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RE-THINKING & RE-WORKING THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT 1781-1788 What events led some American leaders to determine a stronger central government was necessary.

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Presentation on theme: "RE-THINKING & RE-WORKING THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT 1781-1788 What events led some American leaders to determine a stronger central government was necessary."— Presentation transcript:

1 RE-THINKING & RE-WORKING THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT What events led some American leaders to determine a stronger central government was necessary and how did they succeed?

2 LAND ORDINANCE 1785 Uniform procedures for surveying territory Uniform procedures for surveying territory Orderly development of western territory Orderly development of western territory Townships 6 mile sq., 36 sections, 1 reserved for public schools Townships 6 mile sq., 36 sections, 1 reserved for public schools Favored speculators Favored speculators

3 NORTHWEST ORDINANCE 1787 Bounded by Ohio & Mississippi Rivers & Great Lakes Bounded by Ohio & Mississippi Rivers & Great Lakes Established 1 st organized territory of the United States Established 1 st organized territory of the United States No less than 3 no more than 5 states No less than 3 no more than 5 states Full rights & responsibilities of original 13 states Full rights & responsibilities of original 13 states Set precedent for how US would expand westward Set precedent for how US would expand westward Slavery prohibited Slavery prohibited

4 REVOLUTIONARY CHANGES SLAVERY: on the road to ultimate extinction – Founding Fathers cant agree here & know it so take it off the table – union & survival 1 st priority SLAVERY: on the road to ultimate extinction – Founding Fathers cant agree here & know it so take it off the table – union & survival 1 st priority PA 1 st to abolish slavery & form 1 st anti-slavery organization PA 1 st to abolish slavery & form 1 st anti-slavery organization Slavery died where it was not eco- nomically important Slavery died where it was not eco- nomically important Easier laws of manumission Easier laws of manumission NW Ordinance 1787 NW Ordinance 1787 Banneker, Wheatley, R. Allen Banneker, Wheatley, R. Allen RELIGION: Anglican church be- comes Episcopal, state support for churches continues BUT money goes to religion with most members RELIGION: Anglican church be- comes Episcopal, state support for churches continues BUT money goes to religion with most members ABOLISH PRIMOGENITURE & ENTAIL: property inheritance more equitable ABOLISH PRIMOGENITURE & ENTAIL: property inheritance more equitable WOMEN: no uniform changes BUT ran farms, homes & businesses during war WOMEN: no uniform changes BUT ran farms, homes & businesses during war Increasing legal rights: divorce, property & education Increasing legal rights: divorce, property & education EMERGENCE OF NATIONAL SPIRIT & CULTURE: flag, national heroes, textbooks, nationalism a result NOT cause of Revolution, uniform postal system, currency, Academy of Arts & Science, mid 18 th c. US as distinct from Europe EMERGENCE OF NATIONAL SPIRIT & CULTURE: flag, national heroes, textbooks, nationalism a result NOT cause of Revolution, uniform postal system, currency, Academy of Arts & Science, mid 18 th c. US as distinct from Europe

5 ITS THE ECONOMY (STUPID) INFLATION, DEBT, NO INCOME NEED TO PUT NATION ON SOUND FINANCIAL FOOTING NEED TO PUT NATION ON SOUND FINANCIAL FOOTING ROBERT MORRIS & 5% IMPORT DUTY – REJECTED ROBERT MORRIS & 5% IMPORT DUTY – REJECTED NEWBURGH CONSPIRACY – HAMILTON & MORRIS – FAILURE NEWBURGH CONSPIRACY – HAMILTON & MORRIS – FAILURE IMPOST OF 1783 – REJECTED IMPOST OF 1783 – REJECTED

6 TRADE (OR LACK THEREOF) Exports to Britain were restricted. Exports to Britain were restricted. British law prohibited trade with Britain's remaining sugar colonies in the Caribbean. British law prohibited trade with Britain's remaining sugar colonies in the Caribbean. Two major sources of colonial-era commerce were eliminated Two major sources of colonial-era commerce were eliminated A flood of cheap British manufactured imports that sold cheaper than comparable American-made goods made the post-war economic slump worse. A flood of cheap British manufactured imports that sold cheaper than comparable American-made goods made the post-war economic slump worse. Finally, the high level of debt taken on by the states to fund the war effort added to the economic crisis by helping to fuel rapid inflation. Finally, the high level of debt taken on by the states to fund the war effort added to the economic crisis by helping to fuel rapid inflation.

7 JAY-GARDOQUI TREATY 1784 FLORIDA BORDER DISPUTE FLORIDA BORDER DISPUTE SPAIN DIDNT SIGN TREATY SPAIN DIDNT SIGN TREATY SPAIN DIDNT RECOGNIZE US RIGHTS TO SHIP GOODS DOWN THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER SPAIN DIDNT RECOGNIZE US RIGHTS TO SHIP GOODS DOWN THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER SECTIONS SUSPICIOUS OF EACH OTHER & THEIR INDIVIDUAL INTENTIONS SECTIONS SUSPICIOUS OF EACH OTHER & THEIR INDIVIDUAL INTENTIONS TREATY NOT RATIFIED TREATY NOT RATIFIED

8 SHAYS REBELLION 1786 A DESPERATE NEED FOR A STRONGER CENTRAL GOVERNMENT I saw 1 head turning into 13 GW I saw 1 head turning into 13 GW Culmination of signs for many that the federal government needed teeth Culmination of signs for many that the federal government needed teeth Fighting for principles won in the Revolution Fighting for principles won in the Revolution Catalyst to stabilize the country: threat to property Catalyst to stabilize the country: threat to property Europe demands loan repayment in specie, MA banks require specie, farmers cant pay loans Europe demands loan repayment in specie, MA banks require specie, farmers cant pay loans Daniel Shays & others storm courthouse in Springfield Daniel Shays & others storm courthouse in Springfield No aid for MA from central govt No aid for MA from central govt

9 STENGTHENING FEDERAL AUTHORITY ANNAPOLIS CONVENTION 9/17/86 ANNAPOLIS CONVENTION 9/17/86 Focus on common commerce issues Focus on common commerce issues Representatives from 5 states – reconvene w/ news of Shays Representatives from 5 states – reconvene w/ news of Shays PHILADELPHIA CONVENTION 5/87 PHILADELPHIA CONVENTION 5/87 55 delegates from 12 states 55 delegates from 12 states No one looking for complete democracy No one looking for complete democracy ISSUES: amend or scrap Articles of Confederation and representation: balance the interests of large and small states in terms of population ISSUES: amend or scrap Articles of Confederation and representation: balance the interests of large and small states in terms of population

10 THE COMPROMISE REPRESENTATION REPRESENTATION VIRGINIA PLAN – E. RANDOLPH (JAMES MADISON) VIRGINIA PLAN – E. RANDOLPH (JAMES MADISON) BICAMERAL LEGISLATURE, FIXED REPRESENTATION PROPORTIONATE TO POPULATION BICAMERAL LEGISLATURE, FIXED REPRESENTATION PROPORTIONATE TO POPULATION NEW JERSEY PLAN – WM. PATTERSON NEW JERSEY PLAN – WM. PATTERSON UNICAMERAL LEGISLATURE, EACH STATE EQUAL VOTE UNICAMERAL LEGISLATURE, EACH STATE EQUAL VOTE CONNECTICUT COMPROMISE (GREAT COMPROMISE) R. SHERMAN CONNECTICUT COMPROMISE (GREAT COMPROMISE) R. SHERMAN EQUAL VOTE/EACH STATE UPPER HOUSE, PROPORTIONAL VOTING LOWER HOUSE EQUAL VOTE/EACH STATE UPPER HOUSE, PROPORTIONAL VOTING LOWER HOUSE ALL REVENUE BILLS TO BE INTRODUCED IN THE HOUSE – LOWER CHAMBER ALL REVENUE BILLS TO BE INTRODUCED IN THE HOUSE – LOWER CHAMBER GREATLY OPPOSED BY MADISON & VIGINIANS BUT PASSED GREATLY OPPOSED BY MADISON & VIGINIANS BUT PASSED DESIRE FOR STRONGER CENTRAL GOVERNMENT OUTWEIGHED FEAR OF ABSOLUTE GOVERNMENT & REDUCTION OF STATES RIGHTS DESIRE FOR STRONGER CENTRAL GOVERNMENT OUTWEIGHED FEAR OF ABSOLUTE GOVERNMENT & REDUCTION OF STATES RIGHTS

11 SEPARATION OF POWERS & CHECKS AND BALANCES

12 FEDERALISM

13 MORE COMPROMISE 3/5THS COMPROMISE NO QUESTION ON WHETHER OR NOT TO ALLOW SLAVERY JUST WHETHER OR NOT THEY WOULD BE COUNTED AS PART OF THE POPULATION NO QUESTION ON WHETHER OR NOT TO ALLOW SLAVERY JUST WHETHER OR NOT THEY WOULD BE COUNTED AS PART OF THE POPULATION PROPERTY RIGHTS PROPERTY RIGHTS SLAVES TO COUNT AS 3/5THS OF A PERSON TOWARDS POPULATION BUT ALSO TAXED AS PROPERTY AT SAME RATE SLAVES TO COUNT AS 3/5THS OF A PERSON TOWARDS POPULATION BUT ALSO TAXED AS PROPERTY AT SAME RATE COMMERCE COMPROMISE CONSTITUTION PERPETUATES SLAVERY CONSTITUTION PERPETUATES SLAVERY NO INTERFERENCE WITH SLAVE TRADE UNTIL 1808 NO INTERFERENCE WITH SLAVE TRADE UNTIL 1808 RETURN FUGITIVE SLAVES RETURN FUGITIVE SLAVES

14 RATIFICATION FRAMERS UNDERSTOOD THAT STATE LEGISLATURES WOULD NOT RATIFY DUE TO SUBORDINATION TO FEDERAL AUTHORITY FRAMERS UNDERSTOOD THAT STATE LEGISLATURES WOULD NOT RATIFY DUE TO SUBORDINATION TO FEDERAL AUTHORITY CONSTITUTION REPUDIATED IDEA THAT STATES WERE FOUNDATION OF THE NEW GOVERNMENT CONSTITUTION REPUDIATED IDEA THAT STATES WERE FOUNDATION OF THE NEW GOVERNMENT WE THE PEOPLE NOT WE THE STATES WE THE PEOPLE NOT WE THE STATES SPECIAL STATE CONVENTIONS WITH DELEGATES ELECTED BY VOTERS SPECIAL STATE CONVENTIONS WITH DELEGATES ELECTED BY VOTERS 9 OUT OF 13 NEEDED 9 OUT OF 13 NEEDED

15 FEDERALIST PAPERS Madison, Jay, Hamilton FEDERALISTS: NEED STRONGER CENTRAL GOVERNMENT FEDERALISTS: NEED STRONGER CENTRAL GOVERNMENT HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES REPRESENT THE PEOPLE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES REPRESENT THE PEOPLE NOT A LOT OF SUPPORT INITIALLY NOT A LOT OF SUPPORT INITIALLY ANTI-FEDERALISTS: STATES SUBORDINATE TO NATIONAL GOVERNMENT ANTI-FEDERALISTS: STATES SUBORDINATE TO NATIONAL GOVERNMENT NEW CONSTITUTION ELIMINATES SOVEREIGN STATES NEW CONSTITUTION ELIMINATES SOVEREIGN STATES NO PROTECTIONS FOR INDIVIDUAL LIBERTIES NO PROTECTIONS FOR INDIVIDUAL LIBERTIES MASSACHUSETTS: CONTENTIOUS RATIFICATION 2/1788 – ONLY WITH PROMISE TO CONSIDER BILL OF RIGHTS – 4 STATES FOLLOW MASSACHUSETTS: CONTENTIOUS RATIFICATION 2/1788 – ONLY WITH PROMISE TO CONSIDER BILL OF RIGHTS – 4 STATES FOLLOW NH 9 TH STATE 6/21/88 BUT NEW YORK & VIRGINIA NOT YET ON BOARD NH 9 TH STATE 6/21/88 BUT NEW YORK & VIRGINIA NOT YET ON BOARD VA 6/26/88 & FINALLY NY RATIFY JULY 26 (30 TO 27) VA 6/26/88 & FINALLY NY RATIFY JULY 26 (30 TO 27)


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