2That Nation of Shopkeepers! -- Napoleon Bonaparte Industrial England:"Workshopof the World"That Nation of Shopkeepers! Napoleon Bonaparte
3Late 18c: French Economic Advantages Napoleonic Code= uniform lawsFrench communal law.Free contractsOpen marketsUniform & clear commercial regulationsStandards weights & measures.Established technical schools.The government encouraged & inventors & inventions.Bank of France European model providing a reliable currency.
4French Economic Disadvantages Years of warSeven Years/French & Indian WarSupported the American Revolution.French Revolution.Early 19c Napoleonic WarsRevolutions of 1830s & 1848Heavy debts.High unemployment soldiers returning from the battlefronts.French businessmen were afraid to take risks.
6Agricultural Revolution 1700:Wealthy Farmers began to buy up small plots making LARGE FARMSLarge landowners dramatically improved farming method out of necessity to make these large farmer profitableWealthy Land Owners used ENCLOSURESENLCOSED their land with fences or hedges to protect their larger growing fields. Disallowing other to use the land for grazingExperimented to discover more productive farming methods to increase crop yields (new methods cost $$)Jethro Tull = discovered new way to sow seeds by inventing the SEED DRILL in 1701Forced small farmers to become tenant farmers or pushed them out of farming & into the citiesFarming InnovationSeed drill- more germination for less MoneyCrop Rotation- better & bigger cropsLivestock – better & bigger livestockRobert Bakewell increased yield thru selective breedingIncreasing size and health of the livestock
9What is Necessary for an Industrial Revolution to Occur? Factors of ProductionNatural ResourcesLand, Labor, Ore, Coal, Waterways, Rivers, Canals, etc.Labor-population increased dramatically due to the Agricultural RevolutionCapital: (Extra Money to invest)MachineryfactoriesMarketpeople with $$$ to buy goods & services produced)
15Mine & Forge [1840-1880] More powerful than water is coal. More powerful than wood is iron.Innovations make steel feasible.“Puddling”  – “pig iron.”“Hot blast”  – cheaper, purer steel.Bessemer process  – strong, flexible steel.
16Britain’s AdvantagesLarge Population to work due to the Agricultural Revolution= Large excess labor forceAbundant Natural ResourcesWater power, rivers, harbors: transportation to & from factories & source of resourcescoal, iron ore: to build machines & toolsHighly developed banking systemProvided investment Capital – loan for machinesExpanding Economy = CapitalPeople could invest in manufacturingGrowing overseas tradeMercantilism & colonialism= markets & resourcesPolitical stabilityNo wars on British soilParliament passed laws protecting businesses (mercantilism)Military and Political SuccessPositive attitude in Britain & a general “climate of Prosperity
17Industrial Revolution New Inventionsof theIndustrial Revolution
18John Kay’s “Flying Shuttle” 1733- Doubled the work a weaver could do
19Inventions & New Technology Spinning Wheel- James Hargreaves 17641 spinner could work 8 threads 1764, then 25 then 50, etc.Water Frame- Richard Arkwright 1769Spinning Mule- Samuel Crompton 1779combo spinning Jenny & Water framePower Loom- Edmund Cartwrightsped up weaving & used water powerSteam Engine- James Watt 1765Faster more efficient (burned less fuel)Transportation Improvements= decrease cost of productionRobert Fulton: steamboat 1807Canals system John Mc Adam: layered stone roads=drainageTrevithick & Stephenson: locomotiveImproved all kinds of transportation and machines
28Industrial Revolution Social & EconomicChanges of theIndustrial Revolution
29Richard Arkwright: “Pioneer of the Factory System” The “Water Frame”
30Factory ProductionConcentrates production in one place [materials, labor].Located near sources of power [rather than labor or markets].Requires a lot of capital [extra money] investment [factory, machines, etc.] more than skilled labor.Only 10% of English industry in 1850.
31Textile Factory Workers in England 18132400 looms150, 000 workers183385, 000 looms200, 000 workers1850224, 000 looms>1 million workers
32Factory Workers Factory owners wanted to keep their machines running for as manyhours a day as possible SO….workers were forced to work long hours for starvation wages, often under dangerous & unhealthy conditions;LATER, working conditions & the standard of living would improve.
38ChildrenChildren as young as 6 began to work in factories with their families for long hours under brutal conditionsChildren as young as 5 worked in the coal minesMany children died or were injured working in the factories & minesChild labor laws later brought some reforms.
39Education: a LONG RUN effect Educational opportunities expandedIn response to a need for skilled & professional workers.In response to a need for a place for children after child labor laws were imposed & a need to create skilled labor for the future
40Life Changes during the Industrial Revolution ..\Ch 9 downloads\Living_History__Living_During_the_Industrial_Revolution.asf
42Industrial Revolution The "Haves":Bourgeois LifeThrived on theLuxuries of theIndustrial Revolution
43Lower Middle Class factory overseer & skilled worker Enjoyed a comfortable standard of livingExperienced a rise in social status.
44Wealthy Merchants, Factory Owners, Shippers Benefited Greatly from the Industrial Revolutiongained tremendous wealth & status in societyjoined a growing middle class of skilled workers, professionals, business people, & well-to-do farmers.
49Large landowners & Aristocrats Because some factory owners, merchants, & investment bankers grew wealthier, the landowners & noble aristocracy lost some status, respect, and power but continued to look down on those who gained wealth in business.They called them the “nouveau riche”
50The "Have-Nots":The Poor,The Over-Worked,& the Destitute
52Working PoorSaw little improvement in their living & working conditionsSome lost their jobs to machinesPaid low wagesWorked long hoursPoor working conditionsLived in unsanitary & overcrowded environments at home
56Industrial Problem of Urbanization Industrialization leads to Urbanization (people moving to the cities for work)Urbanization is usually so RAPID that the cities growth can not keep pace with the migration of people to the citiesCausing: overcrowding, unsanitary conditions, food shortages, disease, etc
57Industrial Staffordshire: Problems of housing & pollution
67OBSTACLES TO EUROPEAN INDUSTRIALIZATION WAR !! Especially French Revolution & Napoleonic WarsPolitical disunity in GermanyGeographic Problems (waterways, land transportation)Social structure (Monarchy/Aristocracy)
68Industrialization Spreads By 1850: Zones of Industrialization on the European ContinentNortheast France.Belgium.The Netherlands.Western German states.Northern ItalyEast Germany Saxony
72Industrialization Spreads to the United States KEY Points:US government encouraged industrial growth with business friendly lawsBritish machinery spawns an American textile industryRR help American industry expand RapidlyImmigration provided a supply of cheap labor
73New Ways of Thinking Sparked by the Industrial Revolution
74Adam Smith Scottish Economic Philosophe & Professor 1723-1790 Big IDEAS:Economic Freedom guaranteed economic progressgovernment need not interfere in the economy. (eg. Laissez faire)Invisible handCapitalism = economic system in which money is invested in business ventures with the goal of making a PROFITWrote “Wealth of Nations” in 1776
75Thomas Malthus: economist Supported Adam Smith’s ideasContributed to the foundation of CAPITALISMWrote: Essay on the Principles of Population 1798Population growth will outpace the food supply.War, disease, or famine could control population.The poor should have less children.Food supply will then keep up with population.
76David Ricardo: Economist & stock brokerSupport of Adam Smith’s IdeasTook Malthus’ theory one step further when he wrote, Principles of Political Economy & Taxation )Believed that a permanent underclass would always be poor“Iron Law of Wages.”When wages are high, workers have more children.More children create a large labor surplus that depresses wages.Thus a vicious cycle of Poverty is inevitable
77The Utilitarians: Jeremy Bentham & John Stuart Mill The goal of society is the greatest good for the greatest number.One role of government is to intervene in business in order to provide some social safety net for workers.Believed that wealthy people or the govt must take actions to improve people’s livesBenthem: English Philosopher coined “Utilitarianism” 1700sWrote that people should judge the value of things based on their “utility” or usefulnessMill: economist & philosopher lead the Utilitarian movement in 1800sPushed for more equal division of profits with workersFavored cooperative farming, women’s rights & suffrageUtilitarians also support reforms for education, legal & prison systems
79Utopians Robert Owen: British Factory owner Improved working conditions for his workersBuilt factory housing with low rentStopped child labor under 10Provided free schooling1824: he went to the US where he founded a cooperative community in New Harmony Indiana (lasted 3 years)He wanted to create a UTOPIA (perfect living place)
80SocialismCharles Fourier & Saint-Simon, French reformers wanted to offset the effects of industrialization with a new kind of economic system :SOCIALISMFactors of production are owned by the public & operated for the welfare of ALLArgued that the govt should actively plan the economy rather than depending on Free-Market Capitalism’s invisible handWanted govt controlled factories/mines/RR etc. in order to end poverty & promote equalityPrivate ownership just put workers at the mercy of greedy employers (Capitalists)
81Karl Marx: German journalist Wrote: The Communist Manifesto (1848)Introduced a form of RADICAL SOCIALISM called MARXISMArgued that society has ALWAYS been “haves & have nots”“Have Nots” are called PROLETARIATESIndustrial Revolution just made this WORSEPredicted a social class war in which the poor majority would rise up against rich minority destroying CAPALISM and implementing Communism or (complete socialism)“workers of the world, UNITE!”The RESULT: an END to private propertyCommunal ownership of the means of productionAll goods & services would be shared equally
82The Socialists: Utopians & Marxists People as a society would operate & own the means of production [resources/land, labor, capital] NOT individuals.Goal: a society that benefited EVERYONE, not just a rich, well-connected few.Tried to build perfect communities [utopias].
87Peterloo Massacre, 1819British Soldiers Fire on British Workers: “Let us die like men, and not be sold like slaves!”18 people, including a womanand a child, died from saber cutsand trampling. Over 700 men, womenand children injured. All in the name of liberty & freedom from poverty. The Massacre occurred during a period of immense political tension & mass protests. Fewer than 2% of the population had the vote, and hunger was rife with the disastrous corn laws making bread unaffordable.
88The “Peoples’ Charter” Drafted in 1838 by William Lovett.Radical campaign for Parliamentary reform of the inequalities created by the Reform Bill of 1832.Votes for all men.Equal electoral districts.Abolition of the requirement that Members of Parliament [MPs] be property owners.Salaries for Members of Parliament.Annual general elections.The secret ballot.
89Anti-Corn Law League, 1845Give manufactures more outlets for their products.More people to sell toExpand employment.Lower the price of bread.Make British agriculture more efficient & productive.Expose trade & agriculture to foreign competition.Promote international peace through trade contact.
90Union MovementBy the 1800s workers were becoming more active in politics.To press for change they joined together in voluntary association called UNIONSUnions:spoke for the workers as a groupUsed Collective Bargaining (negotiation) to push for better wages & working conditionsUsed strikes (work stoppage) to apply pressureIn GENERAL, govts resisted unions & unionizationBut over time they did make gains and reforms
91British Government's Response to the ProblemsCreated byIndustrialization
92Government ResponseAbolition of slavery in the colonies in 1832 [to raise wages in Britain].Sadler Commission to look into working conditionsFactory Act  – child labor.New Poor Law  – indoor relief.Poor houses.Reform Bill  – broadens the vote for the cities.
97Industrial Revolution: That’s a RAP! ..\Ch 9 downloads\The_Industrial_Revolution__1750_1915_.asf
98Peterloo Massacre, 1819British Soldiers Fire on British Workers: “Let us die like men, and not be sold like slaves!”18 people, including a woman& a child, died from saber cuts & trampling. Over 700 men, women & children injured. All in the name of liberty & freedom from poverty. The Massacre occurred during a period of immense political tension & mass protests. Fewer than 2% of the population had the vote, and hunger was rife with the disastrous corn laws making bread unaffordable.
99Government FearsBritish Parliament feared an outbreak of revolution as was occurring in Europe ( )
100The Chartists A female Chartist A physical force— Chartists arming for the fight.
101The “Peoples’ Charter” Drafted in 1838 by William Lovett.Radical campaign for Parliamentary reform of the inequalities created by the Reform Bill of 1832.Votes for all men.Equal electoral districts.Abolition of the requirement that Members of Parliament [MPs] be property owners.Salaries for Members of Parliament.Annual general elections.The secret ballot.
104Reforms to Increase Democracy Middle class males could voteSecret BallotPay for Parliament membersBy 1884 almost all males could voteBy 1890 most European countries allowed all men the right to vote
105Women’s Suffrage1903- Women’s Social and Political Union began a stronger campaign for Women’s suffrage in BritainRallies/parades/interrupted speeches/burned buildings/hunger strikes1919: Britain give women the right to vote1920: US gives womet the right to vote