2I. Spread of Ideas A. How ideas spread B. Printing 1. Students traveled to other areas of Europe2. Increased commercea. Created new wealth, tradeb. More could afford to Educate kidsc. more universities establishedB. Printing1. First done in Chinaa. developed moveable type2. German, Johannes Guttenberga. 1450, first to use moveable typeb. printed bibles3. Concernsa. paper wouldn’t last as long as parchmentb. threaten profession of scribes1) hand manuscripts prettier4. Impacted economy, society, & technologya. PP soon spread across Europeb. allowed humanist ideas to spreadConverted wine pressPrint up to 10 sheets per hour
3Johannes GutenbergA Gutenberg printing pressHis invention of movable type is still considered the most important invention in history.
4Johannes Gutenberg Until the invention of the printing press, books werehandwritten.Gutenberg’s major work was the printing of the Gutenberg Bible.In one year Gutenberg printed 80 bibles. Before hisinvention, it took a year tohand-print one bible. Each bible had 1282 pages.Forty-eight copies of theGutenberg Bible still exist.A copy sold in 1997 for 5.4million dollars.A copy of the Gutenberg Bible found in the Library of Congress.Detail of the Gutenberg Bible showing illumination.
5II. Northern Renaissance Writers A. Erasmus1. Dutch scholar and monka. learned humanist ideas from books2. Unlike humanists, interested in early Christianitythought ideas could be harmonizedChristian & humanistb. used critical method to study biblec. criticized church - lack of spirituality1) believed church to ceremonial and complicated2) argued for a return to simplicity3. Wrote “The Praise of Folly”a. Ridiculed ignorance, superstition & viceb. criticized fasting, pilgrimages, shrines & bible interpretation
6B. Thomas More 1. English humanist 2. Similar views to Erasmus 3. Published “Utopia”a. condemned govt. as corruptb. private ownership=conflictc. described fictional ideal society1) all male citizens equal2) all worked for good of group4. Served King Henry VIII of Englanda. refused the idea king is head of churchb. Henry cut off his head
7C. Christopher Marlow D. William Shakespeare 1. Plays focused on humanity, not Gods actions2. Used powerful language and imagery to convey thoughtsD. William Shakespeare1. Built on Marlowe’s ideas2. Wrote dramatic masterpieces from well known storiesa. Hamlet, Romeo & Juliet, Macbeth, others
8III. Northern Renaissance Artists A. Spread of Art1. N. European merchants brought Italian paintings home2. Inspired N. European painters to study in ItalyB. Flemish School (art school)1. In Flanders (Belgium)a. Distinctive style developed, painting with oils2. Jan & Hubert van Eycka. attention to detailb. strong interest in facial expressionsc. painted an alter piece for church in Ghent1) was their master piece2) faces in Adam & Eve look realistic
10ArnolfiniPuppy=fidelityShoes off= holy ground1 candle=Light of ChristTrees out window- 2nd floor=RichOrange on window=RichHe’s on outside= works outside of homeShe’s on inside= Stays at home takes careof house.Mirror- 2 people entering room – witness tomarriage (Priest & van Eyck)Signature “van Eyck was here”
113. Pieter Brueghel a. painted village festivals and dances b. used paintings to criticize intolerance and cruelty
12Bruegel was known for painting landscapes with figures of peasants. He was the first to paint landscapes fortheir own sake.Bruegel painted the celebrations of thevillagers, such as weddings, hunts,festivals, dances, and games.Bruegel developed a painting stylethat told a story. His PeasantWedding, for example, shows the hardlife of the peasantry. The celebrationis held in the barn and the food isbread, porridge, and soup.The Painter and The Connoisseur, Thought tobe a self-portrait.
16C. Germans 1. Albrecht Durer a. Copper engravings & woodcuts b. studied in Germany and Venice1) studied the classics and humanismc. one of 1st to see possibilities of illustrations in booksYoung Harewatercolor, 1501Dürer ‘smost famous woodcut, Rhinoceros, 1515
17Dürer was a German painter, printmaker and mathematician. Dürer lived in Nuremberg, Germany.He showed great diversity in his art,both in subject matter and form.He painted both religious andsecular subjects.His woodcuts and engravingswere known throughout Europe,and influenced many other artists.Albrecht Dürer
18Represents himself as an idealized almost Christ-like figure Represents himself as an idealized almost Christ-like figure. Almost like an iconChrist-like comparisonChrist=creatorDurer=creator of art
202. Hans Holbein influenced by Italian and Flemish School painted portraits of famous peopleErasmus, T. More, King Henry VIIIc. portraits reflected Renaissance interest in the individual
21D. Similarities E. Differences 1. Techniques like perspective 1. Italiansa. figures based on Greek and Romans styles & idealsb. Admiration of the human form (the ideal)2. N. Europea. figures more real (frail, bald and imperfect)b. depicted early fathers of the Christian church1) emphasizing importance of bible in Christianity2) Christian Humanism
22Comparison between the Renaissance in Northern Europe and Italy Did not study the classics as muchHeavy emphasis on reading the classicsArt emphasized everyday life in greater detailArt depicted everyday life, but not as detailedArtists supported by royalty and nobilityArtists supported by wealthy merchant classLinked with religion although studies of religion led to questioning of church practicesChristian HumanismNot as much emphasis on religious issues, humanism very important