11Old process:Linear – once and donePassive – sit back and learnNew Process:Reinforcing – repeat until user is comfortableContinuous – supports continuous learningActive – users take active role in own development
12Pre-class – Learner’s Materials Available Course OutlinePowerPoint FileData SheetJob Aid
13Instructor’s “Day Pack” Course slide deck, with notes (includes flow diag.)Student WIExercises & Data SheetStudent Materials (see next slide)TTT - Adult Learning / Presentation Skills, etc (this slide deck)TTT – “Teaching on-line” class materialsWebEx Quick Reference Guides: Instructor and Attendee
14In-class – Learners Bring to Class Job AidsExercisesData SheetOptionalCourse DescriptionParts of Work Instructions
15In-class – Learners are Provided Course slide deckInstructions on how to access Work Instructions on-lineURL to the assessmentInstructions for accessing sandbox
20Principles of Adult Learning Adults:Must want to learnWill only learn what they feel they need to learnLearn by doingValue Self-esteemAdults resist mandatory learningAdults are practical in their approach to learning and expect to be taught what they need to know to get the job doneAdults require active participation in the learning process to be successful and will retain knowledge and skills much better with this approach
21Principles of Adult Learning Adult learning centers on realistic problemsAdult learning is enhanced with a variety of methodsAdult learning is best in an informal environmentPrevious experiences affect adult learning attitudesRealistic scenarios challenge adult learners more effectively when they are allowed to solve real life problemsAdults prefer variety in their training. Most technical training includes concept presentations, demonstrations, and practice exercisesIt is important to acknowledge prior experience as valuable to build on this experience when developing new skills
22Adult Learner Attitudes Trainer Attitude HereEnthusiasticConfidentEagerReadyAnxiousHostileTimidPessimisticResistantCautiousEvery adult learner enters your training room with an attitude.Positive learners are more likely to use the skills being taught in training and feel satisfied when they do.Your job is to be aware and sensitive to participants’ feelings, and manage the atmosphere, not convert participants’ attitudes.
23Adult Learning Approach Learning to use a technical system requires an active learning approachTell MeShow MeTell me involves describing how each job and the required tasks fit into the business processShow me demonstrates the real life example of how the task is completed on the systemLet me gives the participants an opportunity to do exactly what they saw done and clarify their understanding of system requirementsHelp me is the full training and after training support system that enables participants to continue their mastery of system proceduresLet MeHelp Me
25Managing the Adult Learning Environment Provide a clear structure for adult learnersGround RulesTime FrameObjectivesSkills to beAcquiredIn order to effectively manage the adult learning environment and handle resistance, the instructor should provide a clear structure for adult learnersAdditional instructor tips:Communicate earlyBe preparedManage your instruction so that you focus on participants’ learning
26Setting the Tone – Classroom Introduce yourself, co-instructors, and the course; tell why you-trainer?Review agenda, schedule, and breaksAcknowledge participants’ concern about changeStress your availability before, during, and after classKnow the material and exercisesBe organizedReference the activity in the functional course:NameBackgroundEducationSAP Experience
27Setting the Tone - on-line Recognize & welcome learners, Introduce selfVerify attendee can hear youCheckout for their controls/knowledge of toolsPersonalize their experienceIndicate start timeGet comfortable/ready tipsSpecial considerationsGetting helpGround rulesWelcome to <topic>: Intro co-presentersAcknowledge participants’ concern about change
28Establish an Open Learning Environment Set up the on-line room earlyOrganize participant and instructor materialsTalk with participants as they arriveCall each participant by nameAsk participants questionsAcknowledge and summarize participant inputThe nicest sound is one’s own name: have ready-made name tents, or ask participants to create their own.
29Key PointsList and discuss as a group any key points found in this sectionThe idea of the key points is to have the participants develop a list of key points found in this section and identify major points to remember.
30Instructor Roles and Responsibilities Sounding BoardCoachExtremelyEnthusiasticSupporterSounding Board (+ listens empathetically, - listens empathetically all day long)Coach (+ helps struggling participants, - helps too much or too early)Systems “Expert” (+ knows material, - gives participants a level that they do not need to know)Communicator (+ connects well with class, - talks too much)Other roles that an instructor could play:Cheerleader (+ enthusiastic, - unrealistic)Mediator (+ moves class along, - works to resolve issues that do not affect the mission of the class)Systems“Expert”Communicator
31Instructor Roles and Responsibilities: Objectives At the end of this section, you will be able to:Identify when training is effectiveList five arenas in which effective instructors focus their activitiesIdentify different roles and responsibilities of effective instructorsDescribe instructor responsibilities when team teaching
32Effective Instructors Effective instructors focus their instructional activities in these five arenasPresentationSkillsRelationshipwith LearnersRelationship toBusiness ProcessPresentation skills - being able to speak clearly and communicate with your audienceRelationship to business process - being an effective agent for the Company to help the participants understand changes to their respective business processesInstructor’s relationship with learners - maintaining respect for the participants concerns and desire to learnMaterial content - maintaining awareness that learning a new system is neither easy or always intuitiveFacilitation skills - providing one-on-one assistance when appropriate and carefully listening when responding to questions; managing the classroom environmentFacilitationSkillsMaterialContent
33Roles In the Classroom Instructor, Facilitator, SME Learner Depends on situation. A secondary facilitator is a great asset. They can help keep the class on schedule by sitting near people who need more help.Another SME sometimes participates in the training classes as an extra source of technical information.Lead InstructorLeads the classEnsure class is on scheduleActs as main point of contactSupport Instructor(s)Assists Lead Instructor and participants when neededServes as shadow instructor and may teach a class at a later dateSubject matter experts (SMEs)
34Team Teaching Responsibilities Agree on roles and responsibilities ahead of timeAll instructors are active participantsAvoid private conversationsSettle differences during a break or after class; do not contradict each other in front of learnersMonitor participants’ understandingRepeat questions to the groupStudent-focusedRepeat questions asked by participants to insure that that you understand what was asked, and that the rest participants hear the question.
35Instructor’s Responsibilities: Before Class Review and understand all materialsBe well prepared to manage all aspects of the courseEnsure (“extra”) participant materials are prepared for the classLearn how to operate all on-line toolsEnsure classroom and files are ready to be usedTest data that will be used in classData accuracy, user id’s, system availability
36Instructor’s Responsibilities During Class Create a memorable training experienceEnrich the course with real-life experienceTie the course into daily work activitiesSupport and encourage participants in the learning processFacilitate classroom discussionsRecognize correct responsesCorrect misunderstandings (not opinions) immediatelyWays to facilitate discussion:Call on people by nameSeek participation from all participantsAsk open-ended questionsRespond to participants with positive statementsSummarize input to show your interest and understandingCapture and record on-going issues on the parking lotC O N T E X TPreserve self-esteem
37Instructor’s Responsibilities: During Class Do not criticize answersPresent the material in the way most comfortable to youCollect evaluationsBe yourselfHAVE FUN!
38Instructor’s Responsibilities: After Class Exit the class, returning materials to defaultsReport any problems to the training coordinator or producerFollow up on unresolved issues and questions raised in class
39Key PointsList and discuss as a group any key points found in this sectionThe idea of the key points is to have the participants develop a list of key points found in this section and identify major points to remember.
41Learning and Evaluation Objectives At the end of this section, you will be able to:Describe the conditions that must be met for training to be successfulDiscuss how student learning is evaluatedDiscuss why evaluations are used
42Why Do We Evaluate? Determine if training was successful Gain information on how to improve future instructionDecide whether to continue or discontinue certain trainingAnalyze participant feedback:Effectiveness of the trainingUsefulness of materialsInstructor performance
46Instructor SkillsUpon completion of this section participants will be able to:Explain the focus of skilled instructorsIdentify ways to encourage participationIdentify the “do’s and don’ts” of classroom trainingDescribe important listening skills of effective instructorsIdentify how to make your training memorable and how to develop your own training style
47Skilled Instructors Provide real-life examples and experiences Cope with changeProvide clear instructionFocus on participant performanceEncourage participationUse analogies, stories and accelerated learning techniquesExamples:Provide clear instructions to participants:“OK, now I’m going to do a demonstration. I want each of you to just watch for now. You’ll have an opportunity to try the same thing in a minute. Just watch for now, please.”Check with participants frequently:“Does everyone understand? Raise your hand if you need some further explanation.”Do not make assumptions:“They all know what a GL account is What a GUI is ”
48Encouraging Participation Enables the instructor to:Measure learningGet feedback on participants’ reactionsRefine your approachEnables the participant to:Improve retentionTransfer knowledge to the jobUse participation to establish an open learning environment by encouraging questions and making effective use of question and answer techniques.
49Tips on Asking Questions Ask LOTS of questionsVary the types of questionsCount to 9 before helping with answersAllows class to think of answersIf you don’t get an answer, rephrase the question
50Types of Questions True/False Closed Multiple Choice Essay Direct T or F? SAP R/3 is replacing FileNet.Multiple ChoiceWhat will APO Demand Planningoffer the customers?EssayIn what ways are the legacy systemsand SAP R/3 the same?ClosedDirectYour use at work?Compare?Predict?Analyze?Others?Be aware that there are different types of questions. Each type has its own uses. Understand that the type of questions you use will influence the type of response you get.Use true/false questions to emphasize the answer to a question that has a definite right and wrong answer, multiple choice questions to reinforce key points and check understanding, and open-ended questions to foster discussion.Open-ended
51Tips on Answering Learner Questions Paraphrase the question askedEnsures that everyone has heard it and that you’ve understood correctlyTake off-topic, or complex questions off-line – into the Question Parking LotLists questions to be answered laterCall an SME during a break or after classRemember: If you do not know the answer to a question, say so! A good instructor may not know the answer to every question, but he or she knows how to find it and will follow up with participants at a later time.
52Listening Skills Respect the opinions of all participants Practice active listeningBe ready for impromptu feedbackPractice active listening:Listen to the words and observe any nonverbal signalsParaphrase comments and repeat them for the entire class
53Giving Clear Instructions Refer participants to the appropriate resource materialSpecify timeframesExplain the importance of performing the taskReview objectives and outcomes of the taskIdentify the steps involvedGive a demonstration (where feasible)
54Training Style Review and discuss: Make Your Training Memorable Develop Your Own Training Style
57General Instruction Skills DODO NOTSmile, really!Speak clearlyVary your delivery styleInvolve the audienceUse good posture, really!Express yourselfBe yourselfTurn off your computerTalk with your mouth fullDiscourage participationPlay with the pointerRead the slides
58Skilled Technical Trainers DOAvoid acronyms or jargon, and defineProvide familiar system landmarksHelp participants manage multiple sources of informationAvoid distracting participants by moving the mouse rapidlyContinue to teach while the system is processing and retrieving informationSlow down during demonstrationsAvoid using computer jargon (for example, cold start or reboot). Teach participants a phrase to use whenever you slip into jargon:It can be a classroom inside joke, for example, “And that means WHAT?”
59Skilled Instructors Preserve self-esteem Lecture DO NOTLectureUse humor at someone’s expenseEmbarrass participantsLose controlJudge others’ opinionsHave an attitudeUse sarcasmPreserve self-esteem
60The “Challenging” Learner Let the facilitator interact with them1:1, not “in class”Find out what the issue isListen, first, without solvingAsk what you can do to remedy issueOffer alternatives“Nuclear” option
61Key PointsList and discuss as a group any key points found in this sectionThe idea of the key points is to have the participants develop a list of key points found in this section and identify major points to remember.
63Using Training Materials Upon completion of this section participants will be able to:Describe the different training material components and explain how they are usedList and discuss the events that occur in a classroomDescribe how to conduct an instructor-led demonstration and exercise
64Training Materials Concept slides End user flow diagrams Exercise scenariosData sheetsQuick references (Job Aids)Work instructionsPerformance-based training material contains information that users need to do their jobs and is designed to teach participants how to support themselves back on the job.
65Adult Learning Approach Learning to use a technical system requires an active learning approachTell MeShow MeTell me involves describing how each job and the required tasks fit into the business processShow me demonstrates the real life example of how the task is completed on the systemLet me gives the participants an opportunity to do exactly what they saw done and clarify their understanding of system requirementsHelp me is the full training and after training support system that enables participants to continue their mastery of system proceduresLet MeHelp Me
66Tell Me Concept slides: Show MeLet MeHelp MeConcept slides:Used by instructor to lead a discussion of conceptual material and processesContain the following standard slides:TitleObjectives (course and section)Key TermsDemonstrationsExerciseQuestions and AnswerSummaryFor more information on each type of slide, review the Standard Course Slides document in the reference materials.
67Tell Me (continued) Process Flow Diagrams Show MeLet MeHelp MeProcess Flow DiagramsUsed by instructors to explain processes and show the relationship of steps to the “big picture”Contain graphical pictures or references of the applicable business processesIncludes a wide range of information from the broad to the very specific
68Presenting Conceptual Material Tell MeShow MeLet MeHelp MeAsk More QuestionsBefore introducing concepts:Transition from previous topic or activityIntroduce subject matter you are going to coverRemind participants of where they are in the processWhile introducing concepts:Paraphrase the words and concepts; don’t read the slides!Verbally walk participants through flows or processesProve your perspective:Additional details important to the participantsExamples that relate to the participants’ job activitiesExamples from your own experiences as a new userAfter introducing concepts:Check understandingAsk participants to paraphrase or give examples of what you have just coveredAsk participants if they have any questions before you continueTransition to the demonstration or exerciseReview and discuss: Sample Concepts Materials
69Before Introducing Concepts Tell MeShow MeLet MeHelp MeTransition from the topic or activityReview integration between one topic and the next one being discussedRe-introduce the SME and support instructor, if necessaryRemind participants of where they are in the process:At a minimum, each time you move to a new stepOrientation to the materials is important. Ensure that you get them to the right page to follow along with you, and give them time to find it.
70While Introducing Concepts Tell MeShow MeLet MeHelp MeParaphrase words and conceptsVerbally walk participants through flows or processesProvide additional “texture”:Additional relevant details to participantsExamples that relate to participants’ jobExamples from your own experiences as a new userC O N T E X T
71After Introducing Concepts Tell MeShow MeLet MeHelp MeCheck understandingAsk participants to paraphrase or give example of what was coveredAsk participants if they have any questions before you continueRemember that people don’t always know what to askTransition to demonstration or exerciseThink about it:How will you use your skills as a Change Agent here?Use good questioning techniques to review each set of slides.Do not feel that you must always stick to the slide presentation. If the slides are redundant or useless for your audience, skip them; however, it is strongly recommended that you stick to the slide presentation as much as possible.
72Show Me Demonstrate what you just told the participants Tell MeShow MeLet MeHelp MeDemonstrate what you just told the participantsTask Based Work InstructionsProvide step-by-step assistance to end usersQuick references (SAP)Consist of boxes linked together to form a screen flowEach box in the flow contains an SAP R/3 screen that assists end users in system navigationRequired fields are listed next to each screenBusiness Process Flow
73Demonstrating a Transaction Tell MeShow MeLet MeHelp MeServe the LearnerReview and discuss: Demonstration ChecklistBefore demonstration:Practice doing the demonstrationDecide which paths to emphasize and which to omitDecide which fields to addressEnsure that your emphasis is right for your audienceDuring demonstration:Build on existing knowledge and point out common actionsPoint out uncommon actions or keystrokesDemonstrate the main (most used) pathPace your deliveryRemind participants of where you areHave a different participant read the job aid steps for the taskSuggest shortcuts cautiouslyAfter demonstration:Reinforce the informationAsk questions about key points
74Before Demonstrations Tell MeShow MeLet MeHelp MePractice doing the demonstration with the data created for classDecide which paths to emphasize and which to omitDecide which key fields to mentionEnsure that your emphasis is right for your audiencePractice before the day of class is extremely important to ensure the data and configuration works.
75During Demonstrations Tell MeShow MeLet MeHelp MeBuild on existing knowledgePoint out actions that are commonPoint out uncommon actions or keystrokesDemonstrate the main (most used) pathVocalize every button being clickedDo not suggest shortcuts to beginnersPace your deliveryFollow the work instructionAsk participants to tell you the next step to ensure they are following the work instruction
76During Demonstrations . . . Tell MeShow MeLet MeHelp MeDO NOTDOVerbalize what you are doingUse the mouse pointer to draw attentionS L O W D O W N!!!!Expect people to remember your actions without a work instructionJump around from screen to screen without clearly explaining where you are going
77After Demonstrations Reinforce the information Tell MeShow MeLet MeHelp MeReinforce the informationAsk questions about key pointsSummarizeThink about it:How will you use your skills as a Change Agent here?
78Let Them Follow Along? Advantages: Participants Are more involved Can see the screen better in front of themHave more hands-on timeDisadvantages:Get lost and can’t follow complex transactionsDon’t listenInstructorCan’t stop demonstration to help if a participant gets stuck
79Let Me Allows users to perform the task in the system Exercises Tell MeShow MeLet MeHelp MeAllows users to perform the task in the systemExercisesSpecific Task exerciseSummary exerciseIncorporates several linked tasksData sheetsProvide each student with accurate data to be used to complete exercises
80Conducting Exercises Review and discuss: Exercise Checklist Let Me Tell MeShow MeLet MeHelp MeIntroduce the exercise:Refer participants to the appropriate resource materialsSpecify timeframesExplain why performing exerciseRelate exercise to familiar situationPresent objective of exercise in “big picture” terms, and link it to preceding activitiesGive a demonstration of how to complete the exercise (if time permits)Conduct the exercise:Allow participants sufficient time to complete the exerciseWalk around the room and answer questionsGive feedback on performance (if applicable)Debrief the exercise:Discuss key learnings (include things that went well and where there’s room for improvement)Discuss how newly learned skills will be applied back on the jobWrap up exercise by asking if there are any questionsReview and discuss: Exercise Checklist
81Introducing Exercises Tell MeShow MeLet MeHelp MeRead the scenario of the exercise aloudHelp participants locate the exercise and work instructionEnsure that each participant has the correct data to complete the exerciseAnnounce the time allotted to complete the exerciseAsk if anyone has any questions before beginningEnsure participants are logged into the correct SAP client, if applicableHave the participants take the exercise out and use it with their book open to the work instruction. If there are separate work instructions and participant guides, have them put the participant guide away and use only the appropriate work instruction with the exercise. Otherwise, materials management becomes an issue.You may couple exercises with breaks if it makes sense (15 minutes for the exercise, 15 minutes for a break, and perform debrief after the break). Allowing for a break makes it possible for you and the support instructor to assist slower participants.Consider having extra sets of data available if you think they will need additional practice.
82Coaching Exercises Monitor progress using Q&A or Breakout rooms Tell MeShow MeLet MeHelp MeMonitor progress using Q&A or Breakout roomsAssist by answering questions and pointing out where they are in the work instructionCOACH, perform the transaction again, if necessaryUse breakout rooms or app shares to help students who are stuckClarify “global” issues or challenges to the entire classIf a significant number of participants cannot complete the exercise, you should stop the exercise and perform another demonstration.
83Debriefing Exercises Reinforce the purpose of the exercise Tell MeShow MeLet MeHelp MeReinforce the purpose of the exerciseFind out if everyone was successful in completing the exerciseAnswer exercise questions as a groupAsk additional questions to ensure understanding of the exercise taskCompare the exercise task with others they have doneAnswer participant questions before continuingReview the correct answers. For all answers, ask “Did anyone get a different answer?” Then, “XXX is what you should have answered.”Identify any problems and re-demo if appropriate with all of them following along.
84Help Me Quick references Procedural job aids Tell MeShow MeLet MeHelp MeQuick referencesProcedural job aidsPractice Environment (sandbox)Users can safely practice transactionson-line helpSystem links to based work instructionsReplay recorded training sessionWatch simulationsCoaching in-personHelp Desk
85Key PointsList and discuss as a group any key points found in this sectionThe idea of the key points is to have the participants develop a list of key points found in this section and identify major points to remember.
86Prepping for Your First Class Ask More Questions
87PreparationUpon completion of this section participants will be able to:Demonstrate how to prepare for course instructionDiscuss the importance of being familiar with the on-line toolsDescribe the SAP R/3 system and data strategy used for training
89Getting Prepared Meet with co-instructors, facilitators Review the test system scheduleReview training materialsCheck facilities, equipment, and the delivery technologyTest dataPracticeSystem tasksPilot CoursesThere are several steps involved in preparing for instruction:When team teaching, meet with co-instructors. Well in advance of the class, you should schedule a meeting with your co-instructors to discuss your relative strengths and weaknesses, and to assign responsibilities for each portion of the class.Obtain and review course materials. Obtain instructor and participant materials from your training coordinator, and locate the electronic files for the course. Review and become familiar with all the materials.Set the timing for course delivery. Develop a schedule for the course.Check facilities where the class will take place. Check all PCs, projection equipment, connections, and lights to be certain they are working. Find wall space that can be used for hanging up classroom materials, such as flip chart pages.If SAP R/3 course is being taught:Review the training system schedule for the system, client, instructors, and student IDs. Obtain training system schedule information and verify that the materials are ready for your courseTest the data that will be used for the class. Run through each exercise using the instructor’s data set
90Set Timing/Agenda Know your audience Examples: Buyers, HR, Accounts Payable, ProductionConcentrate on the most pertinent topics (A’s and B’s – priority tasks)Time the course based on contentPrepare course agenda with timesEstimates:Presentations minutes per slide(based on complexity)Demonstrations minutesExercises minutes
91Review Training Materials Obtain electronic copy of concept slidesReview participant and instructor materials
92Remember: The timing will change every time you teach - be flexible! Manage Your TimeBefore class:Do one or two dry runsPlan one or more alternative schedulesDuring class:Post the schedule, including breaksHave an observer help you keep timeAddress detailed topics offlineRemember: The timing will change everytime you teach - be flexible!
93Ground Rules for on-line Sessions “Who so ever shall be ruled, let them too create those rules”King William the Second of Poland(2006)
94Identify Ground RulesG ive and review the lessons of your and others’ experiencesR each consensus on issuesO ffer input; everyone has value to addU nderstand what is being said, or ask for clarificationN o side conversations; it is distracting and excluding; no phone calls or pagers during classD iscuss issues openly with conversations being confidential unless we reach consensus to discuss/record specific issuesR emember we start & end on time unless agreed to as a groupU nleash creative, innovative ideasL eave mental baggage at the doorE nforce all ground rulesS hare all relevant information within the allotted time, and park other ideas for later
95Check Classroom Facilities Check your equipmentElectronic files with course slidesComputer and SAP R/3 connectionsCheck participants’ equipmentBasic connectivity to sessionUser IDsSAP R/3 connections
96SAP Training Environment Created initially from the most complete environmentContains training data for participants to practiceExists entirely separately from the live production systemWorks all day, everyday
97Become Familiar with Training Data Data will be created for participant exercisesTraining data resembles production data, but is not exactly the sameLimited sets of data for each exercise; participants are assigned specific dataData is based on a pre-set refreshed schedule
98TroubleshootingWhat do you do if you experience technical problems during training?Take practical steps to minimize disruption to the course:Ask students to take a short break while you try to resolve the technical problemContinue with the presentation sections of the course if it makes sense to do soAsk for help:Know who to call for technical problemsIf problem is not solved, use your best judgment to determine whether to continue with the class. Make the proper arrangements if the class has to be rescheduled.
99Checklist for Class Preparation Review and Discuss: Classroom Preparation Checklist
100Key PointsList and discuss as a group any key points found in this sectionThe idea of the key points is to have the participants develop a list of key points found in this section and identify major points to remember.
101Continuous Improvement YOU are the best avenue to improveSay itDo itState a RationaleEvaluate Results
102SummaryIn this course, you have been given information intended to help you deliver training to other personnel within OCPS.The topics pertained to adult learners, the classroom, using course materials, and conducting the training event.Keep this manual as a reference and to refresh your memory any time you are preparing to deliver training.Don’t forget to practice, practice, practice.GOOD BYE, AND GOOD LUCK!
103Learning Objectives Review You should now be able to:Describe personal strengths as an instructor and identify areas for improvementDiscuss the adult learning environmentDescribe how adult learning principles affect trainingDescribe desired skills, roles and responsibilities of an instructorUse questioning, answering, and listening techniques to increase class participationUse training materials to teach a classIdentify suggested preparation steps to teach a classIdentify ways to resolve challenging classroom situationsReduce stress and make training an enjoyable experienceUnderstand and apply appropriate Change Agent skills