19th century. While this was not new, the origin of these immigrants— Southern and Eastern Europe— was indeed new. Italian wave in 1887 to escape cholera epidemic—Italians constituted the largest number of new immigrants**

18 Arrival of Russian Jews The assassination of Tsar Alexander II ( below) triggered a wave of persecutions against Jews in Russia.** Tsarist persecution in Russia and Russian controlled Poland—Jews were the second largest number of new immigrants

19 While immigration to American had long been from Europe, until this juncture, about 85% had come from the 18 B Northwestern European countries-- the British Isles, Germany, and Scandinavia Immigration now came mainly from Italy, Greece, Austria-Hungary, Poland, and Russia

20 Motives for Coming to escape poverty to escape drought to escape disease to escape religious persecution to escape political persecution to find a better life to find employment

21 Immigrant Profile Between there were 6.3 million immigrants into the U.S. 18 By 1890, about 15% of the population—9 million—were foreign born Most were between ages Most settled on the eastern seaboard, especially in the industrial cities and port towns of the northeast Most were poor, unskilled, settled in ethnic communities of their national origin Most resisted assimilation

22 Evolving Immigrant Stereotype

23 Backlash to Immigration Anti-Catholicism and Anti-Semitism rose Many wondered whether these immigrants would become a challenge to traditional American values

24 Readiness Standard (3) The student understands the political, economic, & social changes in the U. S. from 1877 to (C) 5 Urbanization

25 What are the main architectural symbols of the medieval era? What are the main architectural symbols of the modern era?

26 Toward an Urban Society, Reliance Building, Chicago—1894 Monadnock Building, Chicago—1889 Railway Exchange, Chicago—1904

27 Columbia University historian Richard Hofstadter, American historian Richard Hofstadter observed that “‘The United States was born in the country and moved to the city.’... That migration, and the urban growth that accompanied it, reshaped American politics and culture.”

28 “Two major forces reshaped American society between 1870 and One was industrialization (see Chapter 18); the other was urbanization.... By 1920, the city had become the center of American economic, social, and cultural life.... Between 1870 and 1900, the city—like the factory—became a symbol of the new America

29 Why Cities Attracted People Lured by the glitter and excitement of the city Friends or relatives already in the city Greater opportunities for jobs or higher wages Percentage of American Population living in cities of 8,000 or more: 1860—16.6% 1890—33.3% 1920—50 %

30 Chicago as a Model -- the Symbol of Urban Growth in 1800s To the left is a map of Chicago in Chicago marked the point where railroads and shipping lanes met. Above is a picture of the Chicago skyline as it is today, along the shores of Lake Michigan. Chicago’s Union Station

31 The growth of urban slums accompanied the rapidly expanding urbanization process... and the working class filled this particular feature of growing American cities.

32 City Life Population Shift Skyscrapers as a symbol of the new city life Streetcars and new residential patterns The streetcar revolutionized the relationship between the worker and the work place. Likewise, it altered the relationship between the shopper and the merchant. In both casers, things no longer had to be within walking distance.

33 Problems Faced by Rapidly Expanding Cities? Overcrowded tenement housing, slums (led to crime, disease, misery) No place to dispose of sewage, garbage Disease from lack of good, proper hygiene Crime Corrupt politicians—enriched selves from their positions of power in running the city

34 Readiness Standard (3) The student understands the political, economic, & social changes in the U. S. from 1877 to (C) 6 The Social Gospel

35 The book expressed a paternalistic view, i.e., the poor are not capable of making their own (a.k.a., wise) decisions

36 The Philosophy of Laissez-faire Carnegie’s “Gospel of Wealth” Defended accumulation of wealth Asserted responsibility of wealthy to spend properly Act as “trustee” for poorer brethren Donate money to worthy causes

37 The “Self-Made Man The Boot-strap Philosophy—Combination of hard work and good luck = fortune... How is this argument true? The Horatio Alger stories (left) popularized the idea that hard work led to upward mobility. Across the Atlantic, author Samuel Smiles ( , right) published an English version of this philosophy

38 Social Darwinism and Survival of the Fittest Charles Darwin (above, ) Darwin’s seminal work appeared in 1859

39 Influence of Darwinism The publication of Charles Darwin’s Origin of the Species in 1859 had a far greater impact than altering the Western view of biology. Many late-19th century intellectuals applied Darwin’s principles like “survival of the fittest” and “natural selection” to human society. These social Darwinists saw the human world as a struggles in which only the strong survived. Meanwhile, Darwin’s opponents lampooned the English author, likening him to the monkey from whom man allegedly evolved.

40 Survival of the Fittest Herbert Spencer ( ) applied Darwinist principles to human society William Graham Sumner (above, ), was a Yale University political and social science professor—- arguments like his suggested that millionaires were the products of natural selection. In 1883, Sumner published What Social Classes Owe One Another. Government interference / regulation in business world went against natural law. Laissez-faire economic philosophy rejected government involvement in economy, planning over a free market economy. Free market forces were good since they eliminated weaker competitors from business.

41 Social Critics and Dissenters John Greenleaf Whittier ( , left)—aging rural poet who critiqued the influence of urbanization and industrialization. At the Centennial Exhibition held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1876, Whittier refused to view the exposition’s focal point—the powerful, giant Corliss steam engine—suggesting that this symbol of emerging American industry was like the serpent in the Garden of Eden.

42 Post-1870 Realism, Naturalism, and Darwinism Joel Chandler Harris (left) and George Washington Cable (right, ). These two authors depicted life in the South. Harris wrote the Uncle Remus tales (far right).

43 The Social Gospel Practically Applied Movement within many churches arguing that before souls could be saved, the lives of the wretchedly poor must be improved—movement pushed for shorter work day, six-day work week, and elimination of child labor.

44 Settlement Houses 18 D—2 Settlement houses became labs for urban reform— most social workers believed it would require government intervention (anti- laissez-faire philosophy) to correct the problems Jane Addams ( ) and Hull House in Chicago Chicago’s Hull House

45 Lillian Wald ( ) Social worker who pioneered public health nursing Founded Henry Street Settlement in New York in 1893 Began New York school of nursing in 1902 Helped establish Federal Children’s Bureau in 1912

46 Readiness Standard (3) The student understands the political, economic, & social changes in the U. S. from 1877 to (C) 7 Philanthropy of industrialists

47 Rockefeller Philanthropy (among other things) $80 to University of Chicago Major funding to Yale, Harvard, Columbia, Brown, Bryn Mawr, Wellesley, & Vassar Founded Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, 1901 Created Rockefeller Foundation, 1913 Endowed Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene & Public Health

48 Carnegie Philanthropy (among other things) At age 65, sold Carnegie Steel for $480 million & devoted remainder of his life to philanthropic activities Gave away over $350 million, centering most around education & world peace Spent over $56 million to build 2,509 libraries throughout the English-speaking world Founded 13 different trusts including: Carnegie Foundation Carnegie Library & Museum of Pittsburgh Carnegie Mellon University Carnegie Corporation of New York

49 Fini


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