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eBusiness and web services Smorgasbord

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Presentation on theme: "eBusiness and web services Smorgasbord"— Presentation transcript:

1 eBusiness and web services Smorgasbord
Open Forum 2003 on Metadata Registries 2:00pm to 3:00pm January 23, 2003

2 Presenter David Webber
co-author of ‘ebXML – the new global standard for doing business via the internet’, New Riders Publishing Chair of the OASIS CAM TC Co-chair of OASIS/CEFACT ebXML JMT Pioneering XML eBusiness

3 Agenda Part 1 – web services and ebXML Part 2 – assembly mechanisms
Transports Alignment – business process automation Alignment – common semantic mechanisms Deployment Coordination Part 2 – assembly mechanisms Where can you use this? Address example Review of XML mechanisms

4 Part1 Web services and ebXML
Enabling better eBusiness

5 Web service – brief history
Trigger point – weakness of HTML model for e-commerce solutions. Emergence of XML and SOAP messaging. Bowstreet early market definition and mission. Formation of UDDI cartel – to facilitate and exploit automation of e-commerce.

6 Acronym Soup XML – Standard Language for denoting information content and process control SOAP - (Simple Object Access Protocol) XML based Messaging Protocol UDDI - (Universal Description, Discovery and Integration) Yellow Pages for Web Services WSDL - (Web Services Description Language)

7 Summary of eBusiness Needs
Ability to easily and cost-effectively connect business processes and business information exchanges together Enable a broad interoperable electronic marketplace Interface to existing applications

8 eBusiness Technology Goals
Solutions and tools that enable customers to reduce costs and improve efficiency by better exploiting information within their eBusiness domains and industries.

9 Information Landscape
XML enabled Pervasive across desktop and enterprise solutions Ad hoc architecture (desktop components), or using formal architecture (eBusiness integration)

10 XML itself is not enough.
XML, by itself, does not solve interoperability problems yet it is an important tool for doing so. XML does not provide instant semantics. XML by itself is not the magic bullet. What we need are clear policies and vision of how electronic information enables interoperability

11 } Business Layers Designing for Flexibility 2 1 Components 5 CPA 3
Architectural Conceptual UDDI 5 ebXML CPA } 3 Constraints, Context, & Structure Business Layers Logical 4 BODs, MIGs, PIPs Documentation Process BPSS transaction schema instance Implementation Physical

12 Business Layers: Objectives
Reduce complexity of managing large numbers of transaction formats - document the differences Want to speed adoption by formalizing business rules Want context-driven transaction generation Empowers business users to build interchange details Need to define in a neutral format: works with variety of structures, not just XML. Augment current standards and industry specifications Provide multi-step process support – UDDI weak here

13 World view models SMALL - Simple consistent integration for day-to-day small business applications (accounting, taxes, catalogues, inventory…) BROAD - Simple consistent integration across industry verticals (insurance, healthcare, transportation, food services…) LARGE - And complex large system integration

14 Sample Use Cases eGov – how do I apply for this service on-line?
Business facilitation – can anyone in the organization provide this answer? If ‘Yes’ how can my software access it?

15 ebXML Vision “A semantic registry is the key foundation block upon which global electronic business exchanges will be built”.

16 Why Use a Registry? Foster a collaborative environment across departments, agencies, industry domains Provide human facing access to resources – portal Provide machine level access to business semantics and content

17 Metadata Information Registry/Repository
Registry Layers High level modelling systems integration Business Process Definitions Workflow Control Interchange Profiles Modelling and Workflow Integration UML Tools Business Transaction Generators Dictionary Content Transformation Services Scripting Tools and services XML Content Domains Content Discovery Topics and Packages Dynamic Process Component Enabling HTML forms XML Calls Web User Interface Program API Support Information Store Industry Dictionary Business Processes Business Transactions Business Forms Metadata Information Registry/Repository Communications Layer

18 Classifications (Ontology)
All registry objects are classified Objects can be classified under multiple classifications Classifications can represent different industries, or product categorizations Classifications are controlled by the registry owner and completely editable Upload as a full scheme, or create (or edit) schemes node by node

19 UDDI Registry Yellow, White and Green Pages Registration of “tModels”
Fixed classification model Provides discovery for web service POPs and then ability to configure to those Internal use stronger story than external currently

20 Move to standards work Submissions to W3C of SOAP / WSDL
Formation of OASIS TC’s UDDI moved to OASIS ( Four initiatives on work flow / business process - BPMI, BPSS, BPM, BPEL4WS -> need just one! (aka SMIL for media flows) (see - Re-alignment with ebXML? (

21 Polarization of Web Services
eAI vendors – inward facing focus The bulk of the (Web services) work for the next 18 months will be inside the firewall, and it will be integration.” When questioned about the role of WS in exposing legacy data assets, the answer was resoundingly simple “That is not going to happen,” but a more traditional approach will be used.

22 Outward facing e-Commerce Solution vendors
Use their engines to parametrically drive custom web applications. Use their engines to manage web applications based on profiles . Empower business managers to create, customize and manage profiles, which drive the generation of unique application instances. Assign and manage application variations by User IDs, J2EE roles, rules, entitlements or any other data such as time of day.

23 Web Service behaviour? “A web service is a software component that represents a business function (or a business service) and can be accessed by another application (a client, a server or another Web service) over public networks using generally available ubiquitous protocols and transports (i. e. SOAP over HTTP).” -Gartner Group

24 ebXML and eBusiness architecture
Combining best-of-breed components

25 Customers focus

26 The Emerging Solution: XML Integration Services
2002+ 1990’s 1980’s SHIFT SHIFT Ad Hoc Hub n’ Spoke, EDI and EAI XML Integration Services

27 Building eBusiness Orchestration
Define business ideas and needs Capture steps and workflow Then describe the business processing Top layer – rules and context Middle layer – industry/application integration Implementation layer – physical application systems and content delivery / exchange

28 Technology Progression Matrix
Flat files and sorts Mainframes Modem dial-up connect Tape drives Tree indexed databases Batch EDI ebXML COBOL programs RDBMS / SQL Client/Server Internet / HTML forms 4GL report writers Object Oriented Real-time EDI Web Services Hub-and-Spoke systems CASE / UML Business Processing ETL Metadata Marketplaces Portals and HTML forms EAI XML Partner discovery UDDI / ebXML XML Integration Services

29 Enterprise Service Bus (ESB)
Communications layer ebXML messaging services Web services Internet Business Process workflows and orchestration Registry services for metadata and discovery Content integration at point of use XML payloads with content vocabulary definitions as well as schema structural layouts Security and Control mechanisms

30 Key Capabilities Link content to/from existing applications
Provide ebXML and web service delivery mechanisms Common Business Process Orchestration Server Industry metadata and templates management Enable marketplaces with partner discovery and cooperation

31 ESB Comparisons Ad hoc Broker ESB Minimal re-use Restricted re-use
Registry enabled re-use Problematic context Loss of original context Retains context with content Hand-coded mappings Double mappings -inbound/outbound Single map at point of use; context implicitly known Highly customized Fixed central vocabulary Pluralistic with open crosswalks and formal extension support Biggest dog wins; smaller dogs have to work hardest Restricts industry interoperability Enables open industry interoperability Locally developed components Vendor proprietary technology Open standards architecture Published documentation Adaptors and interface specifications Discovery of trading partners, interfaces and metadata Plethora of interfaces Rigid information Fluid Information

32 Web services and ebXML Web Services ebXML Type Communication
Web Services ebXML Type Request/response Collaboration Communication RPC-style synchronous communication between tightly coupled services, Document-style asynchronous communication between loosely coupled services Synchronous, asynchronous communication Business Service Interface description WSDL CPP, CPA (WSDL within CPP, CPA under research) Protocol and Formats SOAP, XML ebXML Message Service (over SOAP), XML, BPSS (as "business" protocol) Content Standards None Recommended Standards (e.g. OAGI BODs) How to find business partners UDDI Registry ebXML Registry (UDDI Registry may point to an ebXML Registry or Registry objects (e.g. CPA)) With thanks to Alan Kotok from his recent article :

33 ebXML adoption today Automotive industry Food services industry
Energy industry Vendors delivering ebMS products – Fujitsu, Sybase, Sterling, GXS, bTrade, Cyclone, TIBCO, Excelon, WebMethods, XML Global, and Sun – with UCC certification

34 Industry Trends According to the Gartner Group, by 2003, at least 70 percent of all new applications will be built primarily from components Components allow developers the ability to integrate multiple software modules when creating new applications, reducing in-house programming effort, leveraging sophisticated services, and increasing software quality which can significantly reduce the time, cost and effort of integrations projects. "

35 Part 2 Assembly Mechanisms

36 Business Challenges for XML
Totally static transaction formats do not work – need configurable structures How to apply business context assertions to a information structure? How to derive a consistent way of specifying the interchange parameters to a partner? How to enable business domain users to implement the exchanges?

37 Address Problem Space Objective is to provide context to the postal delivery addressing preferred standard for Postal Address, using levels of business use and quality metrics, to ensure adoption of CIQ. Address use levels Level 0 = handwritten postal address – machine scanned Level 1 = last line (city, state, zip+(postal code) or foreign country Level 2 = in country simple postal address –As Is concatenated Level 3 = extended postal address – advanced features Level 4 = rendering only (external to USPS or business to business use, e.g., shipping / delivery address / bill to / marked for / in care of ) Level 5 = management (internal domestic and international collaboration Resolve XML approach for supporting postal delivery address requirements. Manage domestic internal and global international artifacts through common vocabulary or mapping conventions

38 Technology Using W3C Schema to provide for business choice and layers of increasingly refining definitions based on business use Enable use of platform independent business semantic AssemblyDoc, modeling, or spreadsheet methods Provide for technology dependent implementation transition Provide migration from legacy address formats i.e. DOD and most other legacy environments are at Address use level #2 Provide U.S. Government with standards for harmonization by the authoritative agency source with international consortiums

39 Address Use Level Defined (US Postal model example)
Level 0 = handwritten postal address – machine parsed Level 1 = “last line” - city, state, zip+ (postal code) or foreign country Level 2 = in country simple postal address – concatenated delivery address line(s) Level 3 = extended postal address – advanced features 3A = Non-address - business volume (bulk) 3B = delivery address field s (atomic) Level 4 = Rendering only - external or business to business use, e.g., shipping / delivery/bill to/marked for/in care of Level 5 =management – advanced features 5A = internal management 5B = international management

40 Address Horizontal and Vertical Authoritative Source & Use Matrix
A = Government (Domestic) B = Vendor C = International Organization D = Customer E = Consortiums Top = Authoritative source D A A D C & A A, B B, D, E B, E A, B, C, E A, C, E Bottom = User and Implementers

41 United States Post Office Delivery Quality Measurement
Know the delivery was made to the right person / entity 10 Know delivered to person / entity 9 Know recipient has not reported a move (Move Update) 8 Complete and correct address (Delivery Point Validation) 7 Matching address to Postal Database (CASS certified address matching software used) {Matching address to external address} 6 Full element identification with some validation and cross validation (City within State) 5 Full element identification with some validation (valid State) 4 Full element identification 3 Partial element identification (City-State-ZIP) 2 Identified lines of address information 1 Multiple lines of unspecified address information Description Score

42 USPS Physical Postal Address
Grouped View of USPS Physical Postal Address 11 Physical Concatenated Lines: 5 Optional Internal Routing Lines - Mailstop Code - Attention Line - Individual Title - Functional Title - Group, Department, Division Name 3 Business Volume “Bulk” - Optional Endorsement Line - Key Line Data - POSTNET Address Block Barcode 3 Mandatory concatenated lines - Name (Person or Organization) - Delivery Address - “Last Line” - City, State, Zip+ (Postal Code) or Country

43 USPS Delivery Quality Measurement OASIS Address Use Levels
Multi-Dimensional Postal Address View USPS Delivery Quality Measurement OASIS Address Use Levels USPS Physical View 3 Optional Internal Routing Lines Business Volume “Bulk” Delivery Address 6 Fielded Composite 2 3 1 “Last Line” City 2 5 4 State Zip+ (Postal Code) Country sets 1 4 Country Interpret Process

44 Building the right pieces
Need to intelligently use XML – get maximum benefit, while avoiding potential pitfalls. Exploit work that others have done pathfinder for: OAGIS V8 use of Schema techniques; and best-practices on XML use Align with ebXML architecture to provide syntax neutral methods wherever possible

45 Leveraging CIQ Need to reflect levels 1 thru 5 of use
CIQ formal detail underpins 5th level. Use XML schema techniques to layer granularity above that. Each granular layer also has country specific models. Use ebXML AssemblyDoc to capture context structure rules and country models.

46 XML Information Exchange Quality
(and long-term consistency) Secure Authenticated Delivery and Tracking: Reliable Messaging system, envelope format and payload with exchange participant profile controls Delivery Assembly XML Content Assembly: Business logic for content structure decisions and explicit rules to enforce content, and interdependencies, with business exchange context, and content definition cross-references via UID associations Schema: Content structure definition and simple content typing Schema Registry/ Dictionary business information UID content referencing system ensures consistent definition usage UID UID – Universal ID content referencing system values – comprise of domain prefix, six digit integer, optional version, sub-version.

47 Syntax Technical Objectives
Create dual use schema that is capable of support OASIS {1 - 5} levels of use and the set of quality measures with the business choice for increasing detail granularity Support and harmonize noun dictionaries across multiple legacy implementations and consortium standards by allowing substitution underneath parents Use of ebXML UID technique to equate like elements in dictionary

48 Concept to Runtime Approach
Business Information Entities - BIE Registry Components Core Components, and Industry Dictionaries Physical Conceptual Application Database Structure Choices 1 2 Required Content Structure 3 Payload Assembly AssemblyDoc Structure Process Engine Content References Context Values Payload / Rendering Logical

49 XML techniques summary
We can use W3C Schema to show basic typing and structural permutations for all address content, matching the 5 levels of the business model. To provide automation of the business logic at-point-of-use requires ebXML and AssemblyDocs to supplement the Schema. This gives us short-term implementation today, with long-term extensibility and improvement of business value and information quality.

50 Which XML Method(s)? We need business collaboration on elements syntax: Global complexType definition? Global element definition? or define both? Reuse Reference global element in external namespace? Define local element as substitutionGroup of global element (bring into local namespace)? Define local element using external Namespace complexType (bring into local namespace)? Derive by extension, local element can have additional sub-elements added to it?

51 Postal Address Conclusions
Support Address Use Levels 1 - 5 Support Delivery Quality Metrics Make use of Schema in near term Define Postal Address using both Global complexType and Global Element Definitions Harmonize USPS & ECCMA approach with CIQ (xAL), HR-XML, postal address Support Dual Resolution (concatenated and detail) Align defined detailed elements (include mapping to concatenated) Establish UID-identified elements to support AssemblyDoc mapping to registry Define code lists to support rendering requirement Establish legacy environment compatibility (EDI X12 for DOD)

52 Required Components and Rendering in XML
Assembly Dissection Required Components and Rendering in XML

53 A,B,C,D! Making Assembly Work Assembly Structure
Business Context Rules Content Referencing Data Validations <CAM> <AssemblyStructure/> <BusinessUseContext/> <ContentReference/> <DataValidations/> </CAM>

54 Technology Foundation
excludeAttribute() excludeElement() excludeTree() makeOptional() makeMandatory() makeRepeatable() setChoice() setId() setLength() setLimit() setMask() setValue() restrictValues() restrictValuesByUID() useAttribute() useChoice() useElement() useTree() useAttributeByID() useChoiceByID() useElementByID() useTreeByID() Simple XML V1.1 XPath Neutral approach to structure content Assertion predicates

55 Simple Example Simple Purchase Order Straight up XML structure
Second example – structure choices Included sub-assemblies

56 Additional Information
OASIS ebXML Registry Technical Committee OASIS CAM (assembly) Technical Committee

57 Pioneering XML eBusiness
Thank you Pioneering XML eBusiness

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