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S. Doug Lemon, Psy.D.. The views expressed in this presentation do not necessarily reflect the views of the U.S. government, the U.S. Department of Justice,

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Presentation on theme: "S. Doug Lemon, Psy.D.. The views expressed in this presentation do not necessarily reflect the views of the U.S. government, the U.S. Department of Justice,"— Presentation transcript:

1 S. Doug Lemon, Psy.D.

2 The views expressed in this presentation do not necessarily reflect the views of the U.S. government, the U.S. Department of Justice, or the Federal Bureau of Prisons.



5 Save time and money information sharing collaboration reduced duplication of effort Reduce the likelihood that a released inmate will commit a new crime Reduced recidivism increases public safety Addresses community issues such as homelessness, addiction, public health, and mental illness

6  2 million people incarcerated in the U.S.  One out of every 100 Americans  1 of every 31 Americans is incarcerated, on probation, or on parole Source: The Pew Center


8  Local governments spent $109 million on criminal justice in 2006 (U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics)  States spend $52 billion annually, mostly on prisons (The PEW Center)  2011 budget request for federal prisons, probation, detention, and courthouse security was $9 billion (U.S. Department of Justice)

9  600,000 released from prison each year (Hughes and Wilson, 2003)  After 3 years, 43% return (The PEW center, 2011) 95% return to our communities.


11 We need to be focusing on doing what works to reduce recidivism and to prepare offenders for a successful reentry into society.

12 “ those who violate the law and victimize others must be held accountable…for the long-term protection of the community, sentencing and corrections should be using the lessons of research to shape practices that reduce offenders’ likelihood of committing crimes and victimizing their fellow citizens in the future…in light of the harsh fiscal realities of the day, both goals must be pursued through the wise use of public resources.” (Nat’l Institute of Corrections)

13 68 percent abusing or dependent on alcohol or drugs 44 percent without high school diploma or GED 30 percent unemployed prior to arrest 16 percent suffer from serious mental health problems 44 percent homeless in year prior to arrest 72 percent of mentally ill inmates have a substance abuse problem (Bureau of Justice Statistics)




17 Cognitive Map



20  Changing behavior won’t work  Changing attitude won’t work  Must change the map!





25  Resistance  Denial

26 D on’t E ven N otice I A m L ying

27 Feel worthless World is Hostile Becomes Hostile Hopeless


29  What do we really think about the offenders we work with?  What do we believe about their ability to change?  What do we believe about our ability to help them change?

30 If we believe inmates are just a bunch of losers who can’t change, are we really going to work to reach out to them?

31  We can only control our part of the equation  We stoke offender resistance with our negative attitudes  Their comfort zone includes arguing about their belief systems

32  Listen  Show RESPECT  Firm, Fair, Consistent  Hold them accountable  Own what you teach  Crawl into their minds  Create environment where offender can be real with you, and you with him/her

33 In short, be more of an Andy Griffith than a Barney Fife

34  Offender isn’t challenged this way in his usual social network.  You may be the only person challenging his/her belief system in a nonthreatening way.

35 Every man is my superior, in that I may learn from him. -Thomas Carlyle

36 “I gave it my best”

37  Evidence-based practice  Best practices

38 Principles of evidence-based correctional practice:  Objectively assess criminogenic needs/risks  Enhance intrinsic motivation  Target higher-risk offenders  Address greatest criminogenic needs  Use cognitive-behavioral interventions  Determine dosage/intensity of services

39  Target behaviors that reduce crime  Be responsive to the offender’s style

40 Instruments may include:  LSI-R  LS-RNR  LSCMI  COMPAS  Specialized instruments

41  Identifies problem areas  Predicts recidivism risk  54 items  Completed by trained assessors  Interview offenders  Attempt to verify information with records

42  History of antisocial behavior/thinking  Antisocial associates/family  Lack of contact with prosocial others  Substance abuse  Weak socialization  Egocentric/lack of empathy  Impulsivity  Poor problem-solving and coping skills

43  Lack of achievement in “legit” society  Not involved in prosocial leisure activities

44 Amount of CBT intervention required: High-risk offenders: 300+ hrs. Moderate-risk: 200+ hrs. Low-risk: 100 hrs.

45 During the first few months post-release: 40-70% of offenders’ time should be structured (Bourgon and Armstrong, 2006; Latessa, 2004; Gendreau and Goggin, 1995)

46  Are based on research & sound theory  Have leadership  Assess offenders using risk &need assessment instruments  Target crime producing behaviors  Use effective treatment models  Vary treatment & services based on risk, needs, & responsivity factors  Disrupt criminal networks  Have qualified, experienced, dedicated & educated staff  Provide aftercare  Evaluate what they do  Are stable & have sufficient resources &support

47 A recent meta-analysis found:  CBT reduced recidivism by 25%  Some programs reduced it by 50%

48 Best results :  2+ sessions/week  Staff trained in CBT  Implementation monitored  Higher risk offenders  CBT combined with other services  *Landenberger, N, and M. Lispey (2005). The Positive Effects of Cognitive Behavioral Programs for Offenders: A Meta Analysis of Factors Associated with Effective Treatment. Journal of Experimental Criminology.

49 Community involvement  Assist with training offenders  Serve as mentors  Invite successful ex-felons to speak/serve as mentors/role models/AA or NA sponsors  Conduct a job fair for newly released offenders  Identify community service opportunities to assist with establishing real work experience

50 Community involvement:  Establish a clothes closet  Organize a Health Fair, Dress for Success Fair  Provide tutoring  Sponsor one newly released offender for a year  Organize transportation to critical appointments  Write letters to or visit inmates


52  Residential  Inmates live in a program unit  Incentives such as money or reduced sentence  Employ therapeutic community model  Treatment continues in the community

53  Divert nonviolent substance abusers from prison/jail to treatment  Usually last 18 months  Involve a team approach  Team meets with offender biweekly for first several months  Random UA’s at least twice/week for first several months

54  Provide progressive sanctions and contingent rewards  Involve expedited case processing  Reduce recidivism by 8-26%  Can greatly reduce juvenile substance abuse

55  Case plans stem from risk/need assessments  Use graduated responses  Structured, swift, incremental responses  Staff receive training in effective offender management techniques  Focus on improving relationship between PO and offender

56 Bonta, et al, (2010) The Strategic Training Initiative in Community Supervision: Risk-Need-Responsivity in the Real World. Public Safety Canada.

57  Drug prevention focused on fear/emotional appeals  Shaming  Drug education  Non-directive approaches  Bibliotherapy  Psychoanalytic approaches  Self-Help programs  Vague unstructured rehabilitation programs  Medical model  Improving self-esteem  “Punishing smarter” (boot camps, scared straight, etc.)

58 Providing high-intensity services to low-risk offenders increases their risk of recidivism  More contact with high-risk offenders  Disrupts their prosocial networks


60 Some adopt an abrasive style to make it clear they won’t be taken advantage of. Who are they trying to convince?

61 Some believe confrontation is the only thing offenders understand.

62 Some believe offenders need to know how serious their offenses are, thus justifying disrespect on the part of the officer.

63 Goal: To increase client’s intrinsic motivation to change through the exploration and resolution of ambivalence. Goal: Strengthen commitment to change.

64 Four Parts:  Expressing empathy  Developing discrepancy  Rolling with resistance  Supporting self-efficacy

65 Motivational Interviewing (MI) is well-researched.  Scores of studies with substance abuse and health problems  A few with offenders:  Harper & Hardy, 2000  Clark et al, 2006  Walters et al, 2007  Scott, 2008  McMurran, 2009

66 Assess offender’s readiness for change. Readiness is not all-or-none Where is he/she on the continuum?

67 “If you decided to do this, how could it make things better for you?”

68 For more details, see : Motivating Offenders to Change, NIC (2007)




72  The time doesn’t change people  It can have a motivating effect, though  Incentives increase program participation

73  Inside Out, a SMART Recovery program  Thinking for a Change (FREE!)  Residential drug programs  Residential change programs

74  Community involvement is key

75 Job Fairs  Reach Out to community  Precede by courses in resume writing, job interviewing, mock interviews  Involve probation  List of companies who hire former inmates

76  Can gain work experience  Apprenticeship programs  College courses  Computer skills


78 Will the results of my behavior meet my needs over time?

79 Seven Natural Laws 1. If the results of your behavior do not meet your needs, there is an incorrect belief on your belief window. 2. If your self-worth is dependent on anything external, you are in big trouble. 3. Results take time to measure. 4. When the results of your behavior do meet your needs over time, you experience inner peace. 5. Growth is the process of changing beliefs on your belief window. 6. The mind naturally seeks harmony when presented with two opposing beliefs. 7. Addiction is the result of deep and unmet needs.

80 There are “Six Steps to Follow” in the Franklin Reality Model: 1. Identify the behavior pattern. 2. Identify alternative beliefs. 3. Identify possible beliefs driving the behavior. 4. Predict future behavior based on the new beliefs (principles). 5. Predict future behavior based on those beliefs. 6. Compare steps 3 and 5.


82 Much less expensive and more effective.

83 Source: Gendreau, P., French, S.A., and A. Taylor (2002). What Works (What Doesn’t Work) Revised 2002.

84 “Swift and Certain” consequences  Immediate  Brief  Certain Graduated, progressive consequences

85  Encourage employers to use the Work Opportunity Tax Credit.  Tax credit for employers  New hire must be felon convicted by federal or any state court.  New hire must be within a year of conviction or release.  Targets low-income new hires

86 Encourage employers to utilize the Federal Bonding Program  Indemnifies employers for lost money or property due to dishonest acts of employees  Free of charge  No deductible  1% of bonds issued ever resulted in a claim

87 “I wasn’t realizing that my goal was to keep people out of prison, not to make sure that they were model citizens.”

88 Quality steady employment is a strong protective factor (Shover 1996; Sampson and Laub 1993; Uggen 2000) Barriers to Employment:  Unemployment rate 10%+  Rate for blacks is 19% (Economic Policy Institute, 2011)

89 2003 Study by Deva Pager of Northwestern U.  Criminal record decreases chance of callback by 50%  Race itself was a significant factor (34 vs.14)  Criminal record was a stronger negative factor for blacks (17 vs. 5)



92  93% of child sexual abuse victims knew their perpetrator (35% perps are family members)  64% adult female victims knew their perpetrator intimately  Represent 10-30% of prison population  10-20 thousand are released annually  5% arrested for another sex crime in 3 years  Recidivism rate lower than rate for all offenders combined

93 Face a number of barriers:  Public stigma  S.O.-specific laws  Problems with housing  Problems with employment  Often serve longer sentences

94 Assessment Instruments:  RRASOR  STATIC-99  SORAG  MnSOST-R  VASOR  ABEL  Visual Reaction Time (VRT)-newly approved  plethysmograph

95  Demand exceeds capacity in prison treatment programs  Are not all the same  It is our duty to protect them from abuse  PREA

96  High-risk offenders get first priority  Tailor programs to level of risk  Offer treatment closer to release  All staff should be trained  Should be subject to enhanced monitoring and restricting access to provocative materials  Discretionary release dates provide incentive to program

97  Link releasing offenders with treatment providers for continuity of care  Continue assessments begun in prison  Develop and train community volunteers for community support  Determine if there is a need for family therapy  Anticipate likely housing/employment problems

98  Intake screening is vitally important  Medical/psychiatric involvement crucial  Track med compliance and communicate  Staff should be trained  Have clear suicide prevention policies  Ensure prison mental health staff have autonomy with suicidal offenders  Not enough hospital beds for those in need

99  Coping skills training  Co-occurring disorders  See mentally ill in chronic care clinics  Utilize advanced students when possible  Decisions about CCC/RRC, parole, camp status

100  Ongoing collaboration with probation a must  Look for specialized CCC  Ensure continuity of community-based MH tx  More frequent meetings with P.O.

101  Focus on education  Family is a huge part of the equation  Substance abuse  High degree of victimization

102  Youth versions of commonly used risk assessment tools have been shown to predict criminal behavior. (Olver, 2009)

103 Suggested programs:  Seeds of Success  On Solid Ground  Thinking for a Change  DBT  Cage Your Rage (youth version)

104 Connecticut DOC-Manson Youth Institution  Youth approved for early release were targeted by peers  Started 4-6 week re-entry unit  Incidents sabotaging youth early release are almost non-existent now  Community partners assist with seminars  Pre-scheduled services for releasing youth

105 Second Chance Act National Reentry Resource Center ( TJC project website ( Life After Lockup: Improving Reentry from Jail to the Community The Jail Administrator’s Toolkit for Reentry TJC Implementation Toolkit (web-based,

106 Jail Reentry Roundtable ( ble9.cfm) The National GAINS Center ( Community Oriented Correctional Health Services ( Alabama CPR Network (

107 U.S. Dept. of Justice ( Federal Bonding Program ( Work Opportunity Tax Credit ( National Institute of Corrections ( National Institute of Justice ( Harvard University Government Innovator’s Network ( National HIRE Network ( Office of Justice Programs (


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