5 Benefits of reentry programming Save time and moneyinformation sharingcollaborationreduced duplication of effortReduce the likelihood that a released inmate will commit a new crimeReduced recidivism increases public safetyAddresses community issues such as homelessness, addiction, public health, and mental illness
6 THE SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM 2 million people incarcerated in the U.S.One out of every 100 Americans1 of every 31 Americans is incarcerated, on probation, or on paroleSource: The Pew Center
8 THE SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM Local governments spent $109 million on criminal justice in 2006 (U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics)States spend $52 billion annually, mostly on prisons (The PEW Center)2011 budget request for federal prisons, probation, detention, and courthouse security was $9 billion (U.S. Department of Justice)
9 The scope of the problem 600,000 released from prison each year (Hughes and Wilson, 2003)After 3 years, 43% return (The PEW center, 2011)95% return to our communities.
11 Reentry and reducing recidivism We need to be focusing on doing what works to reduce recidivism and to prepare offenders for a successful reentry into society.
12 The current situation“ those who violate the law and victimize others must be held accountable…for the long-term protection of the community, sentencing and corrections should be using the lessons of research to shape practices that reduce offenders’ likelihood of committing crimes and victimizing their fellow citizens in the future…in light of the harsh fiscal realities of the day, both goals must be pursued through the wise use of public resources.” (Nat’l Institute of Corrections)
13 What research tells us about offenders 68 percent abusing or dependent on alcohol or drugs44 percent without high school diploma or GED30 percent unemployed prior to arrest16 percent suffer from serious mental health problems44 percent homeless in year prior to arrest72 percent of mentally ill inmates have a substance abuse problem(Bureau of Justice Statistics)18% of gen. pop don’t have GED/diploma
14 exerciseTake a look at the last sheet of your handouts. Look at it for 10 seconds, then turn it over.
15 If 10 sec. can impact how we see things, how much can a lifetime of experience affect us? We take in the same info, but we interpret them differently.
22 ExerciseFINISHED FILES ARE THE RESULT OF YEARS OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY COMBINED WITH THE EXPERIENCE OF MANY EXPERTS.Read the card. Count how many F’s you see. Who saw 1, 2, 3, etc. F’s represent lost opportunities.
29 Our worldviewWhat do we really think about the offenders we work with?What do we believe about their ability to change?What do we believe about our ability to help them change?“I’ve heard it all before” We fall into ruts, we get burned out.
30 Our worldviewIf we believe inmates are just a bunch of losers who can’t change, are we really going to work to reach out to them?Why don’t we quit, if we don’t believe anything works?
31 Our typical interventions We can only control our part of the equationWe stoke offender resistance with our negative attitudesTheir comfort zone includes arguing about their belief systems
32 Effective communication with offenders ListenShow RESPECTFirm, Fair, ConsistentHold them accountableOwn what you teachCrawl into their mindsCreate environment where offender can be real with you, and you with him/her
33 Effective communication with offenders In short, be more of an Andy Griffith than a Barney Fife
34 Effective communication with offenders Offender isn’t challenged this way in his usual social network.You may be the only person challenging his/her belief system in a nonthreatening way.
35 Effective communication with offenders Every man is my superior, in that I may learn from him. -Thomas CarlyleOffenders can teach you a lot about offenders, if you let them.
36 Effective communication with offenders “I gave it my best”Our best should be better a year from now.
37 What works?Evidence-based practiceBest practices
38 What works Principles of evidence-based correctional practice: Objectively assess criminogenic needs/risksEnhance intrinsic motivationTarget higher-risk offendersAddress greatest criminogenic needsUse cognitive-behavioral interventionsDetermine dosage/intensity of services
39 What works Target behaviors that reduce crime Be responsive to the offender’s styleNot a one size fits all program
40 ASSESSMENT OF CRIMINOGENIC NEEDS Instruments may include:LSI-RLS-RNRLSCMICOMPASSpecialized instruments
41 Lsi-r Identifies problem areas Predicts recidivism risk 54 items Completed by trained assessorsInterview offendersAttempt to verify information with records
42 Criminogenic risk/needs factors History of antisocial behavior/thinkingAntisocial associates/familyLack of contact with prosocial othersSubstance abuseWeak socializationEgocentric/lack of empathyImpulsivityPoor problem-solving and coping skills
43 Criminogenic risk/needs factors Lack of achievement in “legit” societyNot involved in prosocial leisure activities
44 What worksAmount of CBT intervention required: High-risk offenders: 300+ hrs. Moderate-risk: 200+ hrs. Low-risk: 100 hrs.
45 What works During the first few months post-release: 40-70% of offenders’ time should be structured(Bourgon and Armstrong, 2006; Latessa, 2004; Gendreau and Goggin, 1995)
46 Programs that work (Latessa, university of cincinnati) Are based on research & sound theoryHave leadershipAssess offenders using risk &need assessment instrumentsTarget crime producing behaviorsUse effective treatment modelsVary treatment & services based on risk, needs, & responsivity factorsDisrupt criminal networksHave qualified, experienced, dedicated & educated staffProvide aftercareEvaluate what they doAre stable & have sufficient resources &support
47 What works A recent meta-analysis found: CBT reduced recidivism by 25% Some programs reduced it by 50%
48 What works Best results : 2+ sessions/week Staff trained in CBT Implementation monitoredHigher risk offendersCBT combined with other services*Landenberger, N, and M. Lispey (2005). The Positive Effects of Cognitive Behavioral Programs for Offenders: A Meta Analysis of Factors Associated with Effective Treatment. Journal of Experimental Criminology.
49 What works? Reach in-reach out Community involvementAssist with training offendersServe as mentorsInvite successful ex-felons to speak/serve as mentors/role models/AA or NA sponsorsConduct a job fair for newly released offendersIdentify community service opportunities to assist with establishing real work experience
50 What works? Community involvement: Establish a clothes closet Organize a Health Fair, Dress for Success FairProvide tutoringSponsor one newly released offender for a yearOrganize transportation to critical appointmentsWrite letters to or visit inmates
52 Drug abuse treatment Residential Inmates live in a program unit Incentives such as money or reduced sentenceEmploy therapeutic community modelTreatment continues in the community
53 Drug courtsDivert nonviolent substance abusers from prison/jail to treatmentUsually last 18 monthsInvolve a team approachTeam meets with offender biweekly for first several monthsRandom UA’s at least twice/week for first several months
54 Drug courts Provide progressive sanctions and contingent rewards Involve expedited case processingReduce recidivism by 8-26%Can greatly reduce juvenile substance abuse
55 Community supervision services Case plans stem from risk/need assessmentsUse graduated responsesStructured, swift, incremental responsesStaff receive training in effective offender management techniquesFocus on improving relationship between PO and offender
56 2-year recidivism results-canadian study Bonta, et al, (2010) The Strategic Training Initiative in Community Supervision: Risk-Need-Responsivity in the Real World. Public Safety Canada.2-year recidivism results-canadian study
57 What doesn’t work (Latessa, university of cincinnati) Drug prevention focused on fear/emotional appealsShamingDrug educationNon-directive approachesBibliotherapyPsychoanalytic approachesSelf-Help programsVague unstructured rehabilitation programsMedical modelImproving self-esteem“Punishing smarter” (boot camps, scared straight, etc.)
58 What doesn’t workProviding high-intensity services to low-risk offenders increases their risk of recidivismMore contact with high-risk offendersDisrupts their prosocial networks
59 exerciseTHIS LITTLE CARD IS JUST AN EYE-CATCHER ALWAYS IS THERE THAT REALIZE YOU HELP TO ANOTHER WAY TO DO ALMOST ANYTHING, IS IT TIME FIRST THE. READING INCLUDING ALWAYS HARD TO DO SOMETHING A NEW WAY HAVE YOU THAT NOW AGAIN THIS READ BUT THE HANG OF IT! GETS EASIER DOESN’T IT?
60 How not to communicate with offenders Some adopt an abrasive style to make it clear they won’t be taken advantage of. Who are they trying to convince?This is the offender’s comfort zone-they will just become further entrenched.
61 How not to communicate with offenders Some believe confrontation is the only thing offenders understand.
62 How not to communicate with offenders Some believe offenders need to know how serious their offenses are, thus justifying disrespect on the part of the officer.I’ve tried all these ineffective styles. They usually don’t work.
63 Motivational interviewing Goal: To increase client’s intrinsic motivation to change through the exploration and resolution of ambivalence. Goal: Strengthen commitment to change.
64 Motivational interviewing Four Parts:Expressing empathyDeveloping discrepancyRolling with resistanceSupporting self-efficacy
65 Motivational interviewing Motivational Interviewing (MI) is well-researched.Scores of studies with substance abuse and health problemsA few with offenders:Harper & Hardy, 2000Clark et al, 2006Walters et al, 2007Scott, 2008McMurran, 2009
66 Motivational interviewing Assess offender’s readiness for change. Readiness is not all-or-none Where is he/she on the continuum?
67 Motivational interviewing “If you decided to do this, how could it make things better for you?”
68 Motivational interviewing For more details, see : Motivating Offenders to Change, NIC (2007)There are some examples of MI questions and statements at the end of your handouts.
72 During incarceration The time doesn’t change people It can have a motivating effect, thoughIncentives increase program participation
73 During incarceration Inside Out, a SMART Recovery program Thinking for a Change (FREE!)Residential drug programsResidential change programs
74 During incarcerationCommunity involvement is key
75 During incarceration Job Fairs Reach Out to community Precede by courses in resume writing, job interviewing, mock interviewsInvolve probationList of companies who hire former inmates
76 During incarceration Can gain work experience Apprenticeship programs College coursesComputer skills
77 THE FRANKLIN REALITY MODEL -Hyrum Smith, Franklin Covey
78 The reality modelWill the results of my behavior meet my needs over time?
79 The reality model Seven Natural Laws If the results of your behavior do not meet your needs, there is an incorrect belief on your belief window.If your self-worth is dependent on anything external, you are in big trouble.Results take time to measure.When the results of your behavior do meet your needs over time, you experience inner peace.Growth is the process of changing beliefs on your belief window.The mind naturally seeks harmony when presented with two opposing beliefs.Addiction is the result of deep and unmet needs.
80 The reality modelThere are “Six Steps to Follow” in the Franklin Reality Model:Identify the behavior pattern.Identify alternative beliefs.Identify possible beliefs driving the behavior.Predict future behavior based on the new beliefs (principles).Predict future behavior based on those beliefs.Compare steps 3 and 5.
82 Community supervision Much less expensive and more effective.
83 Comm based programs have a bigger impact on reducing recidivism-and they are cost-effective Community Based versus Institutional Programs: Results from Meta-AnalysesSource: Gendreau, P., French, S.A., and A. Taylor (2002). What Works (What Doesn’t Work) Revised 2002.
84 Community supervision “Swift and Certain” consequencesImmediateBriefCertainGraduated, progressive consequences
85 Community supervision Encourage employers to use the Work Opportunity Tax Credit.Tax credit for employersNew hire must be felon convicted by federal or any state court.New hire must be within a year of conviction or release.Targets low-income new hires
86 Community supervision Encourage employers to utilize the Federal Bonding ProgramIndemnifies employers for lost money or property due to dishonest acts of employeesFree of chargeNo deductible1% of bonds issued ever resulted in a claim
87 Community supervision “I wasn’t realizing that my goal was to keep people out of prison, not to make sure that they were model citizens.”
88 Community supervision Quality steady employment is a strong protective factor (Shover 1996; Sampson and Laub 1993; Uggen 2000)Barriers to Employment:Unemployment rate 10%+Rate for blacks is 19% (Economic Policy Institute, 2011)
89 Community supervision 2003 Study by Deva Pager of Northwestern U.Criminal record decreases chance of callback by 50%Race itself was a significant factor (34 vs.14)Criminal record was a stronger negative factor for blacks (17 vs. 5)
92 Sex offenders93% of child sexual abuse victims knew their perpetrator (35% perps are family members)64% adult female victims knew their perpetrator intimatelyRepresent 10-30% of prison population10-20 thousand are released annually5% arrested for another sex crime in 3 yearsRecidivism rate lower than rate for all offenders combinedFamily/relationship element is huge. Recidivism represents only KNOWN sex crimes
93 Sex offenders Face a number of barriers: Public stigma S.O.-specific lawsProblems with housingProblems with employmentOften serve longer sentences
94 Sex offenders Assessment Instruments: RRASOR STATIC-99 SORAG MnSOST-R VASORABELVisual Reaction Time (VRT)-newly approvedplethysmograph
95 Sex offenders Demand exceeds capacity in prison treatment programs Are not all the sameIt is our duty to protect them from abusePREA
96 Sex offenders in prison High-risk offenders get first priorityTailor programs to level of riskOffer treatment closer to releaseAll staff should be trainedShould be subject to enhanced monitoring and restricting access to provocative materialsDiscretionary release dates provide incentive to programEg-mailroom staff, officers performing shakedowns, watch for congregating
97 Sex offenders on supervision Link releasing offenders with treatment providers for continuity of careContinue assessments begun in prisonDevelop and train community volunteers for community supportDetermine if there is a need for family therapyAnticipate likely housing/employment problems
98 Mentally ill offenders Intake screening is vitally importantMedical/psychiatric involvement crucialTrack med compliance and communicateStaff should be trainedHave clear suicide prevention policiesEnsure prison mental health staff have autonomy with suicidal offendersNot enough hospital beds for those in need
99 Mentally ill offenders Coping skills trainingCo-occurring disordersSee mentally ill in chronic care clinicsUtilize advanced students when possibleDecisions about CCC/RRC, parole, camp statusDBT
100 Mentally ill offenders Ongoing collaboration with probation a mustLook for specialized CCCEnsure continuity of community-based MH txMore frequent meetings with P.O.Eg of MH RRC in South Dakota
101 Young offenders Focus on education Family is a huge part of the equationSubstance abuseHigh degree of victimization
102 Young offendersYouth versions of commonly used risk assessment tools have been shown to predict criminal behavior.(Olver, 2009)
103 Young offenders Suggested programs: Seeds of Success On Solid Ground Thinking for a ChangeDBTCage Your Rage (youth version)
104 Young offenders Connecticut DOC-Manson Youth Institution Youth approved for early release were targeted by peersStarted 4-6 week re-entry unitIncidents sabotaging youth early release are almost non-existent nowCommunity partners assist with seminarsPre-scheduled services for releasing youth
105 Reentry ResourcesSecond Chance Act National Reentry Resource Center (nationalreentryresourcecenter.org) TJC project website (jailtransition.com) Life After Lockup: Improving Reentry from Jail to the Community The Jail Administrator’s Toolkit for Reentry TJC Implementation Toolkit (web-based, jailtransition.com/Toolkit)
106 Reentry resourcesJail Reentry Roundtable (urban.org/projects/reentryroundtable/roundtable9.cfm) The National GAINS Center (gainscenter.samhsa.gov) Community Oriented Correctional Health Services (cochs.org) Alabama CPR Network (alabamacprnetwork.com)
107 Reentry resourcesU.S. Dept. of Justice (crimesolutions.gov) Federal Bonding Program (bonds4jobs.com) Work Opportunity Tax Credit (doleta.gov/wotc) National Institute of Corrections (nicic.gov) National Institute of Justice (nij.gov) Harvard University Government Innovator’s Network (innovations.harvard.edu) National HIRE Network (hirenetwork.org) Office of Justice Programs (ojp.usdoj.gov/reentry)