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Chapter 11 E-Commerce Security
Learning Objectives Document the trends in computer and network security attacks. Describe the common security practices of businesses of all sizes. Understand the basic elements of EC security. Explain the basic types of network security attacks. Describe common mistakes that organizations make in managing security. Discuss some of the major technologies for securing EC communications. Detail some of the major technologies for securing EC networks components. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
The Continuing Need for E-Commerce SecurityComputer Security Institute (CSI) Nonprofit organization located in San Francisco, California, that is dedicated to serving and training information, computer, and network security professionals Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) Group of three teams at Carnegie Mellon University that monitor the incidence of cyber attacks, analyze vulnerabilities, and provide guidance on protecting against attacks Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Security Is Everyone’s BusinessThe DHS (Department of Homeland Security) strategy includes five national priorities: A national cyberspace security response system A national cyberspace security threat and vulnerability reduction program A national cyberspace security awareness and training program Securing governments’ cyberspace National security and international security cooperation Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Security Is Everyone’s BusinessAccomplishing these priorities requires concerted effort at five levels: Level 1—The Home User/Small Business Level 2—Large Enterprises Level 3—Critical Sectors/Infrastructure Level 4—National Issues and Vulnerabilities Level 5—Global Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Security Is Everyone’s BusinessNational Cyber Security Division (NCSD) A division of the Department of Homeland Security charged with implementing U.S. cyberspace security strategy Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Basic Security Issues What kinds of security questions arise?From the user’s perspective: How can the user be sure that the Web server is owned and operated by a legitimate company? How does the user know that the Web page and form do not contain some malicious or dangerous code or content? How does the user know that the owner of the Web site will not distribute the information the user provides to some other party? Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Basic Security Issues What kinds of security questions arise?From the company’s perspective: How does the company know the user will not attempt to break into the Web server or alter the pages and content at the site? How does the company know that the user will not try to disrupt the server so that it is not available to others? Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Basic Security Issues What kinds of security questions arise?From both parties’ perspectives: How do both parties know that the network connection is free from eavesdropping by a third party “listening” on the line? How do they know that the information sent back-and-forth between the server and the user’s browser has not been altered? Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Basic Security Issues authenticationThe process by which one entity verifies that another entity is who he, she, or it claims to be authorization The process that ensures that a person has the right to access certain resources auditing The process of collecting information about attempts to access particular resources, use particular privileges, or perform other security actions Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Exhibit 11.1 General Security Issues at EC SitesElectronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Types of Threats and Attacksnontechnical attack An attack that uses chicanery to trick people into revealing sensitive information or performing actions that compromise the security of a network Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Types of Threats and AttacksNontechnical Attacks: Social Engineering social engineering A type of nontechnical attack that uses social pressures to trick computer users into compromising computer networks to which those individuals have access A multiprong approach should be used to combat social engineering Education and training Policies and procedures Penetration testing Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Types of Threats and Attackstechnical attack An attack perpetrated using software and systems knowledge or expertise common (security) vulnerabilities and exposures (CVEs) Publicly known computer security risks, which are collected, listed, and shared by a board of security-related organizations (cve.mitre.org) National Infrastructure Protection Center (NIPC) A joint partnership under the auspices of the FBI between governmental and private industry; designed to prevent and protect the nation’s infrastructure Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Types of Threats and Attacksdenial-of-service (DoS) attack An attack on a Web site in which an attacker uses specialized software to send a flood of data packets to the target computer with the aim of overloading its resources distributed denial-ofservice (DDoS) attack A denial-of-service attack in which the attacker gains illegal administrative access to as many computers on the Internet as possible and uses the multiple computers to send a flood of data packets to the target computer Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Exhibit 11.2 Using Zombies in a Distributed Denial-of-Service AttackElectronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Types of Threats and Attacksmalware A generic term for malicious software A number of factors have contributed to the overall increase in malicious code. Among these factors, the following are paramount: Mixing data and executable instructions Increasingly homogenous computing environments Unprecedented connectivity Larger clueless user base Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Types of Threats and AttacksAs the number of attacks increases, the following trends in malicious code are emerging: Increased speed and volume of attacks Reduced time between the discovery of a vulnerability and the release of an attack to exploit the vulnerability Remotely-controlled bot networks are growing E-commerce is the most frequently targeted industry Attacks against Web application technologies are increasing A large percent of Fortune 100 companies have been compromised by worms Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Types of Threats and Attacksvirus A piece of software code that inserts itself into a host, including the operating systems, in order to propagate; it requires that its host program be run to activate it worm A software program that runs independently, consuming the resources of its host in order to maintain itself, that is capable of propagating a complete working version of itself onto another machine Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Managing EC Security Common mistakes in managing security risks:Undervalued information Narrowly defined security boundaries Reactive security management Dated security management processes Lack of communication about security responsibilities Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Managing EC Security Security Risk Management security risk managementA systematic process for determining the likelihood of various security attacks and for identifying the actions needed to prevent or mitigate those attacks Security risk management consists of three phases: Asset identification Risk assessment Implementation Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Securing EC Communicationsaccess control Mechanism that determines who can legitimately use a network resource passive tokens Storage devices (e.g., magnetic strips) that contain a secret code used in a two-factor authentication system active tokens Small, stand-alone electronic devices that generate one-time passwords used in a two-factor authentication system Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Securing EC Communicationsbiometric systems Authentication systems that identify a person by measurement of a biological characteristic, such as fingerprints, iris (eye) patterns, facial features, or voice physiological biometrics Measurements derived directly from different parts of the body (e.g., fingerprint, iris, hand, facial characteristics) behavioral biometrics Measurements derived from various actions and indirectly from various body parts (e.g., voice scans or keystroke monitoring) Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Securing EC Communicationsfingerprint scanning Measurement of the discontinuities of a person’s fingerprint, which are then converted to a set of numbers that are stored as a template and used to authenticate identity iris scanning Measurement of the unique spots in the iris (colored part of the eye), which are then converted to a set of numbers that are stored as a template and used to authenticate identity Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Securing EC Communicationspublic key infrastructure (PKI) A scheme for securing e-payments using public key encryption and various technical components encryption The process of scrambling (encrypting) a message in such a way that it is difficult, expensive, or time-consuming for an unauthorized person to unscramble (decrypt) it plaintext An unencrypted message in human-readable form Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Securing EC Communicationsciphertext A plaintext message after it has been encrypted into a machine-readable form encryption algorithm The mathematical formula used to encrypt the plaintext into the ciphertext, and vice versa key The secret code used to encrypt and decrypt a message Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Securing EC Communicationssymmetric (private) key system An encryption system that uses the same key to encrypt and decrypt the message Data Encryption Standard (DES) The standard symmetric encryption algorithm supported the NIST and used by U.S. government agencies until October 2, 2000 Rijndael The new Advanced Encryption Standard used to secure U.S. government Communications since October 2, 2000 Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Exhibit 11.4 Symmetric (Private) Key EncryptionElectronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Securing EC CommunicationsPublic (Asymmetric) Key Encryption public key encryption Method of encryption that uses a pair of matched keys—a public key to encrypt a message and a private key to decrypt it, or vice versa public key Encryption code that is publicly available to anyone Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Securing EC CommunicationsDigital Signatures digital signature An identifying code that can be used to authenticate the identity of the sender of a document hash A mathematical computation that is applied to a message, using a private key, to encrypt the message Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Securing EC CommunicationsDigital Signatures message digest A summary of a message, converted into a string of digits, after the hash has been applied digital envelope The combination of the encrypted original message and the digital signature, using the recipient’s public key Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Exhibit 11.5 Digital SignaturesElectronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Securing EC Communicationsdigital certificate Verification that the holder of a public or private key is who he or she claims to be certificate authorities (CAs) Third parties that issue digital certificates Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Securing EC CommunicationsSecure Socket Layer (SSL) Protocol that utilizes standard certificates for authentication and data encryption to ensure privacy or confidentiality Transport Layer Security (TLS) As of 1996, another name for the SSL protocol Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Securing EC Networks policy of least privilege (POLP)Policy of blocking access to network resources unless access is required to conduct business Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Exhibit 11.6 Layered SecurityElectronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Securing EC Networks The selection and operation of these technologies should be based on certain design concepts, including: Layered security Controlling access Role-specific security Monitoring Keep systems patched Response team Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Securing EC Networks firewallA network node consisting of both hardware and software that isolates a private network from a public network packet-filtering routers Firewalls that filter data and requests moving from the public Internet to a private network based on the network addresses of the computer sending or receiving the request Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Securing EC Networks packet filterspackets Segments of data and requests sent from one computer to another on the Internet; consist of the Internet addresses of the computers sending and receiving the data, plus other identifying information that distinguish one packet from another packet filters Rules that can accept or reject incoming packets based on source and destination addresses and the other identifying information Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Securing EC Networks application-level proxy A firewall that permits requests for Web pages to move from the public Internet to the private network bastion gateway A special hardware server that utilizes application-level proxy software to limit the types of requests that can be passed to an organization’s internal networks from the public Internet proxies Special software programs that run on the gateway server and pass repackaged packets from one network to the other Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Exhibit 11.7 Application Level Proxy (Bastion Gateway Host)Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Securing EC Networks demilitarized zone (DMZ)Network area that sits between an organization’s internal network and an external network (Internet), providing physical isolation between the two networks that is controlled by rules enforced by a firewall. personal firewall A network node designed to protect an individual user’s desktop system from the public network by monitoring all the traffic that passes through the computer’s network interface card. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Exhibit 11.8 Demilitarized Zone (DMZ)Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Securing EC Networks virtual private network (VPN)A network that uses the public Internet to carry information but remains private by using encryption to scramble the communications, authentication to ensure that information has not been tampered with, and access control to verify the identity of anyone using the network protocol tunneling Method used to ensure confidentiality and integrity of data transmitted over the Internet, by encrypting data packets, sending them in packets across the Internet, and decrypting them at the destination address Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Securing EC Networks intrusion detection systems (IDSs)A special category of software that can monitor activity across a network or on a host computer, watch for suspicious activity, and take automated action based on what it sees Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Securing EC Networks honeynetA way to evaluate vulnerabilities of an organization by studying the types of attacks to which a site is subjected using a network of systems called honeypots honeypots Production systems (e.g., firewalls, routers, Web servers, database servers) designed to do real work but that are watched and studied as network intrusions occur Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Managerial Issues Have we budgeted enough for security?What are the business consequences of poor security? Which e-commerce sites are vulnerable to attack? What is the key to establishing strong e-commerce security? What steps should businesses follow in establishing a security plan? Should organizations be concerned with internal security threats? Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
Summary Trends in computer attacks. Security is everyone’s business.Basic security issues. Basic types of network security attacks. Managing EC security. Securing EC communications. Technologies for securing networks. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006
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