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The Northern Renaissance

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Presentation on theme: "The Northern Renaissance"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Northern Renaissance
Outline Section 2 The Northern Renaissance

2 I. Spread of Ideas A. How ideas spread B. Printing
1. Students traveled to other areas of Europe 2. Increased commerce a. Created new wealth, trade b. More could afford to Educate kids c. more universities established B. Printing 1. First done in China a. developed moveable type 2. German, Johannes Guttenberg a. 1450, first to use moveable type b. printed bibles 3. Concerns a. paper wouldn’t last as long as parchment b. threaten profession of scribes 1) hand manuscripts prettier 4. Impacted economy, society, & technology a. PP soon spread across Europe b. allowed humanist ideas to spread Converted wine press Print up to 10 sheets per hour

3 Johannes Gutenberg A Gutenberg printing press His invention of movable type is still considered the most important invention in history.

4 Johannes Gutenberg Until the invention of the
printing press, books were handwritten. Gutenberg’s major work was the printing of the Gutenberg Bible. In one year Gutenberg printed 80 bibles. Before his invention, it took a year to hand-print one bible. Each bible had 1282 pages. Forty-eight copies of the Gutenberg Bible still exist. A copy sold in 1997 for 5.4 million dollars. A copy of the Gutenberg Bible found in the Library of Congress. Detail of the Gutenberg Bible showing illumination.

5 II. Northern Renaissance Writers
A. Erasmus 1. Dutch scholar and monk a. learned humanist ideas from books 2. Unlike humanists, interested in early Christianity thought ideas could be harmonized Christian & humanist b. used critical method to study bible c. criticized church - lack of spirituality 1) believed church to ceremonial and complicated 2) argued for a return to simplicity 3. Wrote “The Praise of Folly” a. Ridiculed ignorance, superstition & vice b. criticized fasting, pilgrimages, shrines & bible interpretation

6 B. Thomas More 1. English humanist 2. Similar views to Erasmus
3. Published “Utopia” a. condemned govt. as corrupt b. private ownership=conflict c. described fictional ideal society 1) all male citizens equal 2) all worked for good of group 4. Served King Henry VIII of England a. refused the idea king is head of church b. Henry cut off his head

7 C. Christopher Marlow D. William Shakespeare
1. Plays focused on humanity, not Gods actions 2. Used powerful language and imagery to convey thoughts D. William Shakespeare 1. Built on Marlowe’s ideas 2. Wrote dramatic masterpieces from well known stories a. Hamlet, Romeo & Juliet, Macbeth, others

8 III. Northern Renaissance Artists
A. Spread of Art 1. N. European merchants brought Italian paintings home 2. Inspired N. European painters to study in Italy B. Flemish School (art school) 1. In Flanders (Belgium) a. Distinctive style developed, painting with oils 2. Jan & Hubert van Eyck a. attention to detail b. strong interest in facial expressions c. painted an alter piece for church in Ghent 1) was their master piece 2) faces in Adam & Eve look realistic


10 Arnolfini Puppy=fidelity Shoes off= holy ground 1 candle=Light of Christ Trees out window- 2nd floor=Rich Orange on window=Rich He’s on outside= works outside of home She’s on inside= Stays at home takes care of house. Mirror- 2 people entering room – witness to marriage (Priest & van Eyck) Signature “van Eyck was here”

11 3. Pieter Brueghel a. painted village festivals and dances
b. used paintings to criticize intolerance and cruelty

12 Bruegel was known for painting landscapes with figures of peasants.
He was the first to paint landscapes for their own sake. Bruegel painted the celebrations of the villagers, such as weddings, hunts, festivals, dances, and games. Bruegel developed a painting style that told a story. His Peasant Wedding, for example, shows the hard life of the peasantry. The celebration is held in the barn and the food is bread, porridge, and soup. The Painter and The Connoisseur, Thought to be a self-portrait.

13 Peasant Wedding

14 Winter Landscape with a Bird Trap


16 C. Germans 1. Albrecht Durer a. Copper engravings & woodcuts
b. studied in Germany and Venice 1) studied the classics and humanism c. one of 1st to see possibilities of illustrations in books Young Hare watercolor, 1501 Dürer ‘s most famous woodcut, Rhinoceros, 1515

17 Dürer was a German painter, printmaker and mathematician.
Dürer lived in Nuremberg, Germany. He showed great diversity in his art, both in subject matter and form. He painted both religious and secular subjects. His woodcuts and engravings were known throughout Europe, and influenced many other artists. Albrecht Dürer

18 Represents himself as an idealized almost Christ-like figure
Represents himself as an idealized almost Christ-like figure. Almost like an icon Christ-like comparison Christ=creator Durer=creator of art

19 Sketch of Praying Hands.

20 2. Hans Holbein influenced by Italian and Flemish School
painted portraits of famous people Erasmus, T. More, King Henry VIII c. portraits reflected Renaissance interest in the individual

21 D. Similarities E. Differences 1. Techniques like perspective
1. Italians a. figures based on Greek and Romans styles & ideals b. Admiration of the human form (the ideal) 2. N. Europe a. figures more real (frail, bald and imperfect) b. depicted early fathers of the Christian church 1) emphasizing importance of bible in Christianity 2) Christian Humanism

22 Comparison between the Renaissance in Northern Europe and Italy
Did not study the classics as much Heavy emphasis on reading the classics Art emphasized everyday life in greater detail Art depicted everyday life, but not as detailed Artists supported by royalty and nobility Artists supported by wealthy merchant class Linked with religion although studies of religion led to questioning of church practices Christian Humanism Not as much emphasis on religious issues, humanism very important

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