Presentation on theme: "PARTY GOVERNMENT II PARTY FAMILIES Reading: Hay and Menon CH 12."— Presentation transcript:
PARTY GOVERNMENT II PARTY FAMILIES Reading: Hay and Menon CH 12
Announcements Bale and Kitschelt are assigned for this week We will discuss them in class during the unit on party system change If you have time, skim them now If not, skim them when we get to the discussion of party system change Policy memos for unit one are due Monday
Guiding Questions What is party government? What are political parties? How do we classify political parties? What are the familles spirituelles referred to in studies of political parties?
Political science suggests that political parties play a central role in promoting and maintaining democracy. Schattschneider 1942 “modern democracy is unthinkable save in terms of political parties” Muller and Strom 1999 In a democracy, voters delegate policy-making authority to representatives via political parties. Political Parties and Government
We can conceive of democracy as “party government” Particularly the case in parliamentary systems Confidence vote Katz 1986; Katz 1987 1) Parties organize policy-making Government decisions made by party leaders. Government policy decided within political parties. Parties act cohesively to enact policy. 2) Parties serve as intermediaries between voters and government. Elections seen as mechanisms to ensure party accountability. 3) Parties recruit political leadership. Most elected officials are affiliated with a party. What Is Party Government?
What Are Political Parties? Ware 1996 Political parties: 1) seek influence in a state often by attempting to occupy positions in government 2) usually consist of more than a single interest in society and to some degree attempt to ‘aggregate interests’
Political Parties vs. Interest Groups Interest groups 1) primarily interested in advancing a single interest or set of interests within a polity. 2) organized outside of the state; seek to influence governments but generally. do not put forth candidates for office. Both political parties and interest groups are involved in interest articulation (expressing citizen wants and needs). Only political parties are interested in interest aggregation (combining citizen wants/needs to create coherent policy).
Why Parties? The formation of what we consider modern political parties can be linked to: 1) Growing autonomy of parliaments. Political elites had to ensure that political decisions could be reached. 2) Expansion of suffrage. Political elites had to appeal to the masses as the suffrage expands; new types of parties emerge to appeal to new voters. 3) Avenues to political power. Political elites saw a value in creating political parties as a way to wield political power.
Classifying Parties: Familles Spirituelles A party’s ideology bases strongly shapes their policy positions. Regardless of whether or not parties view policy goals strategically or sincerely. Party “type” is often linked to a party’s stated ideology. von Beyme 1985 Examines ideological roots of parties rather than position along the ideological spectrum. Identifies party groups in order of their ideological emergence. Identifies nine party families (familles spirituelles) in the European context. Laver and Hunt 1992 Measures ideology on two scales: stance on public ownership (left-right) and stance on social issues. Allows for comparison within and across party families.
Liberal/Radical Parties Developed in the late 19 th century. Formed by bourgeoisie to protect interests against landowners who controlled the state. Wanted to remove state restrictions on means of production and promote a separation of state and society. Often favored extension of the franchise (especially Radical parties). Center-left on social issues (7.9), right on economics (15.3). Electoral appeal: middle classes, business owners
Conservative Parties Opposed extension of the franchise in response to Liberal/Radical parties. Historically opposed to social change. Focus on national honor; paternalistic view of society. Right on economics (15.8), right on social policies (12.2). New Right issues have changed some of these appeals particularly in terms of the market. Many modern conservative parties take a very free market approach to the economy. Electoral appeal: middle and upper classes.
Socialist/Social Democratic Parties Formed as working classes organized. Sought the extension of the franchise and public ownership of the means of production. Modern variants accept the free market. Seek a social safety net to protect those affected by globalization Movement split after WW1 as communist parties formed. Affirmed support for liberal democratic institutions following WWII. Ideological placement: Economic 8.2, Social 6.3 Electoral appeals: Working and lower middle classes
Christian Democratic Parties Formed by Catholic groups in response to secularism. Organized to compete against socialist parties. Gained momentum after WWII. Right of center on social issues (15.5), more centrist on economics (13.9) Favors a more active role for government in the economy than conservative parties. Shift towards the right in recent years on economic issues. Electoral appeal: Catholic workers, middle classes
Communist Parties Took direction from Moscow until the collapse of the USSR. Collapse of the USSR has resulted in a change in name and ideology of many of these parties. Favored public ownership (3.1) and permissive social policy (4.8). But also accepted democratic institutions both during and after the Cold War. Many have transformed into credible social democratic parties Example: PDS in Germany, PCI in Italy Other movements associated with the far left are shifting towards anti-capitalist appeals Example: NPA in France Electoral appeal: youth, unemployed, working classes.
Agrarian Parties Small farming and peasant based parties formed in response to industrialization. Mainly formed in Scandinavia and Eastern European countries. Generally right of center on both economic and social issues, but usually absorbed by other parties of the right. Changes in political orientation make it difficult to classify them as a group. Electoral appeals: agricultural interests, middle classes.
Regional/Ethnic Parties Represent regional or ethnic minority groups within societies. A presence since the 1960’s where movements are not absorbed by larger parties. Many merge nationalism (generally associated with the right), with center left stances on economic and social policy. Difficult to classify on the left-right spectrum. Electoral appeals: nationalists.
Extreme Right Parties Generally associated with anti-immigrant, extreme nationalist, anti-government and anti-tax philosophies. (Economic 18.5, Social 19) Right of center on both social and economic policies. Many have roots in fascism (authoritarian state to protect national ideals). Although modern far right parties are generally not anti system parties (change from the interwar era); Anti-Islamic appeals have boosted their vote totals in recent elections. Stance typically means they are not invited to join coalitions. Although this appears to be changing Electoral appeals: working classes
Ecological/Green Parties Newest party family. Associated with post-materialist concerns (e.g. environment and quality of life issues). Favor government intervention and international cooperation on ecological issues placing it on the left in terms of economic policy. Center left on economic issues (8.0) and the most permissive on social issues (4.2). Electoral appeals: youth, gay/lesbian voters, middle and upper middle classes
Party Family Positions Compared ECONOMIC POLICY Communists 3.1 Greens 8.0 Socialists 8.2 Christian Dem 13.9 Liberals 15.3 Conservatives 15.8 Extreme Right 18.5 SOCIAL POLICY Greens 4.2 Communists 4.8 Socialists 6.3 Liberals 7.9 Conservatives 12.2 Christian Dem 15.5 Extreme Right 19.0
Applicability outside of Europe: The Strange Case of the United States? Aspects of both parties make classification difficult. Broad tent rather than explicitly ideological parties. Generally classified as liberal parties although they emphasize different strands of liberalism. The terms “conservative” and “liberal” have taken on a different meaning in the US context. US Democrats slightly outside the mainstream of European center left parties on economic issues. US Republicans outside the mainstream of European liberal parties on social issues.
Conclusions Concept of party families works well for many systems, not so well in others. Every system has a social democratic/socialist party. Every system has EITHER a conservative or a Christian Democratic party. No system has both. Most systems have liberal and green party families represented. Although their strength varies Far right parties have been growing in strength. Weaker resolve on keeping them out of office by parties of the right.
Next Lecture Political Parties and Party Systems: Competition Readings: Sartori PAY PARTICULAR ATTENTION TO: 1) Party system fragmentation 2) Party system polarization 3) Polarized pluralism