Presentation on theme: "S. Doug Lemon, Psy.D.. The views expressed in this presentation do not necessarily reflect the views of the U.S. government, the U.S. Department of Justice,"— Presentation transcript:
Save time and money information sharing collaboration reduced duplication of effort Reduce the likelihood that a released inmate will commit a new crime Reduced recidivism increases public safety Addresses community issues such as homelessness, addiction, public health, and mental illness
2 million people incarcerated in the U.S. One out of every 100 Americans 1 of every 31 Americans is incarcerated, on probation, or on parole Source: The Pew Center
Local governments spent $109 million on criminal justice in 2006 (U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics) States spend $52 billion annually, mostly on prisons (The PEW Center) 2011 budget request for federal prisons, probation, detention, and courthouse security was $9 billion (U.S. Department of Justice)
600,000 released from prison each year (Hughes and Wilson, 2003) After 3 years, 43% return (The PEW center, 2011) 95% return to our communities.
We need to be focusing on doing what works to reduce recidivism and to prepare offenders for a successful reentry into society.
“ those who violate the law and victimize others must be held accountable…for the long-term protection of the community, sentencing and corrections should be using the lessons of research to shape practices that reduce offenders’ likelihood of committing crimes and victimizing their fellow citizens in the future…in light of the harsh fiscal realities of the day, both goals must be pursued through the wise use of public resources.” (Nat’l Institute of Corrections)
68 percent abusing or dependent on alcohol or drugs 44 percent without high school diploma or GED 30 percent unemployed prior to arrest 16 percent suffer from serious mental health problems 44 percent homeless in year prior to arrest 72 percent of mentally ill inmates have a substance abuse problem (Bureau of Justice Statistics)
During the first few months post-release: 40-70% of offenders’ time should be structured (Bourgon and Armstrong, 2006; Latessa, 2004; Gendreau and Goggin, 1995)
Are based on research & sound theory Have leadership Assess offenders using risk &need assessment instruments Target crime producing behaviors Use effective treatment models Vary treatment & services based on risk, needs, & responsivity factors Disrupt criminal networks Have qualified, experienced, dedicated & educated staff Provide aftercare Evaluate what they do Are stable & have sufficient resources &support
A recent meta-analysis found: CBT reduced recidivism by 25% Some programs reduced it by 50%
Best results : 2+ sessions/week Staff trained in CBT Implementation monitored Higher risk offenders CBT combined with other services *Landenberger, N, and M. Lispey (2005). The Positive Effects of Cognitive Behavioral Programs for Offenders: A Meta Analysis of Factors Associated with Effective Treatment. Journal of Experimental Criminology.
Community involvement Assist with training offenders Serve as mentors Invite successful ex-felons to speak/serve as mentors/role models/AA or NA sponsors Conduct a job fair for newly released offenders Identify community service opportunities to assist with establishing real work experience
Community involvement: Establish a clothes closet Organize a Health Fair, Dress for Success Fair Provide tutoring Sponsor one newly released offender for a year Organize transportation to critical appointments Write letters to or visit inmates
Residential Inmates live in a program unit Incentives such as money or reduced sentence Employ therapeutic community model Treatment continues in the community
Divert nonviolent substance abusers from prison/jail to treatment Usually last 18 months Involve a team approach Team meets with offender biweekly for first several months Random UA’s at least twice/week for first several months
Provide progressive sanctions and contingent rewards Involve expedited case processing Reduce recidivism by 8-26% Can greatly reduce juvenile substance abuse
Case plans stem from risk/need assessments Use graduated responses Structured, swift, incremental responses Staff receive training in effective offender management techniques Focus on improving relationship between PO and offender
Bonta, et al, (2010) The Strategic Training Initiative in Community Supervision: Risk-Need-Responsivity in the Real World. Public Safety Canada.
Drug prevention focused on fear/emotional appeals Shaming Drug education Non-directive approaches Bibliotherapy Psychoanalytic approaches Self-Help programs Vague unstructured rehabilitation programs Medical model Improving self-esteem “Punishing smarter” (boot camps, scared straight, etc.)
Providing high-intensity services to low-risk offenders increases their risk of recidivism More contact with high-risk offenders Disrupts their prosocial networks
THIS LITTLE CARD IS JUST AN EYE-CATCHER ALWAYS IS THERE THAT REALIZE YOU HELP TO ANOTHER WAY TO DO ALMOST ANYTHING, IS IT TIME FIRST THE. READING INCLUDING ALWAYS HARD TO DO SOMETHING A NEW WAY HAVE YOU THAT NOW AGAIN THIS READ BUT THE HANG OF IT! GETS EASIER DOESN’T IT?
Some adopt an abrasive style to make it clear they won’t be taken advantage of. Who are they trying to convince?
Some believe confrontation is the only thing offenders understand.
Some believe offenders need to know how serious their offenses are, thus justifying disrespect on the part of the officer.
Goal: To increase client’s intrinsic motivation to change through the exploration and resolution of ambivalence. Goal: Strengthen commitment to change.
Four Parts: Expressing empathy Developing discrepancy Rolling with resistance Supporting self-efficacy
Motivational Interviewing (MI) is well-researched. Scores of studies with substance abuse and health problems A few with offenders: Harper & Hardy, 2000 Clark et al, 2006 Walters et al, 2007 Scott, 2008 McMurran, 2009
Assess offender’s readiness for change. Readiness is not all-or-none Where is he/she on the continuum?
“If you decided to do this, how could it make things better for you?”
For more details, see : Motivating Offenders to Change, NIC (2007)
Will the results of my behavior meet my needs over time?
Seven Natural Laws 1. If the results of your behavior do not meet your needs, there is an incorrect belief on your belief window. 2. If your self-worth is dependent on anything external, you are in big trouble. 3. Results take time to measure. 4. When the results of your behavior do meet your needs over time, you experience inner peace. 5. Growth is the process of changing beliefs on your belief window. 6. The mind naturally seeks harmony when presented with two opposing beliefs. 7. Addiction is the result of deep and unmet needs.
There are “Six Steps to Follow” in the Franklin Reality Model: 1. Identify the behavior pattern. 2. Identify alternative beliefs. 3. Identify possible beliefs driving the behavior. 4. Predict future behavior based on the new beliefs (principles). 5. Predict future behavior based on those beliefs. 6. Compare steps 3 and 5.
Source: Gendreau, P., French, S.A., and A. Taylor (2002). What Works (What Doesn’t Work) Revised 2002.
“Swift and Certain” consequences Immediate Brief Certain Graduated, progressive consequences
Encourage employers to use the Work Opportunity Tax Credit. Tax credit for employers New hire must be felon convicted by federal or any state court. New hire must be within a year of conviction or release. Targets low-income new hires
Encourage employers to utilize the Federal Bonding Program Indemnifies employers for lost money or property due to dishonest acts of employees Free of charge No deductible 1% of bonds issued ever resulted in a claim
“I wasn’t realizing that my goal was to keep people out of prison, not to make sure that they were model citizens.”
Quality steady employment is a strong protective factor (Shover 1996; Sampson and Laub 1993; Uggen 2000) Barriers to Employment: Unemployment rate 10%+ Rate for blacks is 19% (Economic Policy Institute, 2011)
2003 Study by Deva Pager of Northwestern U. Criminal record decreases chance of callback by 50% Race itself was a significant factor (34 vs.14) Criminal record was a stronger negative factor for blacks (17 vs. 5)
93% of child sexual abuse victims knew their perpetrator (35% perps are family members) 64% adult female victims knew their perpetrator intimately Represent 10-30% of prison population 10-20 thousand are released annually 5% arrested for another sex crime in 3 years Recidivism rate lower than rate for all offenders combined
Face a number of barriers: Public stigma S.O.-specific laws Problems with housing Problems with employment Often serve longer sentences
Assessment Instruments: RRASOR STATIC-99 SORAG MnSOST-R VASOR ABEL Visual Reaction Time (VRT)-newly approved plethysmograph
Demand exceeds capacity in prison treatment programs Are not all the same It is our duty to protect them from abuse PREA
High-risk offenders get first priority Tailor programs to level of risk Offer treatment closer to release All staff should be trained Should be subject to enhanced monitoring and restricting access to provocative materials Discretionary release dates provide incentive to program
Link releasing offenders with treatment providers for continuity of care Continue assessments begun in prison Develop and train community volunteers for community support Determine if there is a need for family therapy Anticipate likely housing/employment problems
Intake screening is vitally important Medical/psychiatric involvement crucial Track med compliance and communicate Staff should be trained Have clear suicide prevention policies Ensure prison mental health staff have autonomy with suicidal offenders Not enough hospital beds for those in need
Coping skills training Co-occurring disorders See mentally ill in chronic care clinics Utilize advanced students when possible Decisions about CCC/RRC, parole, camp status
Ongoing collaboration with probation a must Look for specialized CCC Ensure continuity of community-based MH tx More frequent meetings with P.O.
Focus on education Family is a huge part of the equation Substance abuse High degree of victimization
Youth versions of commonly used risk assessment tools have been shown to predict criminal behavior. (Olver, 2009)
Suggested programs: Seeds of Success On Solid Ground Thinking for a Change DBT Cage Your Rage (youth version)
Connecticut DOC-Manson Youth Institution Youth approved for early release were targeted by peers Started 4-6 week re-entry unit Incidents sabotaging youth early release are almost non-existent now Community partners assist with seminars Pre-scheduled services for releasing youth
Second Chance Act National Reentry Resource Center (nationalreentryresourcecenter.org) TJC project website (jailtransition.com) Life After Lockup: Improving Reentry from Jail to the Community The Jail Administrator’s Toolkit for Reentry TJC Implementation Toolkit (web-based, jailtransition.com/Toolkit) jailtransition.com/Toolkit
Jail Reentry Roundtable (urban.org/projects/reentryroundtable/roundta ble9.cfm) The National GAINS Center (gainscenter.samhsa.gov) Community Oriented Correctional Health Services (cochs.org) Alabama CPR Network (alabamacprnetwork.com)
U.S. Dept. of Justice (crimesolutions.gov) Federal Bonding Program (bonds4jobs.com) Work Opportunity Tax Credit (doleta.gov/wotc) National Institute of Corrections (nicic.gov) National Institute of Justice (nij.gov) Harvard University Government Innovator’s Network (innovations.harvard.edu) National HIRE Network (hirenetwork.org) Office of Justice Programs (ojp.usdoj.gov/reentry)