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1 Network Management Chapter 5 IP/eBusiness Management POSTEC Lecture May 29-June 5, 2008 Masayoshi Ejiri Japan.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Network Management Chapter 5 IP/eBusiness Management POSTEC Lecture May 29-June 5, 2008 Masayoshi Ejiri Japan."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Network Management Chapter 5 IP/eBusiness Management POSTEC Lecture May 29-June 5, 2008 Masayoshi Ejiri Japan

2 2 Agenda 1.ICT Operations and Management - Service Industries - ICT Services and Networks - Target of the Management 2, Architecture,Function,Information Model and Business Process - ITU-T TMN( Telecommunications Management Network) - TeleManagement Forum Telecommunications Operations Map ( TOM) - Multi domain management and System Integration - Standardization 3. OSS( Operations Support System ) Development - Software Architecture,Key Technologies and Product Evaluation 4. SLA( Service Level Agreement) and QoS( Quality of Service) - SLA Definition, reference point and policy based negotiation 5, IP/eBusiness Management - Paradigm shift, Architecture beyond TMN and enhanced TOM 6. NGN( Next Generation Networks) Management - NGN Networks and Services, New Paradigm of ICT Business and Management

3 3 Agenda Paradigm shift IP/eBusiness management beyond TMN eTOM : enhanced Telecom Operation Map Process components Process flow Process and function ( Rec. M 3400) ITIL ( IT Infrastructure Library )

4 4 New Paradigms of ICT Industry · Open Market · Inter Networking · Virtual Service Provider Deregulation Customers Demand Technology Convergence Business Convergence

5 5 ICT Market Trend Past (~1985): Monopoly, Regulated Market. PSTN based telephone services by mega carriers to Reactive customers Current (~2005 ): Competitive,Deregulated Market. Dominant PSTN plus Explosive Mobile and Internet based telephone +Date services by new/old service providers to personalized but still Reactive customers Future (2010~) Converged Market by removing industry boundary and customer/provider scheme. NGN based ubiquitous triple/quadruple services by provider/customer collaboration to Proactive end users

6 6 ICT Management Target Past : Bottom up approach for robust and interoperable resource management TMN Architecture and FCAPS Current Top down approach for Customer retention and profit conscious resource management. Process evolution for customer self operations N3B(Not Built But Buy) OSS by COTS and PnP Future Customer driven services and operation using Web 2.0 Context, Contents and SLA aware management

7 7 1, Monopoly, Regulated Market ( 1890s -1980s) Services POTS on PSTN by mega carriers (ROC: Recognized Operating Company) SP( Service Provider) centric SPs Targets Establish nation wide ubiquitous telephone network by automated SW network On Demand subscription. Operations and OSS NEsupervise and Control by on site maintenance, then Centralized NE maintenance Random,Individual and Proprietary OSS Development Human and paper based CC&B (Customer Care and Billing) POTS : Plane Old Telephone Service PSTN : Public Switched Telephone Network NE : Network Element

8 8 2, Competitive, Deregulated Market ( 1985~) Services: Telephone on PSTN and Mobile by competition among conventional carriers and new comers To reactive customers but Price Down Pressure ( Price Competition ) SPs Target : CAPEX/OPEX cost down for price down Up Graded CC&B for customer retention Competitive but Interoperable Operations among SPs Operations and OSS Operations Mission and Positioning Customer Oriented Top Down approach Systematic and Standardized OSS development on TMN Vertical process integration ( FAB)

9 9 ITU-T TMN Recommendations TMN Functional Architecture LLA : Logical Layered Architecture TMN Information Architecture TMN Physical Architecture TMN Management Area TMN Management Services

10 10 TOM : Telecom Operations Map A Service Management Business Process Model (TMF : TeleManagement Forum 1995) Customer Care Process Sales Order Handling Problem Handling Customer QoS Management Invoicing/ Collections Service Development and Operations Processes Service Planning/ Development Service Configuration Service Problem Resolution Service Quality Management Rating and Discounting Network and Systems Management Processes Network Planning/ Development Network Provisioning Network Inventory Management Network Maintenance & Restoration Network Data Management Customer Interface Management Process Customer Physical Network and Information Technology Information Systems Management Processes Element Management Technology Related Service Management Network Management

11 11 3, IP/eBusiness Market ( 1995~ ) Services : Voice and Data on PSTN, Mobile and Internet by cross industry cooperation and competition to customers with free hand of service selection SPs Target : Realize lower price services by packaged Price Develop rich services by collaboration with other industries ( ex with Application/Contents providers) QoS/QoE enabled service operations Industry wide Operations in ICT world Operations and OSS : share common business process,architecture, information model,interface etc. among IT and ICT SDOs eTOM/SID, ITIL, ITU-T Recommendation, TISPAN/3GPP Visible Operations on established Service Architecture and SLA Deploy/develop N3B OSS products based on standards and COTS/PnP N3B : Not Built But Buy

12 12 Paradigm Shift tBusiness? iBusiness? Simple Network/Services on POTS Regulated Market Dominant Carrier SP defined Service menu. Best Effort SLA Multi, Heterogeneous Network/ Services on IP Open Market Multi SP Customer combined Service Compromised SLA eBusiness? Ubiquitous Network/ Services on Nomadic Personal Market Virtual SP Customer defined Service Satisfied SLA t: telephone i: internet e: enjoyable

13 13 IP Services --for Speed, Simple and Smile eBusiness-- Customers Demand Providers Solution Speedy / Easy Subscription On Line, Real Time Provisioning Non Stop Services Reliable & Scalable Networks / Systems Quick Response High Throughput Mechanism Secure Services Security Level Agreement Price Performance Negotiation

14 14 IP Management Architecture LayerMOFunction IP Customer Care Layer IP Application Layer IP Service Layer IP Transport Layer Service Negotiation Self Operation Application Dependent Transport IP dependent / AP Independent Transport IP Independent Transport Customer Interaction Process VOIP, Conference, e- Business, Multicast, etc. Router, IP Service Node, etc Photonic, SDH, ATM, POTS LAN, WAN, Access, etc.

15 15 Copyright©FUJITSU LIMITED, 2000 e-Business Model Logistics End Users Contents IP Transport IP Management ISP, BSP e-Business Management CSP ASP IP Service Management Delivery Platform

16 16 TMN to e-Business Management Solution TMN BM NM EM NM SM EM eMS NM BM SM RM Negotiation Visibility Network Services Human Finance …... Telecommunications Management Network e-Business Management Solution

17 17 Lessons Learnt from Logistic Industry Basic Service : ex. Collection of goods from location A and deliver to location B - Transport services Associated services : Convenience Store acts as a mediator for collection. Deliveries be arranged in agreed time and traceable. - Operations Services Value added Services : Perishable goods ( fish, fruit) be transported using a cold storage, delicate good be transported using hanging - Contents Aware Delivery Services

18 18 Resource Management End Users Content Aware Delivery Management eBusiness Management IP/eBusiness Management Architecture SLA on Negotiation OLA on Partnership

19 19 Resource Management Logistics End Users Contents eBusiness Media Gateway Agent/Portal Content Aware Management eBusiness Management. Resources Services Management Contents ID Mgt. Contents Integration Billing eBusiness Services and Management Architecture Content Delivery IP Bearer Banking Auction Transactions Content Services Application Services Advertising SaaS

20 20 SLA and OLA in eBusiness Management Customer ( eBusiness) Partners Transport Resource Content Delivery Services SLA Transport Services SLA Operations Services SLA Resource Provisioning OLA Operations Support OLA SLA Negotiation OLA Negotiation Operations Resource Content Delivery Resource Transport Services OLA Service Provider Communications Resource Suppliers Operations Resource Supporters

21 21 Key Words for IP/eBusiness management Partnership : Common BP & Interface TMN to eMS(eBusiness Management Solutions) Adaptive & Customer Driven Business Process Consensus among Industries and Customers Negotiation & SLA : Differentiation Policy Based Negotiation Management Customer Self Operations QoS oriented Secure & Customer perceptible SLA

22 22 IP/eBusiness Management Why ?Support eBusiness by Competitive Service Why ?Support eBusiness by Competitive Service Creation in New Paradigm Creation in New Paradigm What ?Negotiation for Customer Defined Services What ?Negotiation for Customer Defined Services and SLA and SLA How ?Policy Based Management and COTS/ PnP How ?Policy Based Management and COTS/ PnP OSS OSS

23 23 Business Process -TOM to eTOM-- eBusiness Oriented TOM Open,Visible Process for Customer retention Common Business process for Partnership Enterprise Management for Total Solution

24 24 Business Process in TMN The business process approach has built on the concepts of management services and functions in order to develop a reference framework for categorizing all the business activities that a service provider will use.

25 25 Related TMN Rec. ITU-T Recommendation M.3010 Principles for a telecommunications management network. ITU-T Recommendation M.3020 TMN interface specification methodology. ITU-T Recommendation M.3200 TMN management services and telecommunications managed areas: overview. ITU-T Recommendation M.3400 TMN management functions.

26 26 ITU-T Rec. M3050 series M : eTOM-Introduction M : eTOM-The business process framework M : eTOM-Process decomposition and descriptions M : eTOM-Representative procces flows M : B2B integration: Using B2B inter-enterprise integration with the eTOM M3050 Supplement 1: eTOM-An Interim View of and Interpreters Guide for eTOM and ITIL Practicioners M3050 Supplement 2: eTOM-Public B2B Business Operations Map( BOM) M3050 Supplement 3: eTOM to M3400 mapping M3050 Supplement 4: An eTOM Primer

27 27 Relationship between the management service/function and business process approaches

28 28 Scope of IP/eBusiness Management SP Policy Plane IP Service Plane Service Network HumanFinance Operations Resource eBusiness (Customer) Operator OSS IP Transmission Service IP Operations Service Partner Policy Manager OSS

29 29 Customers Enterprise Environment Operations Resource Operations Services & Marketing Communications Services Policy Support Management Information Alliance Customer Operations Politics Economics Service Provider Supply Communications Resource Suppliers Operations Resource Supporters Partners Transport Resource Content Delivery Resource SPs Business Process Overview Communications Resource

30 30 TMN Layers correspond with TOM horizontals TOM processes are captured in FAB area of eTOM Operations eTOM maps the NGOSS Business View

31 31 eTOM: Linkage to NGOSS eTOM provides the NGOSS Business View eTOM processes, flows and information are input as requirements to the NGOSS System View Feedback from the NGOSS development cycle is used to validate the eTOM

32 32 Process Lifecycle

33 33 Service SP SP:Strategy/Policy Service Planning & Commitment Resource SP Technology SP Technology Survey NW SP NE SP Technology Research & Development NW Planning Space Planning NE Planning Space : Building, Electric Power, Duct,Floor,etc. Resource Commitment RM Horizontal Integration(1)

34 34 NE Design Space Design NW Design Space Construction NE Procurement NW Procurement NW Installation NE Installation Buy/Built Decision Procurement Planning Installation Planning NW/NE SP Resource Delivery Resource Quality Adjustment Resource Assessment Resource Maintenance RM Horizontal Integration(2)

35 35 : Technology/Resource SP : Resource Planning & Commitment : Resource Development : Resource Installation : Resource Delivery & Assessment

36 36 NE Configuration Physical NW Configuration Work Force Mgt. Logical Resource Configuration ex. Phone Number, Address NW Performance Check & Report Resource Configuration Resource Performance & Fault SM&O Note: Performance includes Traffic NE Performance Check & Report OS&R

37 37 Resource Performance & Fault NE Events Analysis & Report NW Events Analysis & Report NW Performance Analysis & Report Fault Analysis & Report NE Repair NW Re-Configuration SM&O Work Force Mgt. OS&R Resource Configuration Resource Usage Data

38 38 Resource Usage Data NE Usage Data Collection, Analysis & Report NW Usage Data Collection, Analysis & Report Resource Performance & Fault SM&O

39 39 :Level 1, ex. SM&O, RM&O : Level 1.5 ex. RM&O( OS&R) : Level 3 ( Proposed) : Level 2 ( Modified ) Note for Slides

40 40 b Resource Development & Management decomposition into level 2 processes Level 2 Process Component of Resource Management a, Resource Management &Operations decomposition into level 2 processes

41 41 Service Management & Operations Level 2 Process

42 42 eTOM - the Enhanced Telecom Operations Map®

43 43 Level 2 OPS processes

44 44 Level 2 SIP Processes

45 45 Process Decomposition

46 46 Process Decomposition Concept and Overview : Level 0 : Common Process Oriented Components ( Entities) Process Groups ( V/H) for common understanding: Level 1 Components for Common Process: Level 2 Software Reuse Oriented Components Components common in Level 1 and specific in Level 2: Level 3 Components common in Level 2 and specific in Level 3: Level 4 Atomic Components ?

47 47 Example of Level 3 OPS processes

48 48 Example of Level 3 Component of Service/Resource Management Resource Trouble Management ©TeleManagement Forum April 2003 Report Resource Trouble Correct & Recover Resource Trouble Localise Resource Trouble Survey & Analyse Resource Trouble Track & Manage Resource Trouble Evaluate and Qualify Plan and assign Resolution Track Resolution Close and Report Service Problem Management Diagnose Close Resource Trouble

49 49 Service configuration and activation decomposition into level 3 processes Resource provisioning decomposition into level 3 processes

50 50 Service Problem Management-Level 3/4 Process

51 51 Process Decompositions : Order Handling Level 2 Level 3 Level 4

52 52 EM Processes

53 53 Process Flow Process /Behavior Target/Driver Driver Target P/B P/B:Process/Behavior Target/Driver

54 54 Example of Process Flow

55 55 Billing Process Flow

56 56 Order Handling Process Flow at Level 3

57 57 Ordering Level 2 Process Flow

58 58 Why use eTOM? eTOM makes available a standard structure, terminology and classification scheme for describing business processes and their constituent building blocks eTOM supplies a foundation for applying enterprise-wide discipline to the development of business processes eTOM provides a basis for understanding and managing portfolios of IT applications in terms of business process requirements eTOM enables creation of consistent and high-quality end-to-end process flows, with opportunities for cost and performance improvement, and for re-use of existing processes and systems eTOM use across the industry will increase the likelihood that off- the-shelf applications will be readily integrated into the enterprise, at a lower cost than custom-built applications

59 59 Recent Reports on eTOM Adoptions (SPs)

60 60 Reorganized existing BPM and Best Practices around eTOM, with strategic decision to increase participation in eTOM team work. Introduced internal eTOM training, with eTOM as a common language and reference throughout the company. MappedAmdocsproducts to eTOM, and used as sales tool. Used eTOM to map existing industry processes, analyze business drivers and pains, and guide the design of new processes. Also,as a framework for ISV & SI Partnerships Have developed Telecom Reference Business Model based on eTOM (Levels 1,2 & 3), and extended to Levels 5 & 6 for business scenario investigation, legacy system gap analysis, new OSS/BSS specification, consultancy support, etc Used eTOM for internal product training, product features cross-referencing nd functional gap analysis, marketing analysis (competitors/partners), customer communication (incl. RFI/RFP), workflow seed processes Used eTOM for mapping Motorola products and managed services, for gap analysis of solution portfolio and for partnership communications Recent Reports on eTOM Adoptions (Vendors, SIs, etc)

61 61 Process, Function and Data Process Function Sets Data eTOM M3400 SID

62 62 Process and Function Processes can be used to describe the flow of activities to solve a particular business problem, or part of it. A function can be considered as a unit of processing (either initiated by humans or through an automated action) with specific, well- defined inputs and outputs. For functions in particular, the data is essential because the function is described as a unit of processing together with its associated data inputs and outputs.

63 63 Relationship between processes, functions and data

64 64 Processes, function set groups and data areas

65 65 Objectives of mapping eTOM to M.3400 Facilitate the linkage from process view to functional view; Provide a framework for level of granularity and abstraction for the interface definitions; Get a better handle on what should be implemented in systems in terms of: –Reusable software components; –Boundaries of what to implement; Understand what are the interfaces between processes at the indicated levels; Identify the needs for standardization.

66 66 M3400 Management Functional Areas M3400 Security Management M3400 Configuration Management M3400 Fault Management M3400 Performance Management Usage Measurement Tariffing/ Pricing Collections and Finance Enterprise Control M3400 Accounting Management 5 Prevention Detection Containment & Recovery Security Administration Network Planning & Engineering Installation Service Planning & Negotiation Provisioning Status & Control RAS Quality Assurance Alarm Surveillance Fault Localization Fault Correction Testing Trouble Administration Performance Quality Assurance Performance Monitoring Performance Analysis Performance Management Control Accounting Management Performance Management Fault Management Configuration Management Security Management M TMN Functional Decomposition Total functional units = 260

67 67 Mappings between eTOM processes and M3400 functional units eTOM V4 = 72 (110 OPS L3) eTOM V6 = 72 (242 OPS & SIP) M3400 = 23 (260) eTOMV 4Covered in M3400 OPS L SIP L21614 EM L23122 M3400Covered in eTOM Security55 Configuration7069 Fault44 Performance34 Accounting57 eTOM process M3400 functional Unit mappings

68 68 Resource Provisioning RM&O Support & Readiness Resource Performance Management Resource Trouble Management Resource Data Collection & Processing Performance Management Fault Management Configuration Management Accounting Management Security Management Security Management M.3400 MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONAL AREAS (MFA) RM&O LEVEL 2 PROCESSES v.3.5. ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT RM&O level 2 Processes - M.3400 (MFA)

69 69 Configure & Activate Resource Allocate & Deliver Resource Collect, Update & Report Resource Configuration Data Test Resource Provisioning Service Planning and Negotiation Installation Network Planning and Engineering M.3400 Configuration Management RM&O Resource Provisioning (Level 3 Processes eTOM v.3.5) Status and Control RM&O Support & Readiness SID LAYER Strategy, Infrastructure & Product SM&O Service Configuration & Activation CRM LAYER RM&O Resource Provisioning - M.3400 Configuration Management

70 70 Localise Resource Trouble Survey & Analyse Resource Trouble Track & Manage Resource Trouble Correct & Recover Resource Trouble Fault Correction Fault Localization Alarm Surveillance RAS Quality Assurance M.3400 Fault Management RM&O Resource Trouble Management (Level 3 Processes eTOM v.3.5) Testing Trouble Administration Report Resource Trouble Close Resource Trouble ?? RM&O Resource Trouble Management - M.3400 Fault Management

71 71 Analyse Resource Performance Monitor Resource Performance Report Resource Performance Control Resource Performance Analysis Performance Management Control Performance Monitoring Performance Quality Assurance M.3400 Performance Management RM&O Resource Performance Management (Level 3 Processes eTOM v.3.5) RM&O Resource Performance Management - M.3400 Performance Management

72 72 ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT Process Resource Data Collect Resource Data Audit Resource Usage Data Report Resource Data Enterprise Control Collections and Finance Tariffing /pricing Usage Measurement M.3400 Accounting Management RM&O Resource Data Collection & Processing (Level 3 Processes eTOM v.3.5) SM&O Service & Specific Instance Rating CRM Billing & Collection Management Financial & Asset Management RM&O Resource Data Collection - M.3400 Accounting Management

73 73 eTOM-to-M.3400 mapping table This appendix should be considered "informative". It provides an example of mapping eTOM processes (ITU-T Rec. M [6]) and the Function Set Groups as well as their underlying component Function Sets (ITU-T Rec. M.3400 [1]). eTOM Process ID Process.Name M.3400I D Function.Name 1.AAssurance 5Performance Management 6Fault Management 1.A.1.6Problem Handling 6.4Fault Correction 6.6Trouble administration 1.A.1.6.1Isolate Problem & Initiate Resolution 6.6.2Trouble reporting function set 1.A.1.6.2Report Problem 6.6.2Trouble reporting function set Trouble report status change notification function set

74 74 M.3400-to-eTOM mapping table M.3400IDFunction.Name eTOM Process ID Process.Name 5 Performance Management 1.A Assurance 1.B Billing 1.E.2 Enterprise Risk Management 1.F Fulfilment 1.O Operation Support & Readiness 1.OFAB.2 Service Management & Operation 1.OFAB.3 Resource Management & Operations 1.OFAB.4Supplier/Partner Relationship Management 1.P Product Lifecycle Management 1.SIP.2 Service Development & Management 5.1 Performance Quality Assurance 1.A.2.4 Service Quality Management 1.A.3.3 Resource Trouble Management 1.F.3.2 Resource Provisioning

75 75 ITIL Initially developed by UK government CCTA ( Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency ) in 1980s. OGC ( Office of Government Commerce) Service Support : 308Pages Service Delivery : 376Pages Application Management :; 158Pages Planning to Implement Service Management :208Pages ICT Infrastructure Management : 283Pages Security Management :124Pages Business Perspective : NA

76 76 ITIL Publication Framework

77 77 Service Delivery/Support Processes

78 78 ITIL Service Support Diagram (© OGC)

79 79 ITIL Service Delivery Diagram (© OGC)

80 80 Relationship between Service & Application Management

81 81 eTOM and ITIL Together Enterprise Management Strategy, Infrastructure & ProductOperations FulfillmentAssuranceBillingProduct Lifecycle Management Infrastructure Lifecycle Management Operations Support & Readiness Customer Relationship Management Service Management & Operations Resource Management & Operations Supplier/Partner Relationship Management Strategy & Commit Marketing & Offer Management Service Development & Management Resource Development & Management Supply Chain Development & Management (Application, Computing and Network) Customer Enterprise Effectiveness Management Knowledge & Research Management Enterprise Risk Management Strategic & Enterprise Planning Financial & Asset Management Stakeholder & External Relations Management Human Resources Management Business Process Needs Filter & Reconcile Best Practice Needs eTOM Compliant Process Flows ITIL Compliant Best Practices Final Result: eTOM-compliant Business Flows that Deliver ITIL- compliant Services

82 82 eTOM Business context is a total enterprise model for telcos. International standard through ITU. Constitutes the Business View section of NGOSS, TMFs initiative on OSS / BSS solutions. A common language for business processes. A hierarchy of process definitions. A repository of process elements at various levels of detail that can be combined and applied in specific applications. Provides examples of process flows. Flow diagrams are used in eTOM to illustrate end to end processes e.g. Fulfillment. Technical content now mature, with an i

83 83 ITIL Business context is IT / ICT Service Management. Included in various national standards, and slated to be adopted by ISO in 2005 / 06. A comprehensive and consistent set of best practices. A set of methods for delivering controlled and optimizable services. Common language Aim is to provide high quality services with a particular focus on Customer relationships. Is built on agreements where the IT organization should provide whatever is mutually agreed with Customers. Service Delivery processes are partially concerned with setting up agreements and monitoring the targets within these agreements. On the operational level, the Service Support processes can be viewed as delivering service as laid down in these agreements. Flow charts are used in ITIL. Inclusion of closed feedback quality loops for continuous improvement. It supports and drives quality or repeatability

84 84 eTOM->ITIL->eTOM mapping

85 85 eTOM L2 Operations processes and ITIL processes

86 86 eTOM L2 Strategy, Infrastructure & Product processes and ITIL processes

87 87 eTOM L2 Enterprise Management processes and ITIL processes

88 88

89 89 Comparison of ITIL processes with eTOM level 2 processes ITIL Function/Proc ess eTOM Level 2 Process How ITIL supports the management of customer services How ITIL supports the management of internal IT services Service DeskCRM Support & Readiness Customer Interface Management Selling ……….. The Service Desk is the only function within ITIL and acts as the first point of contact for the Customer/Users and well as their interface to all the other ITIL processes ………….. Monitor usage of the Support Services, provide appropriate metrics (call logs, incident records, RfCs raised, Service Requests etc) Act as the interface to ………………… Incident Management Customer Interface Management Selling Order Handling Problem Handling Customer QoS/SLA Management Retention & Loyalty Service Incident Management is the key process used by the Service Desk function in fulfilling its functional requirements Incident Management supports the capture, processing and monitoring of Service Requests (Requests for Change (RfCs), enquires etc) as well as Incidents. Incident Management Process Steps: Classification and Initial Support

90 90 ITIL-eTOM Mapping Service Support SD : 6,1,0 IM : 15,1 0 PM : 6,1,0 CbM : 6,1,0 RM : CM : 12,10,3 Service delivery SLM : 11,12,3 AM : 5,10,3 CaM : 6,11,2 FM : 2,9,2 ITSC : 0,6,2 eTOM Level 2 OPS(25), SIP(16), Ent(31)

91 91 AlertWarning that an incident has occurred. AlarmAn alerting indication of a condition that may have immediate or potential negative impact on the state of service resources, e.g. network element, application, system, etc. AssetComponent of a business process. Assets can include people, accommodation, computer systems, networks, paper records, fax machines, etc. ResourceResources represent physical and non-physical components used to construct Services. They are drawn from the Application, Computing and Network domains, and include, for example, Network Elements, software, IT systems, and technology components. Availabil ity Ability of a component or service to perform its required function at a stated instant or over a stated period of time. It is usually expressed as Availabili ty performa nce The ability of an item to be in the state to perform a required function at a given instant of time or at any instant of time within a given time interval, assuming that the external resources, if required, are provided. Note that this Within ITIL the concept of Availability covers both eTOM terms. ITIL Term Definitione TOM Equivalent Term Definition Comment eTOM and ITIL terminology

92 92 Ordering Level 2 Process Flow

93 93 Ordering process dynamics flow

94 94 Incident management – Infrastructure failure (internal escalation )

95 95 Incident management service request (standard pre-approved changes)

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