Presentation on theme: "Recidivism in the Rhode Island Juvenile Corrections Population Kevin Aucoin, JD & Colleen Caron, Ph.D. Rhode Island Department of Children, Youth & Families."— Presentation transcript:
Recidivism in the Rhode Island Juvenile Corrections Population Kevin Aucoin, JD & Colleen Caron, Ph.D. Rhode Island Department of Children, Youth & Families
2 Following the recommendations outlined in the Council of Juvenile Corrections Administrators (CJCA) white paper “Defining and Measuring Recidivism” Rhode Island DCYF is examining re- incarceration and recidivism rates for adjudicated youth. Analyses have been conducted for youth who have been incarcerated at the Rhode Island Training School and for youth who have been sentenced to probation. Framework
CJCA Definitions CJCA recommends assessing recidivism at 5 points in the process: Arrest Filing of Charges Adjudication or Conviction Commitment to juvenile facility Commitment to adult facility We are using a new adjudication or conviction to define recidivism for our population.
Barriers The structure of the RI data system has historically made it difficult to systematically assess recidivism beyond an adjudicated return to the training school. Previous studies have involved hand counting to determine rates of recidivism. In addition it has been difficult to obtain data from the adult system. Recently we obtained incarceration (but not probation) data from the adult system. Our research collaboration with Yale University has resulted in changes to the MIS system. In addition, the Yale team has conducted analyses to determine re-incarceration & recidivism rates.
5 Cohort defined as the youth who have had an adjudicated stay (14 days or longer) at the Rhode Island Training School. Analyses include: Examination of re-incarceration (to adult or juvenile corrections). Examination of recidivism defined as an adjudication that results in incarceration or probation in either the juvenile or adult corrections systems. Recidivism of Incarcerated Youth
6 Recidivism analyses for youth sentenced to probation include: ▫Recidivism that results in a new sentence of probation (juvenile or adult systems) or an adjudicated return to the juvenile or adult corrections facilities. ▫Analyses to examine the recidivism patterns for youth whose probation sentence includes placement in a Temporary Community Placement (TCP) facility are planned, but not yet completed. Recidivism of Youth on Probation
Rhode Island Methods Recidivism defined as new adjudication (not a technical VOP) that resulted in: ▫Any sentence within Juvenile Corrections including: Incarceration at Rhode Island Training School Probation within the juvenile corrections system Incarceration in the Adult Corrections Institute (ACI) within one or two years of release. New adjudications to Adult Probation not included as that data is not yet available.
Rhode Island Training School Cohort consists of each episode where youth was released from Rhode Island Training School (RITS) in 2007 (n=296), 2008 (n=267) and 2009 (n=178). ▫The 2009 sample only includes youth released from 1/1/09 to 10/15/09 as follow-up data was only available through 10/15/10. Episode defined as a release from an adjudicated stay at RITS (> 14 days). Clock starts when the youth is released from the RITS.
Rhode Island Training School: Recidivism Rates for Release Cohorts *Two year follow-up data is not yet available for the 2009 cohort.
Total number of adjudicated releases (RITS stay ≥ 14 days) * Mean age of juveniles during RITS stay SD = 1.19 R: SD=1.33 R: SD=1.12 R=13-19 Modal age of juveniles during RITS stay17 Total number of recidivism events within 1 year of release 66 (22.3%) 69 (25.8%) 37 (20.8%) Total number of recidivism events within 2 years of release 103 (34.80%) 109 (40.82%) n/a RITS Recidivism Results *2009 sample includes youth released from the RITS between 1/1/09 and 10/15/09 As follow-up data was only available through 10/15/10 two-year recidivism rates are not yet available for this cohort.
Rhode Island Juvenile Probation Cohort consists of each opening to probation in 2007 (n=1,141) and 2008 (n=1,101). This includes youth sentenced to RITS who served their sentence in Temporary Community Placement (TCP) as these youth are open to probation. Probation episodes that were a continuation of a RITS sentence are not included. Recidivism occurs if there is a new charge (> 7 days) after probation episode opens.
Recidivism Rates for Rhode Island Juvenile Probation Entry Cohorts
Total number of youth open to probation1,1411,110 Mean age of juveniles open to probation SD = 1.53 R: SD=1.60 R: Modal age of juveniles when opened to probation1617 Total number of recidivism events within 1 year of opening 290 (25.4%) 236 (21.3%) Total number of recidivism events within 2 years of opening385 (33.7%) 349 (31.4%) Probation Recidivism Results
Disposition for Recidivism Events ProbationRITS
Current Status While we have made significant progress this year in understanding our recidivism rates, we still have additional work to do. ▫Additional changes need to be made to our information system so that charges are attached to movement through the JC system. ▫Exploration of recidivism for youth served on TCP is needed. ▫More in depth analysis of the trajectories for youth involved in our system are needed.
Predictors of Recidivism We are interested in understanding whether there are any risk or protective factors that may predict recidivism for youth involved in the juvenile corrections system. ▫Initial work utilizing one cohort of youth from the RITS sample has begun. ▫Variables explored include: Demographics (age, gender, race/ethnicity) History of substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect Charge (delinquent vs other charges)
2007 RITS Release Cohort Characteristics of the Cohort (N=296) AgeMean Age: (SD=1.18)Modal age: 17 N% Male % Race/Ethnicity African American/Black9331.4% Caucasian8528.7% Hispanic/Latino9130.7% Multiracial or Other165.4% Indicated Child Abuse and Neglect Report % Delinquency Charge %
Survival Analysis Survival analysis can be used to estimate the impact of characteristics or other covariates on the time until recidivism event (Fendrick & Archer, 1998). Cox’s proportional-hazards model was used to estimate the relative rate of re-adjudication (hazard function) across time by youth and charge characteristics.
Overall Recidivism (N=296)
Predictors of Recidivism at 1 Year Variables Included in AnalysisHazard’s Ratio (>1 more likely) Youth Age (older youth as compared to younger) With every 1 year increase in age, 20% decrease risk.780** Youth Gender (as compared to males).311 Youth Race/Ethnicity (as compared to Caucasian) African American1.097 Latino.850 Other1.269 Substantiated Child Abuse and Neglect History (as compared to history of abuse neglect).999 Delinquency Charge (as compared to charge for delinquency) * Youth age only variable predicted recidivism for 1 year after release 1.121
Gender and Recidivism
Summary Rhode Island has made substantial progress in the past year in aligning our data systems so that we can determine our juvenile recidivism rates based on the definition proposed by CJCA. Over the next 6-months we will continue to analyze recidivism rates for different cohorts (e.g., youth on TCP). Analyses to understand risk and protective factors that may impact recidivism and the trajectories of youth served by our system will also be conducted.
CJCA - Recidivism Committee We want you!!! Next Steps 1. Looking for State's interested in implementing the standardized recidivism measures within your jurisdiction. 2. Strategize on how this data can be utilized to measure both quantitative and qualitative outcomes on both a federal, state and county level. 3. Connecting the data on recidivism with the positive youth outcome measures. 4. Exploring opportunities for financial assistance to support this initiative.