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Stigmas, Stereotypes, Threat, and Cardiovascular Disease Jim Blascovich University of California, Santa Barbara UC-Intercampus Health Psychology Conference.

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Presentation on theme: "Stigmas, Stereotypes, Threat, and Cardiovascular Disease Jim Blascovich University of California, Santa Barbara UC-Intercampus Health Psychology Conference."— Presentation transcript:

1 Stigmas, Stereotypes, Threat, and Cardiovascular Disease Jim Blascovich University of California, Santa Barbara UC-Intercampus Health Psychology Conference Center December 2, 2000

2 Collaborators Wendy Mendes –Sarah Hunter –Mark Seery –Brian Lickel –Neneh Kowai-Bell

3 Key Motivational States Challenge –when personal resources roughly equal or outweigh situational demands Threat –when situational demands outweigh personal resources.

4 Demand Components Danger Uncertainty Required Effort

5 Resource Components Knowledge, skills, & abilities Dispositions External Support

6 Performance Situation Affective (Emotional) Evaluation Cognitive (Semantic) Evaluation Challenge/ Threat

7 (Dienstbier, 1989) Physiological Toughness neuro-endocrine system states –physiological toughness –physiological (weakness)

8 Physiological Toughness SAM Axis Neural Response –sympathetic neural stimulation of the myocardium enhancing cardiac performance particularly contractility Endocrine Response –adrenal medullary release of epinephrine causing vasodilation resulting in a systemic decline in vascular resistance Benign

9 Physiological Weakness PAC Axis Neural –sympathetic neural stimulation of the myocardium enhancing cardiac performance Endocrine –pituitary adrenal cortical inhibition of adrenal medullary release of epinephrine and norepinephrine resulting in little change or even increases in systemic vascular resistance Malignant

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13 Key Motivational States Challenge--when resources roughly equal or outweigh demands –indexed by Dienstbiers pattern of physiological toughness Threat--when demands outweigh resources. –indexed by Dienstbiers pattern of physiological weakness

14 Motivated Performance Situations goal relevant require instrumental cognitive responses to active coping tasks minimally metabolically demanding

15 Examples of Motivated Performance Situations Taking Exams Decision Making Giving Speeches Playing Games Interviews Many Social Exchanges

16 Validational Studies correlational experimental manipulated physiology

17 Pre-ejection Period (sec*-1) Total Peripheral Resistance (Resistance Units) Cardiac Output (L/m) Correlational (Tomaka, Blascovich, Kelsey, & Leitten, 1996)

18 Validational Studies (see Blascovich & Tomaka, 1996, for a review). correlational experimental manipulated physiology

19 Pre-ejection Period (sec*-1) Total Peripheral Resistance (Resistance Units) Cardiac Output (L/m) Experimental Manipulation (Sarah Hunter, 2000)

20 Pre-ejection Period (sec*-1) Total Peripheral Resistance (Resistance Units) Cardiac Output (L/m) Experimental Manipulation (Mendes, Blascovich, Weisbuch, Seery, in prep)

21 Validational Studies (see Blascovich & Tomaka, 1996, for a review). correlational experimental manipulated physiology

22 NO EFFECTS!

23 Application of Indexes Attitudes (Blascovich, et al., 1993) Dispositions (Tomaka & Blascovich, 1994; Tomaka et al, 1999) Social Support (Allen & Blascovich, 1991, 1999) Social Facilitation (Blascovich, Mendes, Hunter & Lickel, 1999) Social Comparison (Mendes, Blascovich, Major, & Seery, under review)

24 Stigma and Threat Many theorists assume that perceivers are threatened by bearers of social stigmas Little evidence to support this basic theoretical assumption –problems with past attempts at physiological measures –problems with other types of measures especially self-report

25 Social Interaction Paradigm Partner a participant with a confederate who is either stigmatized or not stigmatized Immerse them in dyadic motivated performance situations Record physiological (cardiovascular) response marking challenge and threat

26 Procedures Participant and confederate meet and exchange background information Participant and confederate are separated and physiological sensors applied and baseline recordings made (of participant) Participants engage in a one or two tasks

27 Speech

28 Cooperative Wordfinding Task

29 Measures (all continuous) Impedance Cardiographic –pre-ejection period (PEP) = contractile force –cardiac-output (CO) = blood volume per minute Electrocardiographic –electrocardiogram (ECG) Hemodynamic –mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) Vascular –total peripheral resistance (TPR)

30 Stigma-Threat Studies (Perceiver) Experiment 1 -- Facial Birthmark

31

32 Experiment 1- Speech Delivery Blascovich et al. (in press)

33 Pre-ejection Period (sec*-1) Experiment 1- Speech Delivery Blascovich et al. (in press)

34 Pre-ejection Period (sec*-1) Cardiac Output (L/m) Experiment 1- Speech Delivery Blascovich et al. (in press)

35 Pre-ejection Period (sec*-1) Total Peripheral Resistance (Resistance Units) Cardiac Output (L/m) Experiment 1- Speech Delivery Blascovich et al. (in press)

36 Experiment 1- Word Finding Task Blascovich et al. (in press)

37 Pre-ejection Period (sec*-1) Experiment 1- Word Finding Task Blascovich et al. (in press)

38 Pre-ejection Period (sec*-1) Cardiac Output (L/m) Experiment 1- Word Finding Task Blascovich et al. (in press)

39 Pre-ejection Period (sec*-1) Total Peripheral Resistance (Resistance Units) Cardiac Output (L/m) Experiment 1- Word Finding Task Blascovich et al. (in press)

40 Number of Words Generated Experiment 1- Word Finding Task Blascovich et al. (in press)

41 Stigma-Threat Studies (Perceiver) Experiment 1 -- Facial Birthmark Experiment 2 -- Facial Birthmark

42 Experiment 2 - Word Finding Task Blascovich et al. (in press)

43 Pre-ejection Period (sec*-1) Cardiac Output (L/m) Experiment 2 - Word Finding Task Blascovich et al. (in press)

44 Pre-ejection Period (sec*-1) Cardiac Output (L/m) Experiment 2 - Word Finding Task Blascovich et al. (in press)

45 Pre-ejection Period (sec*-1) Total Peripheral Resistance (Resistance Units) Cardiac Output (L/m) Experiment 2 - Word Finding Task Blascovich et al. (in press)

46 Number of Words Generated Experiment 2 Blascovich et al. (in press)

47 Stigma-Threat Studies (Perceiver) Experiment 1 -- Facial Birthmark Experiment 2 -- Facial Birthmark Experiment 3 -- Race & SES (males)

48 PEP TPR CO Experiment 3 - Speech Blascovich et al. (in prep)

49 PEP TPR CO PEP TPR CO Experiment 3 - Speech Blascovich et al. (in prep)

50 PEP TPR CO Experiment 3 - Word Finding Blascovich et al. (in prep)

51 PEP TPR CO PEP TPR CO Experiment 3 - Word Finding Blascovich et al. (in prep)

52 Stigma-Threat Studies (Perceiver) Experiment 1 -- Facial Birthmark Experiment 2 -- Facial Birthmark Experiment 3 -- Race & SES (males) Experiment 4 -- Race & SES (females)

53 PEP TPR CO Experiment 4 - Word Finding Blascovich et al. (in press)

54 PEP TPR CO PEP TPR CO Experiment 4 - Word Finding Blascovich et al. (in press)

55 Pre-ejection Period (sec*-1) b = -1.2 b = 3.9** Experiment 4 - Word Finding Blascovich et al. (in press)

56 Pre-ejection Period (sec*-1) Cardiac Output (L/m) b = -1.2 b = 3.9** b =.21 t b =.07 Experiment 4 - Word Finding Blascovich et al. (in prep)

57 Pre-ejection Period (sec*-1) Total Peripheral Resistance (Resistance Units) Cardiac Output (L/m) b = -1.2 b = 3.9** b = -58.6* b = b =.21 t b =.07 Experiment 4 - Word Finding Blascovich et al. (in press)

58 Effect Size Summary SpeechWordfinding Exp. 1 Exp. 2 Exp. 3 Race Status Exp. 4 Race Status

59 Stigma-Threat Studies (Bearer) Experiment 1 -- Facial Birthmark

60 TPR msec* -1 dyne-s*cm -5 PEP Cardiovascular Reactivity from the first minute of Speech Delivery by Perceptions of Stigmatization Cohens d =.61; Multivariate F = 2.78, p <.03 CO Mendes & Blascovich, in prep.

61 Stigma-Threat Studies (Bearer) Experiment 1 -- Facial Birthmark Experiment 2 -- Race

62 TPR msec* -1 dyne-s*cm -5 PEP Cardiovascular Reactivity during the first minute of the Word-Finding by Race of Participant (all cooperating with a White evaluator) Cohens d =.52; Multivariate F = 4.15, p <.002 CO Mendes & Blascovich, in prep.

63 Stigma-Threat Studies (Bearer) Experiment 1 -- Facial Birthmark Experiment 2 -- Race Experiment 3 -- Stereotype Threat

64 Blascovich, Spencer, Quinn, & Steele, in press Stereotype Threat Theory Rationale Design Procedures Results

65 Blascovich, Spencer, Quinn, & Steele, in press

66 Implications Stigmas are threatening. –perceivers –bearers Interactions involving members of stigmatized groups –likely to be aversive to individuals involved psychologically cardiovascular health –likely to lead to negatively toned behaviors

67 Implications for Stigma Interventions decreasing demand evaluations –danger –uncertainty –required effort increase resource evaluations –knowledge, skills, and abilities –dispositions –external support


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