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UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 1 UAF Toxicology and Ecosystem Impacts INE, Dr. Robert A. Perkins, PE IAB, Dr. Mary Beth Leigh Kelly McFarlin.

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Presentation on theme: "UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 1 UAF Toxicology and Ecosystem Impacts INE, Dr. Robert A. Perkins, PE IAB, Dr. Mary Beth Leigh Kelly McFarlin."— Presentation transcript:

1 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 1 UAF Toxicology and Ecosystem Impacts INE, Dr. Robert A. Perkins, PE IAB, Dr. Mary Beth Leigh Kelly McFarlin

2 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 2 Over viewing INE Tox Eco INE and Toxicology uWith IAB Dispersants and Oil Spills Testing Programs and Capabilities Types Laboratory Testing (Kelly) Current Biodegredation Use of Data in Decision-Making Partners and Friends 2

3 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 3 Personnel INE IAB 3

4 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 4 Oil Spills and Dispersants “After oil is spilled, nothing good happens.” Mechanical Recovery In situ Burning Mechanical (Natural) Dispersion Chemical Dispersion 4

5 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 5 5

6 6 6

7 7 7

8 8 HOW DISPERSANTS WORK THE GOAL: REDUCE OIL CONCENTRATION TO LESS THAN IMPACT LEVELS AS RAPIDLY AS POSSIBLE 8

9 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 9 Mixing oil and water Slide Courtesy of Alun Lewis 9

10 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 10 Why do small oil droplets float more slowly than large oil droplets ?  h/t = D 2 (  w -  o )g 18  w Small oil droplets rise much more slowly than large droplets STOKES LAW Slide Courtesy of Alun Lewis 10

11 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 11 Effectiveness Type of oil Weathering state Sea state and weather conditions Generally published for major dispersant formulations UAF has done standard lab tests on these Meso-scale tests are common 11

12 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 12 Removes Oil from Surface 12

13 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 13 Puts oil into the water column Fig Concentrations of oil in the water column following dispersal of a 0.1 mm thick slick of fresh oil treated with a chemical dispersant (after Lewis and Aurand, 1997) 13

14 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 14 Are Dispersants Toxic? 14

15 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 15

16 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 16 Scientific toxicology Seeks to understand the natural laws regarding effects Applied toxicology Seeks to establish safe doses (concentrations) 16

17 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 17 ndustrialtoxicology.html 17

18 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 18 Blue is therapeutic effect Green is harmful effect 18

19 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 19 LC50? Method of comparing chemicals and situations Modeling 19

20 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 20

21 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 21 DISPERSION EFFECT Water Currents Distribute Oil Over Wide Area OF THE WATER COLUMN 21

22 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 22 OK, but Are dispersants toxic? 22

23 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 23 CROSERF Chemical Response to Oil Spills: Ecological Effects Research Forum Boxes of Literature No standardized : Oil Weathering state Dispersant Dosing rate or method Analysis Species Mixing 23

24 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 24 Sponsors of Research Texas General Land Office (TGLO); Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FL DEP); California Office of Oil Spill Prevention and Response (CA OSPR); Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation (ADEC); Exxon Corporation; American Petroleum Institute (API), and Marine Spill Response Corporation (MSRC). 24

25 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 25 Plus Minerals Management Service (MMS); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Chevron Corporation 25

26 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 26 Universities and Sponsors University of California, Santa Cruz (later UC Davis) - CA OSPR University of South Florida - FL DEP Texas A&M University - TGLO University of Alaska Fairbanks - ADEC 26

27 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 27 CROSERF Testing Standard species and standard oil Calibrate labs Standard species and local oil Is our oil different? Local species and local oil Are our local species different? 27

28 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 28

29 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 29 Test Regimes Species Mysid uFish larvae uTanner crab larvae uMicrotox Oils uPBCO uANS, Fresh uANS, Weathered 200 deg. C. 29

30 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 30 Treatment uWAF [water accommodated fraction] uCE-WAF [chemically enhanced WAF] Exposure, 96-hr uChambers uStatic with Renewal 30

31 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 31 Almost forgot VOA uC6-C9 BTEX TPH uC10-C36 THC, and Loading 31

32 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 32 Whoops Warm 25 °C Cold 4 to 7 °C 32

33 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 33 Fresh CE-WAF 33

34 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 34 Eco Tox Testing Goals Test relevant species Sensitive life stage As close to environment conditions beneath a spill Establish dose-response Input to modeling environmental effects 34

35 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 35 Test Species Whales to microorganisms Best would be convenient and relevant, Convenient - amenable to laboratory testing Relevant - important to the ecosystem in question, recognized by the public, sensitive to the chemical. “Standard” test species uAll warm, 20 C, water 35

36 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 36 KELLY 36

37 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 37 Arctic Testing Toxicitiy 37

38 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 38 Background Joint Industry Program to Evaluate the Effects of Dispersed Oil on Cold Water Environments of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas (JIP) JIP sponsors: Shell, ExxonMobil, Statoil, Conoco March 2008 workshop facilitated focus of research and methods used Workshop participants: local community, academia, resource agencies and industry UAF, NOAA, MMS, NSB, ExxonMobil, Shell, PWSSC, PWSRCAC, USCG, ACS, AKVAPLAN-NIVA, and SINTEF Workshop proceedings uIdentified two key arctic species for toxicity testing that were primarily chosen based on their location in the pelagic food web Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) Copepod (Calanus glacialis) 38

39 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 39 Arctic Cod (Boreogadus saida) 39

40 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 40 Copepod (Calanus glacialis) 40

41 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 41 Sculpin (Myoxocephalus sp.) 41

42 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 42 Barrow Laboratory The Barrow Arctic Research Center, Barrow, Alaska 42

43 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 43 KELLY 43

44 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 44 Field Expeditions 44

45 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 45

46 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 46 Oil type? Chukchi, Beaufort 46

47 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 47 END Kelly Kelly on difference with arctic and non speices Lag time, etc. Bio degredaiton AMOP IOSC PEER REVIEW 47

48 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 48 Use of Data Confront misinformation u“Microbes that degrade oil are not present in the Arctic” – testimony to Oil Spill Commission “Regardless of their effectiveness, questions remain regarding the potential toxicity and impacts of dispersants on Arctic ecosystems.” xii [National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling. OFFSHORE DRILLING IN THE ARCTIC: BACKGROUND AND ISSUES FOR THE FUTURE CONSIDERATION OF OIL AND GAS ACTIVITIES Staff Working Paper No. 13 quoting from prevention-and-response-in-the-us-arctic-ocean-unexamined-risks- unacceptable-consequences ]http://www.pewenvironment.org/news-room/reports/oil-spill- prevention-and-response-in-the-us-arctic-ocean-unexamined-risks- unacceptable-consequences

49 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 49 Modeling 49

50 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 50 Forward and Current Models Forward uSet limits on dispersant use uPre-approvals uWater depth uGeography Current uSpill response options uRisk analysis, NEBA 50

51 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 51 Models Use wind and current data Need oil properties with time Predict location and thickness of slick Predict concentration of oil in water column Analyze harm to marine life uNeed time of year and other details Long term uBeached uBiodegraded 51

52 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 52 Experience and Capability Arctic Marine Tox, bio deg, eco Testing uTwo years Barrow Lab uSet up lab uHSE issues uIACUC uBASC, administration 52

53 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 53 Friends and Partners CROSERF uSeward Marine Center uSeaLife Center Current work with Creosote in Southeast uUAS uNOAA NMFS NSB Wildlife, others JIP uShell, ExxonMobil, Statoil, Conoco 53

54 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 54 TAC of JIP NOAA BOEMRE EPA ADEC COOGER uCentre for Offshore Oil, Gas and Energy Research uFisheries and Oceans Canada SINTEF uJoint industry program on oil spill contingency for Arctic and ice covered waters 54

55 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 55 Arctic Species Sensitivity Distribution Gro Harlaug Olsen, Lionel Camus, Mathijs Smit, Tim Smith, Iris Jæger, JoLynn Carroll, 55

56 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS 56 Questions, Discussion 56


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