5You need to concentrate on strength training for your arms and legs. SpecificitySpecificityYou must do specific types of activity to improve specific parts of the body in specific ways.Different events can require very different forms of training.For example, if you’re training for a weightlifting competition, it’s no use going swimming every day.You need to concentrate on strength training for your arms and legs.
6Specificity You need to train specifically to develop the right… muscles – if your sport requires a lot of running, work mainly on your legs.type of fitness – do you need strength, speed, stamina or a combination?skills – you need to practice any relevant skills like kicking, serving and passing.Remember that:specific individuals respond differently to the same exercise. Training may need to be adapted to suit the needs of different participants.
9FITT: frequencyHow often you should train depends on what you wish to achieve.The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence suggests that to maintain health, you should do 30 minutes of moderate exercise 5 times a week.However, if you wish to become an intermediate or elite competitor in any sport, you will need to train much more frequently.Elite rowers often train twice a day!Training is best done regularly, rather than at random intervals.
11FITT: intensityIntensity refers to how hard you work during your training sessions.A good way to measure intensity is to monitor a performer’s heart rate. The harder you work, the faster your heart beats.Heart rate can indicate which energy system is being used.
12FITT: intensity – maximum heart rate (MHR) In order to train the correct energy system, you need to calculate your maximum heart rate (MHR).Your maximum heart rate is the fastest that your heart can beat. It depends on your age and can be estimated using the following formula:maximum heart rate = 220 – ageUse this formula to calculate the maximum heart rate of:a 16 year olda 24 year old204196a 53 year olda 67 year old167153Heart rate is measured in beats per minute.
13FITT: intensity – maximum heart rate (MHR) Maximum heart rates can be shown on a graph.
14FITT: intensity – training zones If a performer wishes to train their aerobic system, they should train at between 60% and 80% of their maximum.If a performer wishes to train their anaerobic system, they should train at between 80% and 90% of their maximum.The precise percentage level you train at will be based upon your current level of fitness.An unfit performer looking to improve their aerobic fitness would train at 60% of their maximum heart rate.A fit performer looking to improve their aerobic fitness would train at more like 80% of their maximum heart rate.
16FITT: intensity – training zones 80% to 90% of MHR – Training in the anaerobic zone increases strength and power.As you approach 90% of the performer’s maximum heart rate, training time will have to get shorter and it will take more time for the performer to recover.This is because anaerobic exercise produces lactic acid, which builds up in the muscles. When there is too much lactic acid, the performer must stop.60% to 80% of MHR – Training between these levels will improve a performer’s stamina (or aerobic fitness) levels.Lactic acid is not produced during aerobic exercise. Performers can train aerobically for much longer periods.
17FITT: timeIntensity will affect the time (or duration) of each training session. The length of session required to achieve improvements depends on how hard a performer is training.To achieve improvements in aerobic fitness, you should aim to spend at least 20 minutes per session in the target zone.However, time will vary greatly depending on the activity the performer is training for.If they are training for a marathon, they may need to spend several hours at a time in the aerobic zone.A sprinter, on the other hand, will need to spend relatively little time actually exercising – their sessions are likely to consist of many short, high intensity bursts with lengthy rests in-between.
20ReversibilityUnfortunately, most of the adaptations which result from training are reversible.This simply means that unless you keep training, any fitness gains will be lost.Fitness will be lost if the training load is reduced (meaning overload is not achieved) or if a performer stops training, for example, if they are injured.Coaches need to ensure that long periods of inactivity are avoided when possible.Endurance can be lost in a third of the time it took to achieve! Strength declines more slowly, but lack of exercise will still cause muscles to wither (atrophy).
22ProgressionGradually increasing the frequency, intensity and duration of fitness sessions is an important factor in developing an effective training programme.In terms of type of training, progression should be based on the principle of moving from easy activities to difficult ones.For example, if you were creating a training programme for a novice skier, you would not start them off on a really steep, difficult run.
23ModerationModeration means achieving a balance between not training enough and overtraining.Achieving the right balance is very important.Without proper rest and recovery time, performers can become too tired to train effectively and become stressed and irritable.Even worse, overtraining can lead to injury. This can occur through overstressing joints and tissues, or through poor technique resulting from exhaustion.
25Exam-style questionsExplain what is meant by the term reversibility in relation to weight training?2. A rower is planning a training programme to prepare for a 2000 m race. Explain how the following principles might affect their programme:specificityprogressionReversibility means that if you stop training or reduce the amount of training you do, the fitness and strength gained will be rapidly lost. Muscles that grew larger due to weight training will slowly atrophy, and strength will decrease.a) Specificity: The training should be specially designed to improve rowing performance over the 2000 m distance – much of the training will therefore be done on the water or rowing machine, with only a small amount of other activities like weight training. Training will concentrate on 2000 m pace, rather than sprint rowing or very long distance rowing. b) Progression: Training will start at a level appropriate to the fitness of the individual and gradually get harder as the race approaches. The rower may train for longer or at a faster pace. Harder skills like starting may be introduced.
26Exam-style questions3. John has decided to take his cycling more seriously and is planning a training programme to improve his performance. As part of his training he goes to the gym.a) Which of the following cardiovascular machines would be most appropriate for him to use?Rowing machine Treadmill Exercise bikeb) Which principle of training does this relate to?a) Exercise bike is the most appropriate cardiovascular machine to use. b) This relates to the principle of specificity.
27Exam-style questionsKatie is 16, and plays hockey to a good standard. Read the following extract in which she describes her training.At present, I am training three times a week, every week, but at first I only went once a week. I use a couple of different methods of training, but I make sure that I focus on tasks appropriate for my activity. At the end of each session, I plan the next one, gradually increasing the amount of work that I do when I think it’s becoming too easy.Progression – she trained once a week at first and has progressed to three times a week. Tedium – she uses a couple of different methods of training. Specificity – she focuses on tasks appropriate to her activity. Overload – she increases the work she does when it gets too easy so that overload is always achieved.State four principles of training she applies.For each of the principles you have identified, give an example from the extract to support your answer.