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Electromagnetic Waves Maxwell’s Equations Maxwell’s Displacement Current Animation – EM Waves Properties of EM Waves Electromagnetic Spectrum Radio Frequency.

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Presentation on theme: "Electromagnetic Waves Maxwell’s Equations Maxwell’s Displacement Current Animation – EM Waves Properties of EM Waves Electromagnetic Spectrum Radio Frequency."— Presentation transcript:

1 Electromagnetic Waves Maxwell’s Equations Maxwell’s Displacement Current Animation – EM Waves Properties of EM Waves Electromagnetic Spectrum Radio Frequency Spectrum Encoding Information

2 Maxwell’s Equations missing term! Google Wikipedia

3 Maxwell’s Displacement Current Capacitor Charging – What happens in the “missing current” region? Maxwell added a “displacement current” ε o μ o Δφ/Δt Made 4 equations complete for all EM phenomena

4 Electromagnetic Waves Gauss’s (Coulomb’s) Law and Ampere’s Law setup electric and magnetic fields. Faraday Induction and Displacement Current continue self- sustaining electromagnetic wave! Satisfies basic wave equation, theory predicts speed of light! Can be created by resonating wire with L = λ/4 similar to wind instruments. Propagate at all frequencies and wavelengths. Electromagnetic spectrum.

5 EM Wave Animation Gauss’s Law sets up E, Ampere’s Law sets up B Faraday Induction and Displacement current keep it going Whole thing travels at 3 x 10 8 m/s (speed of light)

6 Nerd T-Shirts Order: 1) small, medium, large, x-large, and 2) differential or integral form Search: “Maxwell’s equations T-shirt”

7 The Electromagnetic Spectrum Radio Frequency – Radio, TV, cellphone, satellite, WiFi, shortwave Infrared Visible Ultraviolet X-ray Gamma-ray

8 US Communications frequencies

9 Popular communications frequencies United States A brief summary of some UHF frequency use: 88 – 108 MHz: FM Broadcasting 108–135 MHz: Aircraft control 225–420 MHz: Government use, including meteorology, military aviation, and federal two-way use [26]meteorology [26] 420–450 MHz: Government radiolocation and amateur radio (70 cm band)amateur radio70 cm band 433 MHz: Short range consumer devices including automotive, alarm systems, home automation, temperature sensors 450–470 MHz: UHF business band, General Mobile Radio Service, and Family Radio Service 2-way "walkie-talkies", public safetyGeneral Mobile Radio ServiceFamily Radio Service 470–512 MHz: TV channels 14–20 (also shared for land mobile 2-way radio use in some areas)land mobile 512–698 MHz: TV channels 21–51 (channel 37 used for radio astronomy)radio astronomy 698–806 MHz: Was auctioned in March 2008; bidders got full use after the transition to digital TV was completed on June 12, 2009 (formerly UHF TV channels 52–69)Was auctioned in March 2008;digital TV 806–824 MHz: Public safety and commercial 2-way (formerly TV channels 70–72) 824–851 MHz: Cellular A & B franchises, terminal (mobile phone) (formerly TV channels 73–77) AT&T, Verizon Wireless 851–869 MHz: Public safety and commercial 2-way (formerly TV channels 77–80) 869–896 MHz: Cellular A & B franchises, base station (formerly TV channels 80–83) 902–928 MHz: ISM band, amateur radio (33 cm band), cordless phones and stereo, radio-frequency identification, datalinksISM band33 cm bandradio-frequency identification 929–930 MHz: Pagers 931–932 MHz: Pagers 935–941 MHz: Commercial 2-way radio 941–960 MHz: Mixed studio-transmitter links, SCADA, other. 960–1215 MHz: Aeronautical Radionavigation 1240–1300 MHz: Amateur radio (23 cm band)23 cm band 1452–1492 MHz: Military use (therefore not available for Digital Audio Broadcasting, unlike Canada/Europe)Digital Audio Broadcasting 1575 MHz: Global Positioning System 1710–1755 MHz: AWS mobile phone uplink (UL) Operating BandAWS 1850–1910 MHz: PCS mobile phone—order is A, D, B, E, F, C blocks. A, B, C = 15 MHz; D, E, F = 5 MHz T-Mobile, Sprint PCS 1920–1930 MHz: DECT Cordless telephoneDECTCordless telephone 1930–1990 MHz: PCS base stations—order is A, D, B, E, F, C blocks. A, B, C = 15 MHz; D, E, F = 5 MHz 2110–2155 MHz: AWS mobile phone downlink (DL) Operating BandAWS 2300–2310 MHz: Amateur radio (13 cm band, lower segment)13 cm band 2310–2360 MHz: Satellite radio (Sirius and XM)Satellite radioSiriusXM 2390–2450 MHz: Amateur radio (13 cm band, upper segment)13 cm band 2400– MHz: ISM, IEEE , b, g, n Wireless LAN, IEEE , Bluetooth, ZigBee, Microwave ovenISMIEEE LANIEEE BluetoothZigBeeMicrowave oven

10 Information Encoding Amplitude Modulation Frequency Modulation Digital Techniques – GSM/CDMA/3G/4G – Digital Television – HD Radio


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