Presentation on theme: "Outline Section 2 The Northern Renaissance. I. Spread of Ideas A. How ideas spread 1. Students traveled to other areas of Europe 2. Increased commerce."— Presentation transcript:
Outline Section 2 The Northern Renaissance
I. Spread of Ideas A. How ideas spread 1. Students traveled to other areas of Europe 2. Increased commerce a. Created new wealth, trade b. More could afford to Educate kids c. more universities established B. Printing 1. First done in China a. developed moveable type 2. German, Johannes Guttenberg a. 1450, first to use moveable type b. printed bibles 3. Concerns a. paper wouldn’t last as long as parchment b. threaten profession of scribes 1) hand manuscripts prettier 4. Impacted economy, society, & technology a. PP soon spread across Europe b. allowed humanist ideas to spread Converted wine press Print up to 10 sheets per hour
His invention of movable type is still considered the most important invention in history. A Gutenberg printing press
Until the invention of the printing press, books were handwritten. Gutenberg’s major work was the printing of the Gutenberg Bible. In one year Gutenberg printed 80 bibles. Before his invention, it took a year to hand-print one bible. Each bible had 1282 pages. Forty-eight copies of the Gutenberg Bible still exist. A copy sold in 1997 for 5.4 million dollars. A copy of the Gutenberg Bible found in the Library of Congress. Detail of the Gutenberg Bible showing illumination.
II. Northern Renaissance Writers A. Erasmus 1. Dutch scholar and monk a. learned humanist ideas from books 2. Unlike humanists, interested in early Christianity a.thought ideas could be harmonized 1)Christian & humanist b. used critical method to study bible c. criticized church - lack of spirituality 1) believed church to ceremonial and complicated 2) argued for a return to simplicity 3. Wrote “The Praise of Folly” a. Ridiculed ignorance, superstition & vice b. criticized fasting, pilgrimages, shrines & bible interpretation
B. Thomas More 1. English humanist 2. Similar views to Erasmus 3. Published “Utopia” a. condemned govt. as corrupt b. private ownership=conflict c. described fictional ideal society 1) all male citizens equal 2) all worked for good of group 4. Served King Henry VIII of England a. refused the idea king is head of church b. Henry cut off his head
C. Christopher Marlow 1. Plays focused on humanity, not Gods actions 2. Used powerful language and imagery to convey thoughts D. William Shakespeare 1. Built on Marlowe’s ideas 2. Wrote dramatic masterpieces from well known stories a. Hamlet, Romeo & Juliet, Macbeth, others
III. Northern Renaissance Artists A. Spread of Art 1. N. European merchants brought Italian paintings home 2. Inspired N. European painters to study in Italy B. Flemish School (art school) 1. In Flanders (Belgium) a. Distinctive style developed, painting with oils 2. Jan & Hubert van Eyck a. attention to detail b. strong interest in facial expressions c. painted an alter piece for church in Ghent 1) was their master piece 2) faces in Adam & Eve look realistic
Arnolfini Puppy=fidelity Shoes off= holy ground 1 candle=Light of Christ Trees out window- 2 nd floor=Rich Orange on window=Rich He’s on outside= works outside of home She’s on inside= Stays at home takes care of house. Mirror- 2 people entering room – witness to marriage (Priest & van Eyck) Signature “van Eyck was here”
3. Pieter Brueghel a. painted village festivals and dances b. used paintings to criticize intolerance and cruelty
The Painter and The Connoisseur, Thought to be a self-portrait. Bruegel was known for painting landscapes with figures of peasants. He was the first to paint landscapes for their own sake. Bruegel painted the celebrations of the villagers, such as weddings, hunts, festivals, dances, and games. Bruegel developed a painting style that told a story. His Peasant Wedding, for example, shows the hard life of the peasantry. The celebration is held in the barn and the food is bread, porridge, and soup.
Winter Landscape with a Bird Trap 1565
C. Germans 1. Albrecht Durer a. Copper engravings & woodcuts b. studied in Germany and Venice 1) studied the classics and humanism c. one of 1st to see possibilities of illustrations in books Dürer ‘s most famous woodcut, Rhinoceros, 1515 Young Hare watercolor, 1501
Albrecht Dürer Dürer was a German painter, printmaker and mathematician. D ü rer lived in Nuremberg, Germany. He showed great diversity in his art, both in subject matter and form. He painted both religious and secular subjects. His woodcuts and engravings were known throughout Europe, and influenced many other artists.
Represents himself as an idealized almost Christ-like figure. Almost like an icon Christ-like comparison Christ=creator Durer=creator of art
Sketch of Praying Hands.
2. Hans Holbein a.influenced by Italian and Flemish School b.painted portraits of famous people 1)Erasmus, T. More, King Henry VIII c. portraits reflected Renaissance interest in the individual
D. Similarities 1. Techniques like perspective E. Differences 1. Italians a. figures based on Greek and Romans styles & ideals b. Admiration of the human form (the ideal) 2. N. Europe a. figures more real (frail, bald and imperfect) b. depicted early fathers of the Christian church 1) emphasizing importance of bible in Christianity 2) Christian Humanism
Comparison between the Renaissance in Northern Europe and Italy Northern EuropeItaly Did not study the classics as much Heavy emphasis on reading the classics Art emphasized everyday life in greater detail Art depicted everyday life, but not as detailed Artists supported by royalty and nobility Artists supported by wealthy merchant class Linked with religion although studies of religion led to questioning of church practices Christian Humanism Not as much emphasis on religious issues, humanism very important