That Nation of Shopkeepers! -- Napoleon Bonaparte
Late 18 c : French Economic Advantages Napoleonic Code= uniform laws French communal law. Free contracts Open markets Uniform & clear commercial regulations Standards weights & measures. Established technical schools. The government encouraged & inventors & inventions. Bank of France European model providing a reliable currency.
French Economic Disadvantages Years of war Seven Years/French & Indian War Supported the American Revolution. French Revolution. Early 19c Napoleonic Wars Revolutions of 1830s & 1848 Heavy debts. High unemployment soldiers returning from the battlefronts. French businessmen were afraid to take risks.
Agricultural Revolution 1700: Wealthy Farmers began to buy up small plots making LARGE FARMS Wealthy Farmers began to buy up small plots making LARGE FARMS –Large landowners dramatically improved farming method out of necessity to make these large farmer profitable Wealthy Land Owners used ENCLOSURESWealthy Land Owners used ENCLOSURES –ENLCOSED their land with fences or hedges to protect their larger growing fields. Disallowing other to use the land for grazing –Experimented to discover more productive farming methods to increase crop yields (new methods cost $$) –Jethro Tull = discovered new way to sow seeds by inventing the SEED DRILL in 1701 Forced small farmers to become tenant farmers or pushed them out of farming & into the citiesForced small farmers to become tenant farmers or pushed them out of farming & into the cities Farming InnovationFarming Innovation –Seed drill- more germination for less Money –Crop Rotation- better & bigger crops Livestock – better & bigger livestockLivestock – better & bigger livestock Robert Bakewell increased yield thru selective breedingRobert Bakewell increased yield thru selective breeding –Increasing size and health of the livestock
What is Necessary for an Industrial Revolution to Occur? Factors of Production Natural ResourcesNatural Resources –Land, Labor, Ore, Coal, Waterways, Rivers, Canals, etc. Labor-Labor- –population increased dramatically due to the Agricultural Revolution Capital: (Extra Money to invest)Capital: (Extra Money to invest) –Machinery –factories MarketMarket –people with $$$ to buy goods & services produced)
Mine & Forge [1840-1880 ] ù More powerful than water is coal. ù More powerful than wood is iron. ù Innovations make steel feasible. “Puddling”  – “pig iron.” “Hot blast”  – cheaper, purer steel. Bessemer process  – strong, flexible steel.
Britain’s Advantages Large Population to work due to the Agricultural Revolution= Large excess labor forceLarge Population to work due to the Agricultural Revolution= Large excess labor force Abundant Natural ResourcesAbundant Natural Resources –Water power, rivers, harbors: transportation to & from factories & source of resources –coal, iron ore: to build machines & tools Highly developed banking systemHighly developed banking system –Provided investment Capital – loan for machines Expanding Economy = CapitalExpanding Economy = Capital –People could invest in manufacturing Growing overseas tradeGrowing overseas trade –Mercantilism & colonialism= markets & resources Political stabilityPolitical stability –No wars on British soil –Parliament passed laws protecting businesses (mercantilism) Military and Political SuccessMilitary and Political Success –Positive attitude in Britain & a general “climate of Prosperity
John Kay’s “Flying Shuttle” 1733- Doubled the work a weaver could do
Inventions & New Technology Spinning Wheel- James Hargreaves 1764Spinning Wheel- James Hargreaves 1764 –1 spinner could work 8 threads 1764, then 25 then 50, etc. Water Frame- Richard Arkwright 1769Water Frame- Richard Arkwright 1769 Spinning Mule- Samuel Crompton 1779Spinning Mule- Samuel Crompton 1779 –combo spinning Jenny & Water frame Power Loom- Edmund CartwrightPower Loom- Edmund Cartwright –sped up weaving & used water power Steam Engine- James Watt 1765Steam Engine- James Watt 1765 –Faster more efficient (burned less fuel) Transportation ImprovementsTransportation Improvements = decrease cost of production –Robert Fulton: steamboat 1807 –Canals system John Mc Adam: layered stone roads=drainage –Trevithick & Stephenson: locomotive Improved all kinds of transportation and machinesImproved all kinds of transportation and machines
Power Loom: Edmund Cartwright Power Loom: Edmund Cartwright Sped up weaving!
Richard Arkwright: The “ Water Frame ” Used water power from steam engines to drive spinning wheels
Richard Arkwright: “Pioneer of the Factory System” The “ Water Frame ”
Factory Production ) Concentrates production in one place [materials, labor]. ) Located near sources of power [rather than labor or markets]. ) Requires a lot of capital [extra money] investment [factory, machines, etc.] more than skilled labor. ) Only 10% of English industry in 1850.
Textile Factory Workers in England 1813 2400 looms 150, 000 workers 1833 85, 000 looms 200, 000 workers 1850224, 000 looms>1 million workers
Factory Workers Factory owners wanted to keep their machines running for as many hours a day as possible SO…. workers were forced to work long hours for starvation wages, often under dangerous & unhealthy conditions; LATER, working conditions & the standard of living would improve.
The Factory System × Rigid schedule. × 12-14 hour day. × Dangerous & unhealthy conditions. × Mind-numbing monotony.
Children Children as young as 6 began to work in factories with their families for long hours under brutal conditions Children as young as 5 worked in the coal mines Many children died or were injured working in the factories & mines Child labor laws later brought some reforms.
Education: a LONG RUN effect Educational opportunities expanded – –In response to a need for skilled & professional workers. – –In response to a need for a place for children after child labor laws were imposed & a need to create skilled labor for the future
Life Changes during the Industrial Revolution..\Ch 9 downloads\Living_History__Living_During_the_Industrial_Revolution.asf
Lower Middle Class factory overseer & skilled worker Enjoyed a comfortable standard of living Experienced a rise in social status.
Wealthy Merchants, Factory Owners, Shippers Benefited Greatly from the Industrial Revolution gained tremendous wealth & status in society joined a growing middle class of skilled workers, professionals, business people, & well- to-do farmers.
Large landowners & Aristocrats Because some factory owners, merchants, & investment bankers grew wealthier, the landowners & noble aristocracy lost some status, respect, and power but continued to look down on those who gained wealth in business. They called them the “nouveau riche”
Working Poor Saw little improvement in their living & working conditionsSaw little improvement in their living & working conditions –Some lost their jobs to machines Paid low wagesPaid low wages Worked long hoursWorked long hours Poor working conditionsPoor working conditions Lived in unsanitary & overcrowded environments at homeLived in unsanitary & overcrowded environments at home
Industrialization leads to Urbanization (people moving to the cities for work)Industrialization leads to Urbanization (people moving to the cities for work) Urbanization is usually so RAPID that the cities growth can not keep pace with the migration of people to the citiesUrbanization is usually so RAPID that the cities growth can not keep pace with the migration of people to the cities Causing: overcrowding, unsanitary conditions, food shortages, disease, etcCausing: overcrowding, unsanitary conditions, food shortages, disease, etc Industrial Problem of Urbanization
Industrial Staffordshire: Problems of housing & pollution
OBSTACLES TO EUROPEAN INDUSTRIALIZATION WAR !! Especially French Revolution & Napoleonic WarsWAR !! Especially French Revolution & Napoleonic Wars Political disunity in GermanyPolitical disunity in Germany Geographic Problems (waterways, land transportation)Geographic Problems (waterways, land transportation) Social structure (Monarchy/Aristocracy)Social structure (Monarchy/Aristocracy)
Industrialization Spreads By 1850: Zones of Industrialization on the European Continent Industrialization Spreads By 1850: Zones of Industrialization on the European Continent ùNortheast France. ùBelgium. ùThe Netherlands. ùWestern German states. ùNorthern Italy ùEast Germany Saxony
Industrialization Spreads to the United States KEY Points: US government encouraged industrial growth with business friendly lawsUS government encouraged industrial growth with business friendly laws British machinery spawns an American textile industryBritish machinery spawns an American textile industry RR help American industry expand RapidlyRR help American industry expand Rapidly Immigration provided a supply of cheap laborImmigration provided a supply of cheap labor
New Ways of Thinking Sparked by the Industrial Revolution
Adam Smith Scottish Economic Philosophe & Professor 1723-1790Scottish Economic Philosophe & Professor 1723-1790 Big IDEAS:Big IDEAS: – –Economic Freedom guaranteed economic progress – –government need not interfere in the economy. (eg. Laissez faire) –Invisible hand Capitalism = economic system in which money is invested in business ventures with the goal of making a PROFITCapitalism = economic system in which money is invested in business ventures with the goal of making a PROFIT Wrote “Wealth of Nations” in 1776Wrote “Wealth of Nations” in 1776
Thomas Malthus: economist × Supported Adam Smith’s ideas × Contributed to the foundation of CAPITALISM × Wrote: Essay on the Principles of Population 1798 × Population growth will outpace the food supply. × War, disease, or famine could control population. × The poor should have less children. × Food supply will then keep up with population.
David Ricardo: Economist & stock broker David Ricardo: Economist & stock broker × Support of Adam Smith’s Ideas × Took Malthus’ theory one step further when he wrote, Principles of Political Economy & Taxation ) × Believed that a permanent underclass would always be poor × “Iron Law of Wages.” × When wages are high, workers have more children. × More children create a large labor surplus that depresses wages. × Thus a vicious cycle of Poverty is inevitable
The Utilitarians: Jeremy Bentham & John Stuart Mill × The goal of society is the greatest good for the greatest number. × One role of government is to intervene in business in order to provide some social safety net for workers. × Believed that wealthy people or the govt must take actions to improve people’s lives Benthem: English Philosopher coined “Utilitarianism” 1700s Wrote that people should judge the value of things based on their “utility” or usefulness Mill: economist & philosopher lead the Utilitarian movement in 1800s Pushed for more equal division of profits with workers Favored cooperative farming, women’s rights & suffrage Utilitarians also support reforms for education, legal & prison systems
Utopians Robert Owen: British Factory ownerRobert Owen: British Factory owner –Improved working conditions for his workers –Built factory housing with low rent –Stopped child labor under 10 –Provided free schooling 1824: he went to the US where he founded a cooperative community in New Harmony Indiana (lasted 3 years)1824: he went to the US where he founded a cooperative community in New Harmony Indiana (lasted 3 years) –He wanted to create a UTOPIA (perfect living place)
Socialism Charles Fourier & Saint-Simon, French reformers wanted to offset the effects of industrialization with a new kind of economic system :Charles Fourier & Saint-Simon, French reformers wanted to offset the effects of industrialization with a new kind of economic system :SOCIALISM –Factors of production are owned by the public & operated for the welfare of ALL –Argued that the govt should actively plan the economy rather than depending on Free-Market Capitalism’s invisible hand –Wanted govt controlled factories/mines/RR etc. in order to end poverty & promote equality Private ownership just put workers at the mercy of greedy employers (Capitalists)
Karl Marx: German journalist Wrote: The Communist Manifesto (1848)Wrote: The Communist Manifesto (1848) Introduced a form of RADICAL SOCIALISM called MARXISMIntroduced a form of RADICAL SOCIALISM called MARXISM –Argued that society has ALWAYS been “haves & have nots” “Have Nots” are called PROLETARIATES“Have Nots” are called PROLETARIATES –Industrial Revolution just made this WORSE –Predicted a social class war in which the poor majority would rise up against rich minority destroying CAPALISM and implementing Communism or (complete socialism) “workers of the world, UNITE!”“workers of the world, UNITE!” –The RESULT:an END to private property Communal ownership of the means of production All goods & services would be shared equally
The Socialists: Utopians & Marxists × People as a society would operate & own the means of production [resources/land, labor, capital] NOT individuals. × Goal: a society that benefited EVERYONE, not just a rich, well- connected few. × Tried to build perfect communities [utopias].
British Soldiers Fire on British Workers: “ Let us die like men, and not be sold like slaves! ” Peterloo Massacre, 1819 18 people, including a woman and a child, died from saber cuts and trampling. Over 700 men, women and children injured. All in the name of liberty & freedom from poverty. The Massacre occurred during a period of immense political tension & mass protests. Fewer than 2% of the population had the vote, and hunger was rife with the disastrous corn laws making bread unaffordable.
The “Peoples’ Charter” V Drafted in 1838 by William Lovett. V Radical campaign for Parliamentary reform of the inequalities created by the Reform Bill of 1832. × Votes for all men. × Equal electoral districts. × Abolition of the requirement that Members of Parliament [MPs] be property owners. × Salaries for Members of Parliament. × Annual general elections. The secret ballot.
Anti-Corn Law League, 1845 4 Give manufactures more outlets for their products. 4 More people to sell to 4 Expand employment. 4 Lower the price of bread. 4 Make British agriculture more efficient & productive. 4 Expose trade & agriculture to foreign competition. 4 Promote international peace through trade contact.
Union Movement By the 1800s workers were becoming more active in politics. To press for change they joined together in voluntary association called UNIONSTo press for change they joined together in voluntary association called UNIONSUnions: –spoke for the workers as a group –Used Collective Bargaining (negotiation) to push for better wages & working conditions –Used strikes (work stoppage) to apply pressure In GENERAL, govts resisted unions & unionization But over time they did make gains and reforms
Government Response k Abolition of slavery in the colonies in 1832 [to raise wages in Britain]. k Sadler Commission to look into working conditions Factory Act  – child labor. k New Poor Law  – indoor relief. Poor houses. k Reform Bill  – broadens the vote for the cities.
British Soldiers Fire on British Workers: “ Let us die like men, and not be sold like slaves! ” Peterloo Massacre, 1819 18 people, including a woman & a child, died from saber cuts & trampling. Over 700 men, women & children injured. All in the name of liberty & freedom from poverty. The Massacre occurred during a period of immense political tension & mass protests. Fewer than 2% of the population had the vote, and hunger was rife with the disastrous corn laws making bread unaffordable.
Government Fears British Parliament feared an outbreak of revolution as was occurring in Europe (1830-1848)British Parliament feared an outbreak of revolution as was occurring in Europe (1830-1848)
The Chartists A physical force — Chartists arming for the fight. A female Chartist
The “Peoples’ Charter” Drafted in 1838 by William Lovett. Radical campaign for Parliamentary reform of the inequalities created by the Reform Bill of 1832. × Votes for all men. × Equal electoral districts. × Abolition of the requirement that Members of Parliament [MPs] be property owners. × Salaries for Members of Parliament. × Annual general elections. The secret ballot.
Reforms to Increase Democracy Middle class males could voteMiddle class males could vote Secret BallotSecret Ballot Pay for Parliament membersPay for Parliament members By 1884 almost all males could voteBy 1884 almost all males could vote By 1890 most European countries allowed all men the right to voteBy 1890 most European countries allowed all men the right to vote
Women’s Suffrage 1903- Women’s Social and Political Union began a stronger campaign for Women’s suffrage in Britain1903- Women’s Social and Political Union began a stronger campaign for Women’s suffrage in Britain Rallies/parades/interrupted speeches/burned buildings/hunger strikesRallies/parades/interrupted speeches/burned buildings/hunger strikes 1919: Britain give women the right to vote1919: Britain give women the right to vote 1920: US gives womet the right to vote1920: US gives womet the right to vote